Complete the following chart: - Science and Technology 2


Complete the following chart:



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Chapter 1: Heredity and Evolution - Exercises [Page 10]


Balbharati Science and Technology Part 2 10th Standard SSC Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1 Heredity and Evolution
Exercises | Q 1 | Page 10


Mammals : _________ : : Amphibia : Fishes

State the connecting links between Peripatus with Annelida and Arthopoda.

What are vestigial organs?

Give two examples of vestigial organs  in human beings and plants.

(a) Select the analogous structures from the combination given below:

(i) Forelimbs of whales and bats

(ii) Eyes of octopus and mammals

(iii) Tuber of sweet potato and potato

(iv) Tuber of Bougainvillea and tendrils of Cucurbita

(b) State the kind of evolution they represent

Given below is the list of vegetables available in the market. Select from these the two vegetables having homologous structures:

Potato, sweet potato, ginger, radish, tomato, carrot, okra (Lady’s finger)

(A) Potato and sweet potato

(B) Radish and carrot

(C) Okra and sweet potato

(D) Potato and tomato

State a reason for the increased population of dark coloured moths coinciding with the loss of lichens (on tree barks) during industrialization period in England.

Attempt giving a clear definition of the term species

Try to trace the various components of human evolution (hint: brain size and function, skeletal structure, dietary preference, etc.)

Give the importance of fossil in support of organic evolution

Explain with an example for the given, how the following provides evidence in favor of evolution in organisms :


Name the scientists who Discovered the fossil of Australopithecus

Explain the evolution of giraffe's neck according to Lamarck's theory of evolution.

Name any two temporary embryonic structures in vertebrates which provide evidence for evolution.

What are homologous organs?

How do homologous organs help in providing evidence for organic evolution?

The organs which perform different functions but have the same basic structure are known as :
(a) homologous organs
(b) analogous organs
(c) homolytic organs
(d) analytic organs

Wing of an insect and forelimb of a bird are :
(a) analogous organs
(b) analeptic organs
(c) homologous
(d) homophobic organs

There are five animals A, B, C, D and E. The animal A uses its modified forelimbs for flying. The animal B uses its forelimbs for running whereas the animal C uses its forelimbs for grasping. The animal D can live on land as well as in water and uses its forelimbs to prop up the front end of its body when at rest. The animal E which respires by using spiracles and tracheae uses wings for flying but its wings are analogous to the modified forelimbs of animal A.
(a) What could the animals A, B, C, D and E be?
(b) Why are the forelimbs of animals A, B, C, D called homologous organs?
(c) What does the existence of homologous organs in animals A, B, C and D tell us about their ancestors ?
(d) Why are the modified forelimbs of animal A and the wings of animal E called analogous organs?
(e) State whether animals A and E have a common ancestor or not.

X, Y, and Z are three animals. The animal X can fly but animal Y can only run on ground or walls. The forelimbs of animals X and Y have the same basic design but they are used for different purposes such as flying and running respectively. The animal Z became extinct an long time ago. The study of fossils of Z tells us that it had some features like those of X and some like those of Y. In fact, Z is said to form a connecting link in the evolutionary chain of X and Y.
(a) What could the animals X, Y and Z be?
(b) What name is given to the forelimbs like those of X and Y which have the same basic design but different functions?
(c) Name one feature in which Z resembled X.
(d) Name one feature in which Z resembled Y.
(e) Which is the correct evolutionary chain involving X, Y and Z : X → Z → Y or Y → Z → X?

Identify the following pairs as homologous and analogous organs:
(i) Sweet potato and potato
(ii) Eye of octopus and eye of mammals
(iii) Thorns of Bougainvillaea and tendrils of Cucurbits
(iv) Fore limbs of bat and whale

In a class, students were asked to observe the models/slides/pictures of the skeletons of forelimbs and wings of different organisms. After the observations the students made the following groups of homologous structures. Select the correct group :
(A) Wings of a bird and a butterfly
(B) Wings of a pigeon and a bat
(C) Wings of a butterfly and a bat
(D) Forelimbs of a cow, a duck and a lizard

What do we call the degenerated or partially developed useless organs in living organisms? Enlist such organs in human body? How the same organs are useful in other animals?

Write short notes based upon the information known to you.


Write short notes based upon the information known to you.

Connecting link

Answer the following question.

Explain with suitable examples the importance of anatomical evidence in evolution.

Answer the following question.
Wisdom teeth : Vestigial organs :: Lungfish : ....................

_______ is a connecting link between Annelida and Arthropoda.

“Appearance of melanised moths post-industrialisation in England is a classic example of evolution by natural selection.” Explain.

With the help of diagrams, describe emasculation and bagging. 

The most common types of fossils are ------------------------. 

Choose the correct option of the following question:

Wings of Insect and Birds are examples of :

Explain any three molecular (genetic) evidences in favour of organic evolution.

Define fossils. 

Differentiate between connecting links and the missing links.

Define phylogeny.

Answer the following question:
What are homologous structures? Give an example. Is it necessary that homologous structures always have a common ancestor? Justify your answer.

Short answer question.

Give the significance of fossils.

Long answer question.

Would you consider wings of butterfly and bat as homologous or analogous and why?

Similarities in the initial stages indicate the _______ evidence.

Find an odd one out.

Name the parts shown in the diagram.
Human jaw

Appendix : vestigial organ : : Peripatus : ____________

Give scientific reason.

Peripatus is said to be the connecting link between Annelida and Arthropoda.

Define the evidence of evolution shown in the figure.

Observe the given images and answer the following questions.

  1. Which evolutionary evidence does it indicate?
  2. What does it prove?
  3. State another example of evolutionary evidence.

Which evidence of evolution is shown in the given picture? Explain the importance of this evidence.

Biogenetic law states that ______.

The degenerated and non-functional organs found in an organism are called ______.

A human hand, a front leg of a cat, a front flipper of a whale and a bat’s wing look dissimilar and adapted for different functions. What is the name given to these organs?

How do you differentiate homologous organs from analogous organs?

Select vestigial organs from the following.

Homologous organs and vestigial organs are examples of ______ type of evidence in evolution.

Select the correct statement.

Select the CORRECT match.

Select the CORRECT set of homologous organs.

The fossil remains of Archaeopteryx is a connecting link between ______ 

Define vestigial organs

Evolution has exhibited a greater stability of molecular structure when compared with morphological structures. Comment on the statement and justify your opinion.

Homologous organs are:

Cucurbits do not develop thick and woody stem as they are:

Tendons and ligaments are examples of ______.

Palaeontological evidence for evolution refers to the ______.

Basic principles of embryonic development were pronounced by:

Study of fossils is ______.

Evolutionary convergence is the development of:

The process of mating of individuals, which are more closing related than the average of the population to which they belong is called ______.

The presence of gill slits, in the embryos of all vertebrates, supports the theory of ______.

Which is not a vestigial organ in a man?

Flippers of Penguins and Dolphins are examples of: 

The study of fossil evidence of evolution is called ______

Organs having similar functions but different origin and development are known as:

Analogous organs arise due to ______.

Did aquatic life forms get fossilised? If, yes where do we come across such fossils?

While creation and presence of variation is directionless, natural selection is directional as it is in the context of adaptation. Comment.

Complete the following diagram:

I am the connecting link of annelida and arthropoda. What is my name?

Find odd one out:

Write down the difference between homologous and analogous organs.

Find the odd one out:

Write a note on the significance of Palaeontology.

Define the term:

Homologous organs

Industrial melanism was highlighted by ______.

Industrial melanism in England after 1850 is an excellent example of Natural selection. Explain how?

Give a definition of Palaeontology.

Pick the odd man out:

Write names of some vestigial organs in the human body.


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