Explain the mechanism of hereditary changes.
Hereditary changes can occur due to the following changes:
- Natural Selection- One allele is fixed for the population as it provides a survival advantage.
- Genetic Drift- Sudden change in a small population due to which genetic variability is reduced.
- Mutations- Sudden and inheritable changes in the genetic material that gives rise to a new allele.
- Recombination- When the crossing over occurs during meiosis, the sequence of alleles changes on the chromosomes.
The mechanism of hereditary changes is as follows:
- Diversity or hereditary changes occur due to genetic variation.
- In sexually reproducing organisms, a fusion of gametes from male and female parents occurs, the offspring always has recombined genes of both the parents. These offsprings thus show some characters of either of the parents.
- Also, sometimes sudden changes known as mutations occur in the genes. A change in the position of even a single nucleotide can cause either a minor effect or a considerable alteration in the characters of an individual.
- If these changes (mutation) occur in the DNA of germline cells then, these changes would be inherited to the next generation.
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