# NCERT solutions Physics Textbook for Class 12 Part 2 chapter 2 Wave Optics

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### Chapter 2 - Wave Optics

#### Pages 383 - 385

Monochromatic light of wavelength 589 nm is incident from air on a water surface. What are the wavelength, frequency and speed of (a) reflected, and (b) refracted light? Refractive index of water is 1.33.

Q 1 | Page 383 | view solution

What is the shape of the wavefront in the following cases:

Light diverging from a point source.

Q 2.1 | Page 383 | view solution

What is the shape of the wavefront in the following cases:

Light emerging out of a convex lens when a point source is placed at its focus.

Q 2.2 | Page 383 | view solution

What is the shape of the wavefront in the following cases:

The portion of the wavefront of light from a distant star intercepted by the Earth.

Q 2.3 | Page 383 | view solution

The refractive index of glass is 1.5. What is the speed of light in glass? Speed of light in vacuum is 3.0 × 108 m s−1)

Q 3.1 | Page 383 | view solution

Is the speed of light in glass independent of the colour of light? If not, which of the two colours red and violet travels slower in a glass prism?

Q 3.2 | Page 383 | view solution

In a Young’s double-slit experiment, the slits are separated by 0.28 mm and the screen is placed 1.4 m away. The distance between the central bright fringe and the fourth bright fringe is measured to be 1.2 cm. Determine the wavelength of light used in the experiment.

Q 4 | Page 383 | view solution

In Young's double slit experiment, using monochromatic light of wavelength λ, the intensity of light at a point on the screen where path difference is λ, is K units. Find out the intensity of light at a point where path difference is λ/3.

Q 5 | Page 383 | view solution

A beam of light consisting of two wavelengths, 650 nm and 520 nm, is used to obtain interference fringes in a Young’s double-slit experiment.

Find the distance of the third bright fringe on the screen from the central maximum for wavelength 650 nm.

Q 6.1 | Page 383 | view solution

A beam of light consisting of two wavelengths, 650 nm and 520 nm, is used to obtain interference fringes in a Young’s double-slit experiment.

What is the least distance from the central maximum where the bright fringes due to both the wavelengths coincide?

Q 6.2 | Page 383 | view solution

In a double-slit experiment the angular width of a fringe is found to be 0.2° on a screen placed 1 m away. The wavelength of light used is 600 nm. What will be the angular width of the fringe if the entire experimental apparatus is immersed in water? Take refractive index of water to be 4/3.

Q 7 | Page 383 | view solution

What is the Brewster angle for air to glass transition? (Refractive index of glass = 1.5.)

Q 8 | Page 383 | view solution

Light of wavelength 5000 Å falls on a plane reflecting surface. What are the wavelength and frequency of the reflected light? For what angle of incidence is the reflected ray normal to the incident ray?

Q 9 | Page 383 | view solution

Estimate the distance for which ray optics is good approximation for an aperture of 4 mm and wavelength 400 nm.

Q 10 | Page 383 | view solution

The 6563 Å Hα line emitted by hydrogen in a star is found to be redshifted by 15 Å. Estimate the speed with which the star is receding from the Earth.

Q 11 | Page 384 | view solution

Explain how Corpuscular theory predicts the speed of light in a medium, say, water, to be greater than the speed of light in vacuum. Is the prediction confirmed by experimental determination of the speed of light in water? If not, which alternative picture of light is consistent with the experiment?

Q 12 | Page 384 | view solution

You have learnt in the text how Huygens’ principle leads to the laws of reflection and refraction. Use the same principle to deduce directly that a point object placed in front of a plane mirror produces a virtual image whose distance from the mirror is equal to the object distance from the mirror.

Q 13 | Page 384 | view solution

Let us list some of the factors, which could possibly influence the speed of wave propagation:

(i) Nature of the source.

(ii) Direction of propagation.

(iii) Motion of the source and/or observer.

(iv) Wave length.

(v) Intensity of the wave.

On which of these factors, if any, does

(a) The speed of light in vacuum,

Q 14.1 | Page 384 | view solution

Let us list some of the factors, which could possibly influence the speed of wave propagation:

(i) Nature of the source.

(ii) Direction of propagation.

(iii) Motion of the source and/or observer.

(iv) Wave length.

(v) Intensity of the wave.

On which of these factors, if any, does

(b) The speed of light in a medium (say, glass or water), depend?

Q 14.2 | Page 384 | view solution

For sound waves, the Doppler formula for frequency shift differs slightly between the two situations: (i) source at rest; observer moving, and (ii) source moving; observer at rest. The exact Doppler formulas for the case of light waves in vacuum are, however, strictly identical for these situations. Explain why this should be so. Would you expect the formulas to be strictly identical for the two situations in case of light travelling in a medium?

Q 15 | Page 384 | view solution

In a double slit experiment using the light of wavelength 600 nm, the angular width of the fringe formed on a distant screen is 0.1°. Find the spacing between the two slits.?

Q 16 | Page 384 | view solution

In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is made double the original width. How does this affect the size and intensity of the central diffraction band?

Q 17.1 | Page 384 | view solution

In what way is diffraction from each slit related to the interference pattern in a double-slit experiment?

Q 17.2 | Page 384 | view solution

When a tiny circular obstacle is placed in the path of light from a distant source, a bright spot is seen at the centre of the shadow of the obstacle. Explain why?

Q 17.3 | Page 384 | view solution

Two students are separated by a 7 m partition wall in a room 10 m high. If both light and sound waves can bend around obstacles, how is it that the students are unable to see each other even though they can converse easily.

Q 17.4 | Page 384 | view solution

Ray optics is based on the assumption that light travels in a straight line. Diffraction effects (observed when light propagates through small apertures/slits or around small obstacles) disprove this assumption. Yet the ray optics assumption is so commonly used in understanding location and several other properties of images in optical instruments. What is the justification?

Q 17.5 | Page 384 | view solution

Two towers on top of two hills are 40 km apart. The line joining them passes 50 m above a hill halfway between the towers. What is the longest wavelength of radio waves, which can be sent between the towers without appreciable diffraction effects?

Q 18 | Page 385 | view solution

A parallel beam of light of wavelength 500 nm falls on a narrow slit and the resulting diffraction pattern is observed on a screen 1 m away. It is observed that the first minimum is at a distance of 2.5 mm from the centre of the screen. Find the width of the slit.

Q 19 | Page 385 | view solution

When a low flying aircraft passes overhead, we sometimes notice a slight shaking of the picture on our TV screen. Suggest a possible explanation.

Q 20.1 | Page 385 | view solution