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NCERT Biology Solutions for Class 12

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology -
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Biology Textbook for Class 12

Author: NCERT
Publisher: NCERT
Language: English

Shaalaa provides solutions for NCERT Class 12 and has all the answers for the questions given in Biology Textbook for Class 12. Shaalaa is surely a site that most of your classmates are using to perform well in exams.

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We also provide solutions for other subjects to help you top the exams. These NCERT solutions are specially curated with respect to the exam pattern and old papers. Find the best questions and solutions here. Click now to access it.

Chapters covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms solutions

Concepts covered in Reproduction in Organisms are Artificial Vegetative Reproduction, Artificial Vegetative Reproduction - Conventional Method, Artificial Vegetative Reproduction - Modern Method, Asexual Reproduction, Asexual Reproduction in Animal, Asexual Reproduction in Plant, Budding, Different Phases in Sexual Reproduction, Events in Sexual Reproduction in Organisms, Fertilisation in Organisms, Fission, Fragmentation, Life Span of Organisms, Maximum Life Span of Organisms, Natural Vegetative Reproduction, Post-fertilisation Events in Organisms, Pre-fertilisation Events in Organisms, Reproduction in Organisms, Sexual Reproduction, Sporulation (Sporogenesis), Types of Reproduction, Vegetative Reproduction

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants solutions

Concepts covered in Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants are Abiotic Agents, Accessory Organs, Advantages and Disadvantages of Pollen Grains, Agents of Pollination, Apomixis, Artificial Hybridization, Biotic Agents, Cross Pollination, Development of Anther, Development of Embryo, Development of Endosperm, Development of Female Gametophyte or Embryo Sac, Development of Fruit, Development of Male Gametophyte, Development of Seed, Double Fertilization and Triple Fusion in Plant, Essential Parts of Flower: Androecium, Essential Parts of Flower: Gynoecium, Fertilization in Plant, Flower - a Fascinating Organ of Angiosperms, Kinds of Pollination, Megasporogenesis, Microspores and Pollen Grains, Microsporogenesis, Outbreeding Devices, Parts of Flower, Pollination, Polyembryony, Post Fertilisation in Plant: Structures and Events, Pre-fertilisation in Flowering Plant: Structures and Events, Self Pollination (Autogamy), Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants, Structure of Ovule (Megasporangium), Transverse Section of Mature Anther (Microsporangium), Types of Ovules

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 3: Human Reproduction solutions

Concepts covered in Human Reproduction are Embryo Development Upto Blastocyst Formation, Fertilization and Implantation, Gametogenesis, Human Reproduction, Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle), Menstrual Hygiene, Oogenesis, Parturition and Lactation, Pregnancy and Embryonic Development, Spermatogenesis, The Female Reproductive System, The Male Reproductive System

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 4: Reproductive Health solutions

Concepts covered in Reproductive Health are Infertility, Introduction of Reproductive Health, Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP), Population Explosion - Rising Population a Global Threat, Population Stabilisation and Birth Control, Reproductive Health, Reproductive Health - Problems and Strategies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

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NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation solutions

Concepts covered in Principles of Inheritance and Variation are Chromosomal Abnormalities, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance: Law of Independent Assortment, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance: Law of Segregation, Comparison Between Gene and Chromosome Behaviour, Concept of Mutation, Extensions of Mendelian Genetics (Deviation from Mendelism), Genetic Disorders, Heredity and Variation, Historical Development of Chromosome Theory, Inheritance of One Gene (Monohybrid Cross), Inheritance of Two Genes (Dihybrid Cross), Intragenic Interactions - Codominance, Intragenic Interactions - Dominance, Intragenic Interactions - Incomplete Dominance, Intragenic Interactions - Pleiotropy, Introduction of Principles of Inheritance and Variation, Linkage and Crossing Over, Linkage and Recombination, Mendelian Genetics, Mendelian Inheritance - Mendel’s Laws of Heredity, Mendelism, Mendel’s experiments on pea plant, Monohybrid Cross, Multiple Alleles, Pedigree Analysis, Polygenic Inheritance, Principles of Inheritance and Variation Question, Punnett Square, Sex Determination, Sex Determination in Birds, Sex Determination in Honey Bees, Sex Determination in Human, Sex Determination in Some Insects, Terminology Related to Mendelism, Test Cross, The Law of Dominance, The Law of Independent Assortment, The Law of Segregation (Law of Purity of Gametes)

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance solutions

Concepts covered in Molecular Basis of Inheritance are Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Its Structure, DNA Fingerprinting Technique, DNA Replication, Genetic Code, Human Genome Project, Introduction of Genetic Code, Introduction of Molecular Basis of Inheritance, Introduction of Search for Genetic Material, Introduction of Transcription, Molecular Basis of Inheritance (Questions), Mutations and Genetic Code, Packaging of DNA Helix, Properties of Genetic Material (DNA Versus RNA), Protein synthesis - Transcription, Regulation of Gene Expression, Rice Genome Project, Search for Genetic Material, Structure of DNA and RNA, Structure of Nucleotide, Structure of Polynucleotide Chain, The Experimental Proof, The Genetic Material is a DNA, The Lac Operon, The Machinery and the Enzymes, The RNA World, Transcription Unit, Transcription Unit and the Gene, Translation, tRNA – the Adapter Molecule, Types of RNA and the Process of Transcription

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 7: Evolution solutions

Concepts covered in Evolution are Adaptive Radiation, Brief Account of Evolution, Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection, Evidences for Biological Evolution, Evolution, Evolution of Life Forms - a Theory, Evolution Stages, Gene Flow and Genetic Drift, Hardy Weinberg’s Principle, Mechanism of Organic Evolution, Micro and Macro Evolution, Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution, Origin and Evolution of Man, Origin and Evolution of Universe and Earth, Speciation, Theories of Biological Evolution, Theories of Origin of Life

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 8: Human Health and Disease solutions

Concepts covered in Human Health and Disease are Addiction and Dependence, Adolescence - Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Allergies (Hypersensitivity), Autoimmunity, Cancer, Common Diseases in Human Beings, Drugs and Alcohol Abuse, Effects of Drug and Alcohol, Human Health and Diseases (Questions), Human Immune System, Immunity, Infectious and Non Infectious Disease, Introduction of Drugs and Alcohol Abuse, Introduction of Human Health and Diseases, Maintaining Good Health, Yoga, Excercise, Prevention and Control of Drugs and Alcohol Abuse, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), Types of Immunity, Vaccination and Immunization

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NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production solutions

Concepts covered in Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production are Animal Breeding, Animal Husbandry (Livestock), Apiculture (Bee Farming), Dairy Farming, Introduction of Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production, Pisciculture (Fish Farming), Plant Breeding, Poultry Farming, Single Cell Protein (SCP), Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production (Questions), Tissue Culture

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare solutions

Concepts covered in Microbes in Human Welfare are Energy Generation, Microbes as Biocontrol Agents, Microbes as Biofertilizers, Microbes in Household Products, Microbes in Human Welfare, Microbes in Industrial Production, Microbes in Production of Biogas, Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Production and Judicious Use

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 11: Biotechnology : Principles and Processes solutions

Concepts covered in Biotechnology : Principles and Processes are Cloning Vectors, Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA), Process and Principles of Biotechnology, Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology, Restriction Enzymes

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Applications solutions

Concepts covered in Biotechnology and its Applications are Biosafety Issues, Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture, Biotechnological Applications in Medicine, Commercial Applications of Biotechnology, Ethical Issues, Introduction of Biotechnology and Its Application, Stem Cell Technology, Transgenic Animals

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NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations solutions

Concepts covered in Organisms and Populations are Adaptations and Its Types, Ecology (Organism, Population, Community and Biome), Introduction of Organisms and Environment, Introduction of Organisms and Populations, Life History Variation, Major Abiotic Factors, Organisms and Populations (Questions), Population and Ecological Adaptations, Population Attributes, Population Growth, Population Interactions, Responses to Abiotic Factors

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 14: Ecosystem solutions

Concepts covered in Ecosystem are Decomposition, Ecological Pyramids, Ecological Succession, Ecosystem, Ecosystem Services, Ecosystems Patterns, Ecosystem - Structure and Function, Energy Flow in an Ecosystem, Introduction and Types of Ecosystem, Nutrient Cycling, Productivity

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation solutions

Concepts covered in Biodiversity and Conservation are Biodiversity, Biodiversity and Its Conservation (Questions), Conservation of Biodiversity, Endangered Organisms, Extinction, Importance of Biodiversity, Importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem, Loss of Biodiversity, Patterns of Biodiversity, Red Data Book, Species on Earth and Species in India

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 16: Environmental Issues solutions

Concepts covered in Environmental Issues are A Case Study of Integrated Waste Water Treatment, Agrochemicals and Their Effects, Controlling Vehicular Air Pollution: a Case Study of Delhi, Deforestation and Its Causes, Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance, Effects of Domestic Sewage and Industrial Effluents on Water, Environmental Issues, Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change, Introduction of Water Pollution and Its Control, Noise Pollution, Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere, Prevention of Air Pollution, Radioactive Waste Management and E-waste, Radioactive Wastes, Solid Waste Management, Solid Wastes

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

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NCERT Class 12 Biology Guide Book Back Answers

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