NCERT Solutions for Biology Class 12

CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC Class 12 Biology Solutions Guide

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CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC Class 12 Biology Textbook Solutions

Questions and answers for the Class 12 Biology Textbook are on this page. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Digest CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC will help students understand the concepts better.


NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapterwise List | Class 12 Biology Digest

The answers to the NCERT books are the best study material for students. Listed below are the chapter-wise NCERT Biology Class 12 Solutions CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC.


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NCERT Solutions for Biology Class 12 - Shaalaa.com
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NCERT Class 12 solutions for other subjects

We also provide solutions for other subjects to help you top the exams. These NCERT solutions are curated with respect to the exam pattern and old papers. Find the best questions and solutions here. Click now to access it.

Chapters covered in NCERT Solutions for Biology Class 12

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

Concepts covered in Reproduction in Organisms are Artificial Vegetative Reproduction, Artificial Vegetative Reproduction - Conventional Method, Artificial Vegetative Reproduction - Modern Method, Asexual Reproduction, Asexual Reproduction in Animal, Asexual Reproduction in Plant, Budding, Different Phases in Sexual Reproduction, Events in Sexual Reproduction in Organisms, Fertilisation in Organisms, Fission, Fragmentation, Life Span of Organisms, Maximum Life Span of Organisms, Natural Vegetative Reproduction, Post-fertilisation Events in Organisms, Pre-fertilisation Events in Organisms, Reproduction in Organisms, Sexual Reproduction, Sporulation (Sporogenesis), Types of Reproduction, Vegetative Reproduction.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises2017 to 18

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Concepts covered in Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants are Abiotic Agents, Accessory Organs, Advantages and Disadvantages of Pollen Grains, Agents of Pollination, Apomixis, Artificial Hybridization, Biotic Agents, Cross Pollination, Development of Anther, Development of Embryo, Development of Endosperm, Development of Female Gametophyte or Embryo Sac, Development of Fruit, Development of Male Gametophyte, Development of Seed, Double Fertilization and Triple Fusion in Plant, Essential Parts of Flower: Androecium, Essential Parts of Flower: Gynoecium, Fertilization in Plant, Flower - a Fascinating Organ of Angiosperms, Kinds of Pollination, Megasporogenesis, Microspores and Pollen Grains, Microsporogenesis, Outbreeding Devices, Parts of Flower, Pollination, Polyembryony, Post Fertilisation in Plant: Structures and Events, Pre-fertilisation in Flowering Plant: Structures and Events, Self Pollination (Autogamy), Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants, Structure of Ovule (Megasporangium), Transverse Section of Mature Anther (Microsporangium), Types of Ovules.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises2540 to 41

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Concepts covered in Human Reproduction are Embryo Development Upto Blastocyst Formation, Fertilization and Implantation, Gametogenesis, Human Reproduction, Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle), Menstrual Hygiene, Oogenesis, Parturition and Lactation, Pregnancy and Embryonic Development, Spermatogenesis, The Female Reproductive System, The Male Reproductive System.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 3: Human Reproduction exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises4255 to 56

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Concepts covered in Reproductive Health are Infertility, Introduction of Reproductive Health, Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP), Population Explosion - Rising Population a Global Threat, Population Stabilisation and Birth Control, Reproductive Health, Reproductive Health - Problems and Strategies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 4: Reproductive Health exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises1866

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Concepts covered in Principles of Inheritance and Variation are Chromosomal Abnormalities, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance: Law of Independent Assortment, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance: Law of Segregation, Comparison Between Gene and Chromosome Behaviour, Concept of Mutation, Extensions of Mendelian Genetics (Deviation from Mendelism), Genetic Disorders, Heredity and Variation, Historical Development of Chromosome Theory, Inheritance of One Gene (Monohybrid Cross), Inheritance of Two Genes (Dihybrid Cross), Intragenic Interactions - Codominance, Intragenic Interactions - Dominance, Intragenic Interactions - Incomplete Dominance, Intragenic Interactions - Pleiotropy, Introduction of Principles of Inheritance and Variation, Linkage and Crossing Over, Linkage and Recombination, Mendelian Genetics, Mendelian Inheritance - Mendel’s Laws of Heredity, Mendelism, Mendel’s experiments on pea plant, Monohybrid Cross, Multiple Alleles, Pedigree Analysis, Polygenic Inheritance, Principles of Inheritance and Variation Question, Punnett Square, Sex Determination, Sex Determination in Birds, Sex Determination in Honey Bees, Sex Determination in Human, Sex Determination in Some Insects, Terminology Related to Mendelism, Test Cross, The Law of Dominance, The Law of Independent Assortment, The Law of Segregation (Law of Purity of Gametes).

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises1893 to 94

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Concepts covered in Molecular Basis of Inheritance are Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Its Structure, DNA Fingerprinting Technique, DNA Replication, Genetic Code, Human Genome Project, Introduction of Genetic Code, Introduction of Molecular Basis of Inheritance, Introduction of Search for Genetic Material, Introduction of Transcription, Molecular Basis of Inheritance (Questions), Mutations and Genetic Code, Packaging of DNA Helix, Properties of Genetic Material (DNA Versus RNA), Protein synthesis - Transcription, Regulation of Gene Expression, Rice Genome Project, Search for Genetic Material, Structure of DNA and RNA, Structure of Nucleotide, Structure of Polynucleotide Chain, The Experimental Proof, The Genetic Material is a DNA, The Lac Operon, The Machinery and the Enzymes, The RNA World, Transcription Unit, Transcription Unit and the Gene, Translation, tRNA – the Adapter Molecule, Types of RNA and the Process of Transcription.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises20125

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 7: Evolution

Concepts covered in Evolution are Adaptive Radiation, Brief Account of Evolution, Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection, Evidences for Biological Evolution, Evolution, Evolution of Life Forms - a Theory, Evolution Stages, Gene Flow and Genetic Drift, Hardy Weinberg’s Principle, Mechanism of Organic Evolution, Micro and Macro Evolution, Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution, Origin and Evolution of Man, Origin and Evolution of Universe and Earth, Speciation, Theories of Biological Evolution, Theories of Origin of Life.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 7: Evolution exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises8142

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 8: Human Health and Disease

Concepts covered in Human Health and Disease are Addiction and Dependence, Adolescence - Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Allergies (Hypersensitivity), Autoimmunity, Cancer, Common Diseases in Human Beings, Drugs and Alcohol Abuse, Effects of Drug and Alcohol, Human Health and Diseases (Questions), Human Immune System, Immunity, Infectious and Non Infectious Disease, Introduction of Drugs and Alcohol Abuse, Introduction of Human Health and Diseases, Maintaining Good Health, Yoga, Excercise, Prevention and Control of Drugs and Alcohol Abuse, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), Types of Immunity, Vaccination and Immunization.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 8: Human Health and Disease exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises17164

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Concepts covered in Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production are Animal Breeding, Animal Husbandry (Livestock), Apiculture (Bee Farming), Dairy Farming, Introduction of Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production, Pisciculture (Fish Farming), Plant Breeding, Poultry Farming, Single Cell Protein (SCP), Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production (Questions), Tissue Culture.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises13178

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Concepts covered in Microbes in Human Welfare are Energy Generation, Microbes as Biocontrol Agents, Microbes as Biofertilizers, Microbes in Household Products, Microbes in Human Welfare, Microbes in Industrial Production, Microbes in Production of Biogas, Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Production and Judicious Use.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises16189 to 190

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 11: Biotechnology : Principles and Processes

Concepts covered in Biotechnology : Principles and Processes are Cloning Vectors, Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA), Process and Principles of Biotechnology, Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology, Restriction Enzymes.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 11: Biotechnology : Principles and Processes exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises18205 to 206

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Applications

Concepts covered in Biotechnology and its Applications are Biosafety Issues, Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture, Biotechnological Applications in Medicine, Commercial Applications of Biotechnology, Ethical Issues, Introduction of Biotechnology and Its Application, Stem Cell Technology, Transgenic Animals.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Applications exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises8215 to 216

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

Concepts covered in Organisms and Populations are Adaptations and Its Types, Ecology (Organism, Population, Community and Biome), Introduction of Organisms and Environment, Introduction of Organisms and Populations, Life History Variation, Major Abiotic Factors, Organisms and Populations (Questions), Population and Ecological Adaptations, Population Attributes, Population Growth, Population Interactions, Responses to Abiotic Factors.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises27239 to 240

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 14: Ecosystem

Concepts covered in Ecosystem are Decomposition, Ecological Pyramids, Ecological Succession, Ecosystem, Ecosystem Services, Ecosystems Patterns, Ecosystem - Structure and Function, Energy Flow in an Ecosystem, Introduction and Types of Ecosystem, Nutrient Cycling, Productivity.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 14: Ecosystem exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises21256 to 257

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation

Concepts covered in Biodiversity and Conservation are Biodiversity, Biodiversity and Its Conservation (Questions), Conservation of Biodiversity, Endangered Organisms, Extinction, Importance of Biodiversity, Importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem, Loss of Biodiversity, Patterns of Biodiversity, Red Data Book, Species on Earth and Species in India.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises10268 to 269

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

Concepts covered in Environmental Issues are A Case Study of Integrated Waste Water Treatment, Agrochemicals and Their Effects, Controlling Vehicular Air Pollution: a Case Study of Delhi, Deforestation and Its Causes, Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance, Effects of Domestic Sewage and Industrial Effluents on Water, Environmental Issues, Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change, Introduction of Water Pollution and Its Control, Noise Pollution, Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere, Prevention of Air Pollution, Radioactive Waste Management and E-waste, Radioactive Wastes, Solid Waste Management, Solid Wastes.

NCERT Class 12 Biology (12) Chapter 16: Environmental Issues exercises

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
Exercises16286

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NCERT Solutions for Biology Class 12

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