description
 Equation of path of a projectile
 Time of maximum height
 Maximum height of a projectile
 Horizontal range of a projectile
notes
Projectile Motion
What is Projectile?
Projectile is any object thrown into the space upon which the only acting force is the gravity. In other words, the primary force acting on a projectile is gravity. This doesn’t necessarily mean that the other forces do not act on it, just that their effect is minimal compared to gravity. The path followed by a projectile is known as trajectory. A baseball batted or thrown and the instant the bullet exits the barrel of a gun are all examples of projectile.
What is Projectile Motion?
When a particle is thrown obliquely near the earth’s surface, it moves along a curved path under constant acceleration that is directed towards the centre of the earth (we assume that the particle remains close to the surface of the earth). The path of such a particle is called a projectile and the motion is called projectile motion. Air resistance to the motion of the body is to be assumed absent in projectile motion.
In a Projectile Motion, there are two simultaneous independent rectilinear motions:
1. Along xaxis: uniform velocity, responsible for the horizontal (forward) motion of the particle.
2. Along yaxis: uniform acceleration, responsible for the vertical (downwards) motion of the particle.
Accelerations in the horizontal projectile motion and vertical projectile motion of a particle:
When a particle is projected in the air with some speed, the only force acting on it during its time in the air is the acceleration due to gravity (g). This acceleration acts vertically downward. There is no acceleration in the horizontal direction which means that the velocity of the particle in the horizontal direction remains constant.
Parabolic Motion of Projectiles:
Let us consider a ball projected at an angle θ with respect to horizontal xaxis with the initial velocity u as shown below:
If any object is thrown with the velocity u, making an angle Θ from horizontal, then the horizontal component of initial velocity = u cos Θ and the vertical component of initial velocity = u sin Θ. The horizontal component of velocity (u cos Θ) remains the same during the whole journey as herein, no acceleration is acting horizontally.
The vertical component of velocity (u sin Θ) gradually decrease and at the highest point of the path becomes 0. The velocity of the body at the highest point is u cos Θ in the horizontal direction. However, the angle between the velocity and acceleration is 90 degree.
The point O is called the point of projection; θ is the angle of projection and OB = Horizontal Range or Simply Range. The total time taken by the particle from reaching O to B is called the time of flight.
For finding different parameters related to projectile motion, we can make use of different equations of motions:
Total Time of Flight:
Resultant displacement (s) = 0 in Vertical direction. Therefore, by using the equation of motions:
gt^{2} = 2(u_{y}t – s_{y}) [Here, u_{y} = u sin θ and s_{y} = 0]
i.e. gt^{2} = 2t × u sin θ
Therefore, the total time of flight (t):
Horizontal Range:
Horizontal Range (OA) = Horizontal component of velocity (u_{x}) × Total Flight Time (t)
R = u cos θ × 2 u sinθ × g
Therefore in a projectile motion the Horizontal Range is given by (R):
Maximum Height:
It is the highest point of the trajectory (point A). When the ball is at point A, the vertical component of the velocity will be zero. i.e. 0 = (u sin θ)^{2} – 2g H_{max} [s = H_{max}, v = 0 and u = u sin θ]
Therefore in a projectile motion the Maximum Height is given by (H_{max}):
The equation of Trajectory:
Let, the position of the ball at any instant (t) be M (x, y). Now, from Equations of Motion:
x = t × u cos θ  (1)
y = u sin θ × t –`1/2`×t^{2}g  (2)
On substituting Equation (1) in Equation (2):
This is the Equation of Trajectory in a projectile motion, and it proves that the projectile motion is always parabolic in nature.
A Few Projectile Motion Examples :
We know that projectile motion is a type of twodimensional motion or motion in a plane. It is assumed that the only force acting on a projectile (the object experiencing projectile motion) is the force due to gravity. But how can we define projectile motion in the real world? How are the concepts of projectile motion applicable to daily life? Let us see some reallife examples of projectile motion in two dimensions.
All of us know about basketball. To score a basket, the player jumps a little and throws the ball in the basket. The motion of the ball is in the form of a projectile. Hence it is referred to as projectile motion. What advantage does jumping give to their chances of scoring a basket? Now apart from basketballs, if we throw a cricket ball, a stone in a river, a javelin throw, an angry bird, a football or a bullet, all these motions have one thing in common. They all show a projectile motion. And that is, the moment they are released, there is only one force acting on them the gravity. It pulls them downwards, thus giving all of them an equal impartial acceleration of.
It implies that if something is being thrown in the air, it can easily be predicted how long the projectile will be in the air and at what distance from the initial point it will hit the ground. If the air resistance is neglected, there would be no acceleration in the horizontal direction. This implies that as long as a body is thrown near the surface, the motion of the body can be considered as a twodimensional motion, with acceleration only in one direction. But how can it be concluded that a body thrown in air follows a twodimensional path? To understand this, let us assume a ball that is rolling as shown below:
Now, if the ball is rolled along the path shown, what can we say about the dimension of motion? The most common answer would be that it has an xcomponent and a ycomponent, it is moving on a plane, so it must be an example of motion in two dimensions. But it is not correct, as it can be noticed that there exists a line which can completely define the motion of the basketball. Thus, it is an example of motion in one dimension. Therefore, the choice of axis does not alter the nature of the motion itself.
Now, if the ball is thrown at some angle as shown, the velocity of the ball has an xcomponent and component and also a zcomponent. So, does it mean that it is a threedimensional motion? It can be seen here that a line cannot define such a motion, but a plane can. Therefore, for a body thrown at any angle, there exists a plane that entirely contains the motion of that body. Thus, it can be concluded that as long as a body is near the surface of the Earth and the air resistance can be neglected, then irrespective of the angle of projection, it will be a twodimensional motion, no matter how the axes are chosen. If the axes here are rotated in such a way that, then and can completely define the motion of the ball as shown below:
Thus, it can be concluded that the minimum number of coordinates required to completely define the motion of a body determines the dimension of its motion.
Few Examples of Two – Dimensional Projectiles

Throwing a ball or a cannonball

The motion of a billiard ball on the billiard table.

A motion of a shell fired from a gun.

A motion of a boat in a river.

The motion of the earth around the sun.