Differentiate between globular and fibrous proteins.
|Fibrous protein||Globular protein|
|It is a fibre-like structure formed by the polypeptide chain. These proteins are held together by strong hydrogen and disulphide bonds.||The polypeptide chain in this protein is folded around itself, giving rise to a spherical structure.|
|It is usually insoluble in water.||It is usually soluble in water.|
|Fibrous proteins are usually used for structural purposes. For example, keratin is present in nails and hair; collagen in tendons; and myosin in muscles.||All enzymes are globular proteins. Some hormones such as insulin are also globular proteins.|
Fibrous proteins: These proteins consist of linear thread like molecules which tend to lie side by side (parallel) to form fibres. The polypeptide chains in them are held together usually at many points by hydrogen bonds and some disulphide bonds. As a result,intermolecular forces of attraction are very’ strong and hence fibrous proteins are insoluble in water. Further, these proteins are stable to moderate changes in temperature and pH. Fibrous proteins serve as the chief structural material of animal tissues.For example, keratin in skin, hair, nails and wool, collagen in tendons, fibrosis in silk and myosin in muscles.
Globular proteins: The polypeptide chain in these proteins is folded around itself in such a way so as to give the entire protein molecule an almost spheroidal shape. The folding takes place in such a manner that hydrophobic (non-polar) parts are pushed inwards and hydrophilic (polar) parts are pushed outwards. As a result, water molecules interact strongly with the polar groups and hence globular protein are water soluble. As compared to fibrous proteins, these are very sensitive to small changes of temperature and pH. This class of proteins include all enzymes, many hormones such as insulin from pancreas, thyroglobulin from thyroid gland, etc.