Explain the following principles of management:
Scalar chain: A scalar chain refers to a pre-defined, formal path of authority and communication in the order of the highest to the lowest. For example, A is the project manager in an organisation and he further has a project lead (B) and a team member (C) under him. So, the chain of communication would be A-B-C. Suppose there is another hierarchical order wherein he has a team manager (D) and a team member (E), i.e. the chain of communication is A-D-E. Now, if C wants to communicate with E, then he would follow the communication path C→B→A→D→E. That is, C would first contact the higher authorities (C→B→A) who would then send the message to E
(A→D→E) .However, in an emergency, C may directly communicate with E through gangplank.
Gang plank refers to a shorter emergency route through which workers can communicate with each other.
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