Salts and Their Properties:-
In Chemistry, a salt is a solid chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of cations and anions. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge).
Types of salt:-
- Salts having same positive and negative radicals are said to belong to a family.
- Example: NaCl and Na2SO4 belong to the family of sodium salts.
- NaCl and KCl belong to chloride salts.
ACIDIC SALTS:- These salts contain H+ ions. It is formed when there is partial replacement of H+ ions from acid
Example: H2SO4 + KOH → KHSO4 + H2O
H3PO4 + 2NaOH → Na2HPO4 + 2H2O
Basic salts:- These salts contain OH- ions. It is formed when there is partial replacement of OH- ions from Base.
Example: Pb(OH)2 + HCL → Pb(OH)CL + H2O
Normal salt:- Formed by the reaction of Acid + Base when there is complete replacement of H+ and OH- ions from acid and base
Example:- H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + H2O
Double salts:- It contains atleast 2 salts.
Potash Alum [K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O]
Ferrous Ammonium sulphate[FeSO4.(NH4)3SO4.6H2O]
Mixed Salt:- It contains either 2 Cation H+ or 2 Anion OH-
example: Bleaching powder [CaOCl2]
The common salt thus obtained is an important raw material for various materials of daily use, such as sodium hydroxide, baking soda, washing soda, bleaching powder and many more. Let us see how one substance is used for making all these different substances in the next topic.