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NCERT solutions Mathematics Textbook for Class 11 chapter 14 Mathematical Reasoning

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Chapter 14 - Mathematical Reasoning

Page 324

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

All real numbers are complex numbers.

Q 1.1 | Page 324 | view solution

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

There are 35 days in a month.

Q 1.1 | Page 324 | view solution

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

Mathematics is difficult.

Q 1.2 | Page 324 | view solution

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

The sum of 5 and 7 is greater than 10.

Q 1.3 | Page 324 | view solution

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

The square of a number is an even number.

Q 1.4 | Page 324 | view solution

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

The sides of a quadrilateral have equal length.

Q 1.5 | Page 324 | view solution

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer this question.

Q 1.6 | Page 324 | view solution

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

The product of (–1) and 8 is 8.

Q 1.7 | Page 324 | view solution

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

The sum of all interior angles of a triangle is 180°.

Q 1.8 | Page 324 | view solution

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.

Today is a windy day.

Q 1.9 | Page 324 | view solution

Give three examples of sentences which are not statements. Give reasons for the answers.

Q 2 | Page 324 | view solution

Page 329

Write the negation of the following statements:

Chennai is the capital of Tamil Nadu.

Q 1.1 | Page 329 | view solution

Write the negation of the following statements:

`sqrt2` is not a complex number.

Q 1.2 | Page 329 | view solution

Write the negation of the following statements:

All triangles are not equilateral triangle.

Q 1.3 | Page 329 | view solution

Write the negation of the following statements:

The number 2 is greater than 7.

Q 1.4 | Page 329 | view solution

Write the negation of the following statements:

Every natural number is an integer.

Q 1.5 | Page 329 | view solution

Are the following pairs of statements negations of each other?

The number is not a rational number.

The number x is not an irrational number.

Q 2.1 | Page 329 | view solution

Are the following pairs of statements negations of each other?

The number x is a rational number.

The number x is an irrational number.\

 

Q 2.2 | Page 329 | view solution

Find the component statements of the following compound statements and check whether they are true or false.

Number 3 is prime or it is odd.

Q 3.1 | Page 329 | view solution

Find the component statements of the following compound statements and check whether they are true or false.

All integers are positive or negative.

Q 3.2 | Page 329 | view solution

Find the component statements of the following compound statements and check whether they are true or false.

 100 is divisible by 3, 11 and 5.

Q 3.3 | Page 329 | view solution

Pages 334 - 335

For each of the following compound statements first identify the connecting words and then break it into component statements.

All rational numbers are real and all real numbers are not complex.

Q 1.1 | Page 334 | view solution

For each of the following compound statements first identify the connecting words and then break it into component statements.

Square of an integer is positive or negative.

Q 1.2 | Page 334 | view solution

For each of the following compound statements first identify the connecting words and then break it into component statements.

The sand heats up quickly in the Sun and does not cool down fast at night.

Q 1.3 | Page 334 | view solution

For each of the following compound statements first identify the connecting words and then break it into component statements.

= 2 and x = 3 are the roots of the equation 3x2 – x – 10 = 0.

Q 1.4 | Page 334 | view solution

Identify the quantifier in the following statements and write the negation of the statements.

There exists a number which is equal to its square.

Q 2.1 | Page 335 | view solution

Identify the quantifier in the following statements and write the negation of the statements.

For every real number xx is less than x + 1.

Q 2.2 | Page 335 | view solution

Identify the quantifier in the following statements and write the negation of the statements.

There exists a capital for every state in India.

Q 2.3 | Page 335 | view solution

Check whether the following pair of statements is negation of each other. Give reasons for the answer.

(i) x + y y + x is true for every real numbers x and y.

(ii) There exists real number x and y for which x + y = y + x

Q 3 | Page 335 | view solution

State whether the “Or” used in the following statements is “exclusive “or” inclusive. Give reasons for your answer.

Sun rises or Moon sets.

Q 4.1 | Page 335 | view solution

State whether the “Or” used in the following statements is “exclusive “or” inclusive. Give reasons for your answer.

To apply for a driving licence, you should have a ration card or a passport.

Q 4.2 | Page 335 | view solution

State whether the “Or” used in the following statements is “exclusive “or” inclusive. Give reasons for your answer.

All integers are positive or negative.

Q 4.3 | Page 335 | view solution

Pages 338 - 339

Rewrite the following statement with “if-then” in five different ways conveying the same meaning.

If a natural number is odd, then its square is also odd.

Q 1 | Page 338 | view solution

Write the contrapositive and converse of the following statements.

If x is a prime number, then x is odd

Q 2.1 | Page 338 | view solution

Write the contrapositive and converse of the following statements.

It the two lines are parallel, then they do not intersect in the same plane.

Q 2.2 | Page 338 | view solution

Write the contrapositive and converse of the following statements.

Something is cold implies that it has low temperature.

Q 2.3 | Page 338 | view solution

Write the contrapositive and converse of the following statements.

You cannot comprehend geometry if you do not know how to reason deductively.

Q 2.4 | Page 338 | view solution

Write the contrapositive and converse of the following statements.

x is an even number implies that x is divisible by 4

Q 2.5 | Page 338 | view solution

Write each of the following statement in the form “if-then”.

You get a job implies that your credentials are good.

Q 3.1 | Page 338 | view solution

Write each of the following statement in the form “if-then”.

The Banana trees will bloom if it stays warm for a month.

Q 3.2 | Page 338 | view solution

Write each of the following statement in the form “if-then”.

A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its diagonals bisect each other.

Q 3.3 | Page 338 | view solution

Write each of the following statement in the form “if-then”.

To get A+ in the class, it is necessary that you do the exercises of the book.

Q 3.4 | Page 338 | view solution

Given statements in (a) and (b). Identify the statements given below as contrapositive or converse of each other.

(a) If you live in Delhi, then you have winter clothes.

(i) If you do not have winter clothes, then you do not live in Delhi.

(ii) If you have winter clothes, then you live in Delhi.

(b) If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram, then its diagonals bisect each other.

(i) If the diagonals of a quadrilateral do not bisect each other, then the quadrilateral is not a parallelogram.

(ii) If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, then it is a parallelogram.

Q 4 | Page 339 | view solution

Pages 342 - 345

Show that the statement

p: “If x is a real number such that x3 + 4= 0, then x is 0” is true by

(i) direct method

(ii) method of contradiction

(iii) method of contrapositive

Q 1 | Page 342 | view solution

Show that the statement “For any real numbers a and ba2 = b2 implies that a = b” is not true by giving a counter-example.

Q 2 | Page 342 | view solution

Show that the following statement is true by the method of contrapositive.

pIf x is an integer and x2 is even, then x is also even.

Q 3 | Page 342 | view solution

By giving a counter example, show that the following statements are not true.

p: If all the angles of a triangle are equal, then the triangle is an obtuse angled triangle.

Q 4.1 | Page 342 | view solution

By giving a counter example, show that the following statements are not true.

q: The equation x2 – 1 = 0 does not have a root lying between 0 and 2.

Q 4.2 | Page 342 | view solution

Given below are two statements

p: 25 is a multiple of 5.

q: 25 is a multiple of 8.

Write the compound statements connecting these two statements with “And” and “Or”. In both cases check the validity of the compound statement.

Q 5 | Page 345 | view solution

Which of the following statements are true and which are false? In each case give a valid reason for saying so.

p: Each radius of a circle is a chord of the circle.

Q 5.1 | Page 343 | view solution

Which of the following statements are true and which are false? In each case give a valid reason for saying so.

q: The centre of a circle bisects each chord of the circle.

Q 5.2 | Page 343 | view solution

Which of the following statements are true and which are false? In each case give a valid reason for saying so.

r: Circle is a particular case of an ellipse.

Q 5.3 | Page 343 | view solution

Which of the following statements are true and which are false? In each case give a valid reason for saying so.

s: If and y are integers such that x > y, then –x < –y.

Q 5.4 | Page 343 | view solution

Which of the following statements are true and which are false? In each case give a valid reason for saying so.

t`sqrt11` is a rational number.

Q 5.5 | Page 343 | view solution

Page 345

Write the negation of the following statements:

p: For every positive real number x, the number x – 1 is also positive.

Q 1.1 | Page 345 | view solution

Write the negation of the following statements:

q: All cats scratch.

Q 1.2 | Page 345 | view solution

Write the negation of the following statements:

r: For every real number x, either x > 1 or x < 1.

Q 1.3 | Page 345 | view solution

Write the negation of the following statements:

s: There exists a number x such that 0 < x < 1.

Q 1.6 | Page 345 | view solution

State the converse and contrapositive of each of the following statements:

p: A positive integer is prime only if it has no divisors other than 1 and itself.

 

Q 2.1 | Page 345 | view solution

State the converse and contrapositive of each of the following statements:

q: I go to a beach whenever it is a sunny day.

Q 2.2 | Page 345 | view solution

State the converse and contrapositive of each of the following statements:

r: If it is hot outside, then you feel thirsty.

Q 2.3 | Page 345 | view solution

Write each of the statements in the form “if p, then q”.

(i) p: It is necessary to have a password to log on to the server.

(ii) q: There is traffic jam whenever it rains.

(iii) r: You can access the website only if you pay a subscription fee

Q 3 | Page 345 | view solution

Re write each of the following statements in the form “p if and only if q”.

p: If you watch television, then your mind is free and if your mind is free, then you watch television.

Q 4.1 | Page 345 | view solution

Re write each of the following statements in the form “p if and only if q”.

q: For you to get an A grade, it is necessary and sufficient that you do all the homework regularly.

Q 4.2 | Page 345 | view solution

Re write each of the following statements in the form “p if and only if q”.

r: If a quadrilateral is equiangular, then it is a rectangle and if a quadrilateral is a rectangle, then it is equiangular.

Q 4.3 | Page 345 | view solution

Check the validity of the statements given below by the method given against it.

p: The sum of an irrational number and a rational number is irrational (by contradiction method).

Q 6.1 | Page 345 | view solution

Check the validity of the statements given below by the method given against it.

q: If n is a real number with n > 3, then n2 > 9 (by contradiction method).

Q 6.2 | Page 345 | view solution

Write the following statement in five different ways, conveying the same meaning.

p: If triangle is equiangular, then it is an obtuse angled triangle.

Q 7 | Page 345 | view solution

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