Complete the following chart: Evidences of Evolution - Science and Technology 2

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Complete the following chart:

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2018-2019 (March) Set 1

RELATED QUESTIONS

State the connecting links between Peripatus with Annelida and Arthopoda.


Give two examples of vestigial organs  in human beings and plants.


(a) Select the analogous structures from the combination given below:

(i) Forelimbs of whales and bats

(ii) Eyes of octopus and mammals

(iii) Tuber of sweet potato and potato

(iv) Tuber of Bougainvillea and tendrils of Cucurbita

(b) State the kind of evolution they represent


“Two areas of study namely 'evolution' and 'classification' are interlinked'. Justify this statement.


Select two pairs from the following which exhibit divergent evolution. Give reasons for your answer.

(i) Forelimbs of cheetah and mammals

(ii) Flippers of dolphins and penguins

(iii) Wings of butterflies and birds

(iv) Forelimbs of whales and mammals


Four students A, B, C and D reported the following set of organs to be homologous. Who is correct ?

(A) Wings of a bat and a butterfly

(B) Wings of a pigeon and a bat

(C) Wings of a pigeon and a butterfly

(D) Forelimbs of cow, a duck and a lizard


 Explain the terms analogous and homologous organs with examples.


Give the importance of fossil in support of organic evolution


Explain with an example for the given, how the following provides evidence in favor of evolution in organisms :

Fossils


Name the scientists who Discovered the fossil of Australopithecus


Explain the evolution of giraffe's neck according to Lamarck's theory of evolution.


Name any two temporary embryonic structures in vertebrates which provide evidence for evolution.


What are homologous organs?


How do homologous organs help in providing evidence for organic evolution?


Differentiate between analogous and homologous structures.


Select and write analogous structures from the list given below :

1) Wings of butterfly and birds

2) Vertebrate hearts

3) Tendrils of Bougainvillea and Cucurbita

4) Tubers of sweet potato and potato


Name two animals having homologous organs and two having analogous organs. Name these organs.

 

Out of bacteria, spider, fish and chimpanzee, which organism has a better body design in evolutionary terms? Give reason for your answer.


Wing of an insect and forelimb of a bird are :
(a) analogous organs
(b) analeptic organs
(c) homologous
(d) homophobic organs


There are five animals A, B, C, D and E. The animal A uses its modified forelimbs for flying. The animal B uses its forelimbs for running whereas the animal C uses its forelimbs for grasping. The animal D can live on land as well as in water and uses its forelimbs to prop up the front end of its body when at rest. The animal E which respires by using spiracles and tracheae uses wings for flying but its wings are analogous to the modified forelimbs of animal A.
(a) What could the animals A, B, C, D and E be?
(b) Why are the forelimbs of animals A, B, C, D called homologous organs?
(c) What does the existence of homologous organs in animals A, B, C and D tell us about their ancestors ?
(d) Why are the modified forelimbs of animal A and the wings of animal E called analogous organs?
(e) State whether animals A and E have a common ancestor or not.


X, Y, and Z are three animals. The animal X can fly but animal Y can only run on ground or walls. The forelimbs of animals X and Y have the same basic design but they are used for different purposes such as flying and running respectively. The animal Z became extinct an long time ago. The study of fossils of Z tells us that it had some features like those of X and some like those of Y. In fact, Z is said to form a connecting link in the evolutionary chain of X and Y.
(a) What could the animals X, Y and Z be?
(b) What name is given to the forelimbs like those of X and Y which have the same basic design but different functions?
(c) Name one feature in which Z resembled X.
(d) Name one feature in which Z resembled Y.
(e) Which is the correct evolutionary chain involving X, Y and Z : X → Z → Y or Y → Z → X?


The organs P and Q of two animals have different structures but similar functions. On the other hand, the two organs R and S of two other animals have the same basic structure but different functions.
(a) What are the organs like P and Q known as?
(b) Name the organs like P and Q. Also name the animals which have such organs.
(c) What are the organs like R and S called?
(d) Name the organs like R and S. Also name the animals which have such organs.


Identify the following pairs as homologous and analogous organs:
(i) Sweet potato and potato
(ii) Eye of octopus and eye of mammals
(iii) Thorns of Bougainvillaea and tendrils of Cucurbits
(iv) Fore limbs of bat and whale


What do we call the degenerated or partially developed useless organs in living organisms? Enlist such organs in human body? How the same organs are useful in other animals?


Read the following statement and justify same in your own words with the help of suitable example.

There is evidences of fatal science among chordates.


Write short notes based upon the information known to you.

Embryology


Write short notes based upon the information known to you.

Connecting link


Answer the following question.

Explain with suitable examples the importance of anatomical evidence in evolution.


Answer the following question.
Wisdom teeth : Vestigial organs :: Lungfish : ....................


Complete the following chart:


With the help of diagrams, describe emasculation and bagging. 


What do you mean by vestigial structures? Name four vestigial organs found in man.


Choose the correct option of the following question:

Wings of Insect and Birds are examples of :


Explain any three molecular (genetic) evidences in favour of organic evolution.


Define fossils. 


Differentiate between connecting links and the missing links.


Define phylogeny.


Very short answer question.

What are homologous organs?


Very short answer question.

What is vestigeal organ?


Short answer question.

Give the significance of fossils.


Find an odd one out.


Find an odd one out.


I am a connecting link between reptiles and mammals. Who am I?


The decaying process of C-14 occurs continuously in dead organisms only.


Give scientific reason.

Vertebrates have slowly originated from invertebrates.


Give scientific reason.

Duck-billed platypus shows relationship with mammals.


Write a short note:

Embryological evidences


Complete the flowchart.


Define the evidence of evolution shown in the figure.


Which evidence of evolution is shown in the given picture? Explain the importance of this evidence.


Explain any five types of evidence that support the theory of evolution.


Biogenetic law states that ______.


The degenerated and non-functional organs found in an organism are called ______.


A human hand, a front leg of a cat, a front flipper of a whale and a bat’s wing look dissimilar and adapted for different functions. What is the name given to these organs?


How do you differentiate homologous organs from analogous organs?


Select vestigial organs from the following.


Homologous organs and vestigial organs are examples of ______ type of evidence in evolution.


Select the correct statement.


Select the CORRECT match.


Select the CORRECT set of homologous organs.


Where is carbon dating used?


Define vestigial organs


Homologous organs are:


Cucurbits do not develop thick and woody stem as they are:


Tendons and ligaments are examples of ______.


Palaeontological evidence for evolution refers to the ______.


Basic principles of embryonic development were pronounced by:


Study of fossils is ______.


Evolutionary convergence is the development of:


The process of mating of individuals, which are more closing related than the average of the population to which they belong is called ______.


The presence of gill slits, in the embryos of all vertebrates, supports the theory of ______.


Which is not a vestigial organ in a man?


Flippers of Penguins and Dolphins are examples of: 


The study of fossil evidence of evolution is called ______


Organs having similar functions but different origin and development are known as:


Animal husbandry and plant breeding programmes are the examples of ______.


Fossils are generally found in ______.


How do we compute the age of a fossil?


How do we compute the age of a rock?


The evolutionary story of moths in England during industrialisation reveals, that 'evolution is apparently reversible'. Clarify this statement.


You have studied the story of Pepper moths in England. Had the industries been removed, what impact could it have on the moth population? Discuss.


Find odd one out:


Write down the difference between homologous and analogous organs.


Find the odd one out:


Explain natural selection with the example of industrial melanism.


Write a note on the significance of Palaeontology.


Define the term:

Homologous organs


Industrial melanism was highlighted by ______.


Complete the following conceptual picture:


Give examples of homologous organs and analogous organs in plants.


Pick the odd man out:


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