#### Chapters

9 - Ray Optics and Optical Instruments10 - Wave Optics

11 - Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

12 - Atoms

13 - Nuclei

14 - Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

15 - Communication Systems

## Chapter 14 - Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

#### Pages 509 - 512

In an n-type silicon, which of the following statement is true:

**(a)** Electrons are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

**(b)** Electrons are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

**(c)** Holes are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

**(d)** Holes are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

Which of the statements given in Exercise 14.1 is true for p-type semiconductors.

Carbon, silicon and germanium have four valence electrons each. These are characterised by valence and conduction bands separated by energy band gap respectively equal to (*E*_{g})_{C}, (*E*_{g})_{Si }and (*E*_{g})_{Ge}. Which of the following statements is true?

**(a) **(*E*_{g})_{Si }< (*E*_{g})_{Ge} < (*E*_{g})_{C}

**(b) **(*E*_{g})_{C} < (*E*_{g})_{Ge} > (*E*_{g})_{Si}

**(c) **(*E*_{g})_{C} > (*E*_{g})_{Si} > (*E*_{g})_{Ge}

**(d) **(*E*_{g})_{C} = (*E*_{g})_{Si }= (*E*_{g})_{Ge}

In an unbiased p-n junction, holes diffuse from the p-region to n-region because

**(a) **free electrons in the n-region attract them.

**(b) **they move across the junction by the potential difference.

**(c) **hole concentration in p-region is more as compared to n-region.

**(d) **All the above.

When a forward bias is applied to a p-n junction, it

**(a) **raises the potential barrier.

**(b) **reduces the majority carrier current to zero.

**(c) **lowers the potential barrier.

**(d) **None of the above.

For transistor action, which of the following statements are correct:

**(a) **Base, emitter and collector regions should have similar size and doping concentrations.

**(b) **The base region must be very thin and lightly doped.

**(c) **The emitter junction is forward biased and collector junction is reverse biased.

**(d) **Both the emitter junction as well as the collector junction are forward biased.

For a transistor amplifier, the voltage gain

**(a) **remains constant for all frequencies.

**(b) **is high at high and low frequencies and constant in the middle frequency range.

**(c) **is low at high and low frequencies and constant at mid frequencies.

**(d) **None of the above.

In half-wave rectification, what is the output frequency if the input frequency is 50 Hz. What is the output frequency of a full-wave rectifier for the same input frequency.

For a CE-transistor amplifier, the audio signal voltage across the collector resistance of 2 kΩ is 2 V. Suppose the current amplification factor of the transistor is 100, find the input signal voltage and base current if the base resistance is 1 kΩ.

Two amplifiers are connected one after the other in series (cascaded). The first amplifier has a voltage gain of 10 and the second has a voltage gain of 20. If the input signal is 0.01 volt, calculate the output ac signal.

A p-n photodiode is fabricated from a semiconductor with band gap of 2.8 eV. Can it detect a wavelength of 6000 nm?

The number of silicon atoms per m^{3} is 5 × 10^{28}. This is doped simultaneously with 5 × 10^{22} atoms per m^{3} of Arsenic and 5 × 10^{20} per m^{3} atoms of Indium. Calculate the number of electrons and holes. Given that *n*_{i}= 1.5 × 10^{16} m^{−3}. Is the material n-type or p-type?

In an intrinsic semiconductor the energy gap *E*_{g}is 1.2 eV. Its hole mobility is much smaller than electron mobility and independent of temperature. What is the ratio between conductivity at 600K and that at 300K? Assume that the temperature dependence of intrinsic carrier concentration *n*_{i}is given by

`n_i = n_0 exp[E_g/(2k_BT)]`

where *n*_{0 }is a constant.

In a p-n junction diode, the current I can be expressed as

`I = I_0 exp ("eV"/(2k_BT) - 1)`

where *I*_{0} is called the reverse saturation current, *V *is the voltage across the diode and is positive for forward bias and negative for reverse bias, and *I *is the current through the diode, *k*_{B}is the Boltzmann constant (8.6×10^{−5} eV/K) and T is the absolute temperature. If for a given diode *I*_{0} = 5 × 10^{−12 }A and T = 300 K, then

**(a) **What will be the forward current at a forward voltage of 0.6 V?

**(b) **What will be the increase in the current if the voltage across the diode is increased to 0.7 V?

**(c) **What is the dynamic resistance?

**(d) **What will be the current if reverse bias voltage changes from 1 V to 2 V?

You are given the two circuits as shown in Fig. 14.44. Show that circuit (a) acts as OR gate while the circuit (b) acts as AND gate.

Write the truth table for a NAND gate connected as given in Fig. 14.45.

Hence identify the exact logic operation carried out by this circuit

You are given two circuits as shown in Fig. 14.46, which consist of NAND gates. Identify the logic operation carried out by the two circuits.

Write the truth table for circuit given in Fig. 14.47 below consisting of NOR gates and identify the logic operation (OR, AND, NOT) which this circuit is performing.

(Hint: A = 0, B = 1 then A and B inputs of second NOR gate will be 0 and hence Y=1. Similarly work out the values of Y for other combinations of A and B. Compare with the truth table of OR, AND, NOT gates and find the correct one.)

Write the truth table for the circuits given in Fig. 14.48 consisting of NOR gates only. Identify the logic operations (OR, AND, NOT) performed by the two circuits.