#### Online Mock Tests

#### Chapters

Chapter 2: Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Chapter 3: Matrices

Chapter 4: Determinants

Chapter 5: Continuity And Differentiability

Chapter 6: Application Of Derivatives

Chapter 7: Integrals

Chapter 8: Application Of Integrals

Chapter 9: Differential Equations

Chapter 10: Vector Algebra

Chapter 11: Three Dimensional Geometry

Chapter 12: Linear Programming

Chapter 13: Probability

## Chapter 13: Probability

### NCERT solutions for Mathematics Exemplar Class 12 Chapter 13 Probability Solved Examples [Pages 261 - 271]

#### Short Answer

A and B are two candidates seeking admission in a college. The probability that A is selected is 0.7 and the probability that exactly one of them is selected is 0.6. Find the probability that B is selected.

The probability of simultaneous occurrence of at least one of two events A and B is p. If the probability that exactly one of A, B occurs is q, then prove that P(A′) + P(B′) = 2 – 2p + q.

10% of the bulbs produced in a factory are of red colour and 2% are red and defective. If one bulb is picked up at random, determine the probability of its being defective if it is red.

Two dice are thrown together. Let A be the event ‘getting 6 on the first die’ and B be the event ‘getting 2 on the second die’. Are the events A and B independent?

A committee of 4 students is selected at random from a group consisting 8 boys and 4 girls. Given that there is at least one girl on the committee, calculate the probability that there are exactly 2 girls on the committee.

Three machines E_{1}, E_{2}, E_{3} in a certain factory produced 50%, 25% and 25%, respectively, of the total daily output of electric tubes. It is known that 4% of the tubes produced one each of machines E_{1} and E_{2} are defective, and that 5% of those produced on E_{3} are defective. If one tube is picked up at random from a day’s production, calculate the probability that it is defective.

Find the probability that in 10 throws of a fair die a score which is a multiple of 3 will be obtained in at least 8 of the throws.

A discrete random variable X has the following probability distribution:

X | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 |

P(X) | C | 2C | 2C | 3C | C2 | 2C2 | 7C^{2} + C |

Find the value of C. Also find the mean of the distribution.

#### Long Answer

Four balls are to be drawn without replacement from a box containing 8 red and 4 white balls. If X denotes the number of red ball drawn, find the probability distribution of X.

Determine variance and standard deviation of the number of heads in three tosses of a coin.

Refer to Question 6. Calculate the probability that the defective tube was produced on machine E_{1}.

A car manufacturing factory has two plants, X and Y. Plant X manufactures 70% of cars and plant Y manufactures 30%. 80% of the cars at plant X and 90% of the cars at plant Y are rated of standard quality. A car is chosen at random and is found to be of standard quality. What is the probability that it has come from plant X?

#### Objective Type Questions from 13 to 17

Let A and B be two events. If P(A) = 0.2, P(B) = 0.4, P(A ∪ B) = 0.6, then P(A|B) is equal to ______.

0.8

0.5

0.3

0

Let A and B be two events such that P(A) = 0.6, P(B) = 0.2, and P(A|B) = 0.5. Then P(A′|B′) equals ______.

`1/10`

`3/10`

`3/8`

`6/7`

If A and B are independent events such that 0 < P(A) < 1 and 0 < P(B) < 1, then which of the following is not correct?

A and B are mutually exclusive

A and B′ are independent

A′ and B are independent

A′ and B′ are independent

Let X be a discrete random variable. The probability distribution of X is given below:

X | 30 | 10 | – 10 |

P(X) | `1/5` | `3/10` | `1/2` |

Then E(X) is equal to ______.

6

4

3

– 5

Let X be a discrete random variable assuming values x_{1}, x_{2}, ..., x_{n} with probabilities p_{1}, p_{2}, ..., p_{n}, respectively. Then variance of X is given by ______.

E(X

^{2})E(X

^{2}) + E(X)E(X

^{2}) – [E(X)]^{2}`sqrt("E"("X"^2) - ["E"("X")]^2)`

#### Fill in the blanks 18 to 19

If A and B are independent events such that P(A) = p, P(B) = 2p and P(Exactly one of A, B) = `5/9`, then p = ______.

If A and B′ are independent events then P(A′ ∪ B) = 1 – ______.

#### State whether the following statement is True or False: 20 to 22

Let A and B be two independent events. Then P(A ∩ B) = P(A) + P(B)

True

False

Three events A, B and C are said to be independent if P(A ∩ B ∩ C) = P(A) P(B) P(C).

True

False

One of the condition of Bernoulli trials is that the trials are independent of each other.

True

False

### NCERT solutions for Mathematics Exemplar Class 12 Chapter 13 Probability Exercise [Pages 271 - 286]

#### Short Answer

For a loaded die, the probabilities of outcomes are given as under:

P(1) = P(2) = 0.2, P(3) = P(5) = P(6) = 0.1 and P(4) = 0.3. The die is thrown two times. Let A and B be the events, ‘same number each time’, and ‘a total score is 10 or more’, respectively. Determine whether or not A and B are independent.

Refer to Question 1 above. If the die were fair, determine whether or not the events A and B are independent.

The probability that at least one of the two events A and B occurs is 0.6. If A and B occur simultaneously with probability 0.3, evaluate `"P"(bar"A") + "P"(bar"B")`

A bag contains 5 red marbles and 3 black marbles. Three marbles are drawn one by one without replacement. What is the probability that at least one of the three marbles drawn be black, if the first marble is red?

Two dice are thrown together and the total score is noted. The events E, F and G are ‘a total of 4’, ‘a total of 9 or more’, and ‘a total divisible by 5’, respectively. Calculate P(E), P(F) and P(G) and decide which pairs of events, if any, are independent.

Explain why the experiment of tossing a coin three times is said to have binomial distribution.

A and B are two events such that P(A) = `1/2`, P(B) = `1/3` and P(A ∩ B) = `1/4`. Find: `"P"("A"/"B")`

A and B are two events such that P(A) = `1/2`, P(B) = `1/3` and P(A ∩ B) = `1/4`. Find: `"P"("B"/"A")`

A and B are two events such that P(A) = `1/2`, P(B) = `1/3` and P(A ∩ B) = `1/4`. Find: `"P"("A'"/"B")`

A and B are two events such that P(A) = `1/2`, P(B) = `1/3` and P(A ∩ B) = `1/4`. Find: `"P"("A'"/"B'")`

Three events A, B and C have probabilities `2/5, 1/3` and `1/2`, , respectively. Given that P(A ∩ C) = `1/5` and P(B ∩ C) = `1/4`, find the values of P(C|B) and P(A' ∩ C').

Let E_{1} and E_{2} be two independent events such that P(E_{1}) = P_{1} and P(E_{2}) = P_{2}. Describe in words of the events whose probabilities are: P_{1}P_{2}

Let E_{1} and E_{2} be two independent events such that P(E_{1}) = P_{1} and P(E_{2}) = P_{2}. Describe in words of the events whose probabilities are: (1 – P_{1}) P_{2}

Let E_{1} and E_{2} be two independent events such that P(E_{1}) = P_{1} and P(E_{2}) = P_{2}. Describe in words of the events whose probabilities are: 1 – (1 – P_{1})(1 – P_{2})

Let E_{1} and E_{2} be two independent events such that P(E_{1}) = P_{1} and P(E_{2}) = P_{2}. Describe in words of the events whose probabilities are: P_{1} + P_{2} – 2P_{1}P_{2}

A discrete random variable X has the probability distribution given as below:

X | 0.5 | 1 | 1.5 | 2 |

P(X) | k | k^{2} |
2k^{2} |
k |

Find the value of k

A discrete random variable X has the probability distribution given as below:

X | 0.5 | 1 | 1.5 | 2 |

P(X) | k | k^{2} |
2k^{2} |
k |

Determine the mean of the distribution.

Prove that P(A) = `"P"("A" ∩ "B") + "P"("A" ∩ bar"B")`

Prove that P(A ∪ B) = `"P"("A" ∩ "B") + "P"("A" ∩ bar"B") + "P"(bar"A" ∩ bar"B")`

If X is the number of tails in three tosses of a coin, determine the standard deviation of X.

In a dice game, a player pays a stake of Rs 1 for each throw of a die. She receives Rs 5 if the die shows a 3, Rs 2 if the die shows a 1 or 6, and nothing otherwise. What is the player’s expected profit per throw over a long series of throws?

Three dice are thrown at the sametime. Find the probability of getting three two’s, if it is known that the sum of the numbers on the dice was six.

Suppose 10,000 tickets are sold in a lottery each for Rs 1. First prize is of Rs 3000 and the second prize is of Rs. 2000. There are three third prizes of Rs. 500 each. If you buy one ticket, what is your expectation.

A bag contains 4 white and 5 black balls. Another bag contains 9 white and 7 black balls. A ball is transferred from the first bag to the second and then a ball is drawn at random from the second bag. Find the probability that the ball drawn is white.

Bag I contains 3 black and 2 white balls, Bag II contains 2 black and 4 white balls. A bag and a ball is selected at random. Determine the probability of selecting a black ball.

A box has 5 blue and 4 red balls. One ball is drawn at random and not replaced. Its colour is also not noted. Then another ball is drawn at random. What is the probability of second ball being blue?

Four cards are successively drawn without replacement from a deck of 52 playing cards. What is the probability that all the four cards are kings?

A die is thrown 5 times. Find the probability that an odd number will come up exactly three times.

Ten coins are tossed. What is the probability of getting at least 8 heads?

The probability of a man hitting a target is 0.25. He shoots 7 times. What is the probability of his hitting at least twice?

A lot of 100 watches is known to have 10 defective watches. If 8 watches are selected (one by one with replacement) at random, what is the probability that there will be at least one defective watch?

Consider the probability distribution of a random variable X:

X | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |

P(X) | 0.1 | 0.25 | 0.3 | 0.2 | 0.15 |

Calculate `"V"("X"/2)`

Consider the probability distribution of a random variable X:

X | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |

P(X) | 0.1 | 0.25 | 0.3 | 0.2 | 0.15 |

Variance of X.

The probability distribution of a random variable X is given below:

X | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 |

P(X) | k | `"k"/2` | `"k"/4` | `"k"/8` |

Determine the value of k.

The probability distribution of a random variable X is given below:

X | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 |

P(X) | k | `"k"/2` | `"k"/4` | `"k"/8` |

Determine P(X ≤ 2) and P(X > 2)

The probability distribution of a random variable X is given below:

X | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 |

P(X) | k | `"k"/2` | `"k"/4` | `"k"/8` |

Find P(X ≤ 2) + P (X > 2)

For the following probability distribution, determine standard deviation of the random variable X.

X | 2 | 3 | 4 |

P(X) | 0.2 | 0.5 | 0.3 |

A biased die is such that P(4) = `1/10` and other scores being equally likely. The die is tossed twice. If X is the ‘number of fours seen’, find the variance of the random variable X.

A die is thrown three times. Let X be ‘the number of twos seen’. Find the expectation of X.

Two biased dice are thrown together. For the first die P(6) = `1/2`, the other scores being equally likely while for the second die, P(1) = `2/5` and the other scores are equally likely. Find the probability distribution of ‘the number of ones seen’.

Two probability distributions of the discrete random variable X and Y are given below.

X | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 |

P(X) | `1/5` | `2/5` | `1/5` | `1/5` |

Y | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 |

P(Y) | `1/5` | `3/10` | `2/10` | `1/10` |

Prove that E(Y^{2}) = 2E(X).

A factory produces bulbs. The probability that anyone bulb is defective is `1/50` and they are packed in boxes of 10. From a single box, find the probability that none of the bulbs is defective

A factory produces bulbs. The probability that anyone bulb is defective is `1/50` and they are packed in boxes of 10. From a single box, find the probability that exactly two bulbs are defective

A factory produces bulbs. The probability that anyone bulb is defective is `1/50` and they are packed in boxes of 10. From a single box, find the probability that more than 8 bulbs work properly

Suppose you have two coins which appear identical in your pocket. You know that one is fair and one is 2-headed. If you take one out, toss it and get a head, what is the probability that it was a fair coin?

Suppose that 6% of the people with blood group O are left handed and 10% of those with other blood groups are left handed 30% of the people have blood group O. If a left handed person is selected at random, what is the probability that he/she will have blood group O?

Two natural numbers r, s are drawn one at a time, without replacement from the set S = {1, 2, 3, ...., n}. Find P[r ≤ p|s ≤ p], where p ∈ S.

Find the probability distribution of the maximum of the two scores obtained when a die is thrown twice. Determine also the mean of the distribution.

The random variable X can take only the values 0, 1, 2. Given that P(X = 0) = P(X = 1) = p and that E(X^{2}) = E[X], find the value of p

Find the variance of the distribution:

X | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

P(X) | `1/6` | `5/18` | `2/9` | `1/6` | `1/9` | `1/18` |

A and B throw a pair of dice alternately. A wins the game if he gets a total of 6 and B wins if she gets a total of 7. It A starts the game, find the probability of winning the game by A in third throw of the pair of dice.

Two dice are tossed. Find whether the following two events A and B are independent: A = {(x, y): x + y = 11} B = {(x, y): x ≠ 5} where (x, y) denotes a typical sample point.

An urn contains m white and n black balls. A ball is drawn at random and is put back into the urn along with k additional balls of the same colour as that of the ball drawn. A ball is again drawn at random. Show that the probability of drawing a white ball now does not depend on k.

Three bags contain a number of red and white balls as follows:

Bag 1:3 red balls, Bag 2:2 red balls and 1 white ball

Bag 3:3 white balls.

The probability that bag i will be chosen and a ball is selected from it is `"i"/6`, i = 1, 2, 3. What is the probability that a red ball will be selected?

Three bags contain a number of red and white balls as follows:

Bag 1:3 red balls, Bag 2:2 red balls and 1 white ball

Bag 3:3 white balls.

The probability that bag i will be chosen and a ball is selected from it is `"i"/6`, i = 1, 2, 3. What is the probability that a white ball is selected?

Refer to Question 41 above. If a white ball is selected, what is the probability that it came from Bag 2

Refer to Question 41 above. If a white ball is selected, what is the probability that it came from Bag 3

A shopkeeper sells three types of flower seeds A_{1}, A_{2} and A_{3}. They are sold as a mixture where the proportions are 4:4:2 respectively. The germination rates of the three types of seeds are 45%, 60% and 35%. Calculate the probability of a randomly chosen seed to germinate

A shopkeeper sells three types of flower seeds A_{1}, A_{2} and A_{3}. They are sold as a mixture where the proportions are 4:4:2 respectively. The germination rates of the three types of seeds are 45%, 60% and 35%. Calculate the probability that it will not germinate given that the seed is of type A_{3}

A shopkeeper sells three types of flower seeds A_{1}, A_{2} and A_{3}. They are sold as a mixture where the proportions are 4:4:2 respectively. The germination rates of the three types of seeds are 45%, 60% and 35%. Calculate the probability that it is of the type A_{2} given that a randomly chosen seed does not germinate.

A letter is known to have come either from TATA NAGAR or from CALCUTTA. On the envelope, just two consecutive letter TA are visible. What is the probability that the letter came from TATA NAGAR.

There are two bags, one of which contains 3 black and 4 white balls while the other contains 4 black and 3 white balls. A die is thrown. If it shows up 1 or 3, a ball is taken from the Ist bag; but it shows up any other number, a ball is chosen from the second bag. Find the probability of choosing a black ball.

There are three urns containing 2 white and 3 black balls, 3 white and 2 black balls, and 4 white and 1 black balls, respectively. There is an equal probability of each urn being chosen. A ball is drawn at random from the chosen urn and it is found to be white. Find the probability that the ball drawn was from the second urn.

By examining the chest X ray, the probability that TB is detected when a person is actually suffering is 0.99. The probability of an healthy person diagnosed to have TB is 0.001. In a certain city, 1 in 1000 people suffers from TB. A person is selected at random and is diagnosed to have TB. What is the probability that he actually has TB?

An item is manufactured by three machines A, B and C. Out of the total number of items manufactured during a specified period, 50% are manufactured on A, 30% on B and 20% on C. 2% of the items produced on A and 2% of items produced on B are defective, and 3% of these produced on C are defective. All the items are stored at one godown. One item is drawn at random and is found to be defective. What is the probability that it was manufactured on machine A?

Let X be a discrete random variable whose probability distribution is defined as follows:

P(X = x) = `{{:("k"(x + 1), "for" x = 1"," 2"," 3"," 4),(2"k"x, "for" x = 5"," 6"," 7),(0, "Otherwise"):}`

where k is a constant. Calculate the value of k

Let X be a discrete random variable whose probability distribution is defined as follows:

P(X = x) = `{{:("k"(x + 1), "for" x = 1"," 2"," 3"," 4),(2"k"x, "for" x = 5"," 6"," 7),(0, "Otherwise"):}`

where k is a constant. Calculate E(X)

Let X be a discrete random variable whose probability distribution is defined as follows:

P(X = x) = `{{:("k"(x + 1), "for" x = 1"," 2"," 3"," 4),(2"k"x, "for" x = 5"," 6"," 7),(0, "Otherwise"):}`

where k is a constant. Calculate Standard deviation of X.

The probability distribution of a discrete random variable X is given as under:

X | 1 | 2 | 4 | 2A | 3A | 5A |

P(X) | `1/2` | `1/5` | `3/25` | `1/10` | `1/25` | `1/25` |

Calculate: The value of A if E(X) = 2.94

The probability distribution of a discrete random variable X is given as under:

X | 1 | 2 | 4 | 2A | 3A | 5A |

P(X) | `1/2` | `1/5` | `3/25` | `1/10` | `1/25` | `1/25` |

Calculate: Variance of X

The probability distribution of a random variable x is given as under:

P(X = x) = `{{:("k"x^2, "for" x = 1"," 2"," 3),(2"k"x, "for" x = 4"," 5"," 6),(0, "otherwise"):}`

where k is a constant. Calculate E(X)

The probability distribution of a random variable x is given as under:

P(X = x) = `{{:("k"x^2, "for" x = 1"," 2"," 3),(2"k"x, "for" x = 4"," 5"," 6),(0, "otherwise"):}`

where k is a constant. Calculate E(3X^{2})

The probability distribution of a random variable x is given as under:

P(X = x) = `{{:("k"x^2, "for" x = 1"," 2"," 3),(2"k"x, "for" x = 4"," 5"," 6),(0, "otherwise"):}`

where k is a constant. Calculate P(X ≥ 4)

A bag contains (2n + 1) coins. It is known that n of these coins have a head on both sides where as the rest of the coins are fair. A coin is picked up at random from the bag and is tossed. If the probability that the toss results in a head is `31/42`, determine the value of n.

Two cards are drawn successively without replacement from a well-shuffled deck of cards. Find the mean and standard variation of the random variable X where X is the number of aces.

A die is tossed twice. A ‘success’ is getting an even number on a toss. Find the variance of the number of successes.

There are 5 cards numbered 1 to 5, one number on one card. Two cards are drawn at random without replacement. Let X denote the sum of the numbers on two cards drawn. Find the mean and variance of X.

#### Objective Type Questions from 56 to 82

If P(A) = `4/5`, and P(A ∩ B) = `7/10`, then P(B|A) is equal to ______.

`1/10`

`1/8`

`7/8`

`17/20`

If P(A ∩ B) = `7/10` and P(B) = `17/20`, then P(A|B) equals ______.

`14/17`

`17/20`

`7/8`

`1/8`

If P(A) = `3/10`, P(B) = `2/5` and P(A ∪ B) = `3/5`, then P(B|A) + P(A|B) equals ______.

`1/4`

`1/3`

`5/12`

`7/12`

If P(A) = `2/5`, P(B) = `3/10` and P(A ∩ B) = `1/5`, then P(A|B).P(B'|A') is equal to ______.

`5/6`

`5/7`

`25/42`

1

If A and B are two events such that P(A) = `1/2`, P(B) = `1/3` and P(A/B) = `1/4`, P(A' ∩ B') equals ______.

`1/12`

`3/4`

`1/4`

`3/16`

If P(A) = 0.4, P(B) = 0.8 and P(B|A) = 0.6, then P(A ∪ B) is equal to ______.

0.24

0.3

0.48

0.96

If A and B are two events and A ≠ Φ, B ≠ Φ, then ______.

P(A|B) = P(A).P(B)

P(A|B) = `("P"("A" ∩ "B"))/("P"("B"))`

P(A|B).P(B|A)=1

P(A|B) = P(A)|P(B)

A and B are events such that P(A) = 0.4, P(B) = 0.3 and P(A ∪ B) = 0.5. Then P(B′ ∩ A) equals ______.

`2/3`

`1/2`

`3/10`

`1/5`

If A and B are two events such that P(B) = `3/5`, P(A|B) = `1/2` and P(A ∪ B) = `4/5`, then P(A) equals ______.

`3/10`

`1/5`

`1/2`

`3/5`

In Question 64 above, P(B|A′) is equal to ______.

`1/5`

`3/10`

`1/2`

`3/5`

If P(B) = `3/5`, P(A|B) = `1/2` and P(A∪ B) = `4/5`, then P(A∪ B)′ + P( A′ ∪ B) = ______.

`1/5`

`4/5`

`1/2`

1

Let P(A) = `7/13`, P(B) = `9/13` and P(A ∩ B) = `4/13`. Then P( A′|B) is equal to ______.

`6/13`

`4/13`

`4/9`

`5/9`

If A and B are such events that P(A) > 0 and P(B) ≠ 1, then P(A′|B′) equals ______.

1 – P(A|B)

1– P(A′|B)

`(1 - "P"("A" ∪ "B"))/("P"("B'"))`

P(A′)|P(B′)

If A and B are two independent events with P(A) = `3/5` and P(B) = `4/9`, then P(A′ ∩ B′) equals ______.

`4/15`

`8/45`

`1/3`

`2/9`

If A and B are two independent events with P(A) = `3/5` and P(B) = `4/9`, then P(A′ ∩ B′) equals ______.

`4/15`

`8/45`

`1/3`

`2/9`

If two events are independent, then ______.

They must be mutually exclusive

The sum of their probabilities must be equal to 1

(A) and (B) both are correct

None of the above is correct

Let A and B be two events such that P(A) = `3/8`, P(B) = `5/8` and P(A ∪ B) = `3/4`. Then P(A|B).P(A′|B) is equal to ______.

`2/5`

`3/8`

`3/20`

`6/25`

If the events A and B are independent, then P(A ∩ B) is equal to ______.

P(A) + P(B)

P(A) – P(B)

P(A).P(B)

P(A) | P(B)

Two events E and F are independent. If P(E) = 0.3, P(E ∪ F) = 0.5, then P(E|F) – P(F|E) equals ______.

`2/7`

`3/35`

`1/70`

`1/7`

A bag contains 5 red and 3 blue balls. If 3 balls are drawn at random without replacement the probability of getting exactly one red ball is ______.

`45/196`

`135/392`

`15/56`

`15/29`

Refer to Question 74 above. The probability that exactly two of the three balls were red, the first ball being red, is ______.

`1/3`

`4/7`

`15/28`

`5/28`

Three persons, A, B and C, fire at a target in turn, starting with A. Their probability of hitting the target are 0.4, 0.3 and 0.2 respectively. The probability of two hits is ______.

0.024

0.188

0.336

0.452

Assume that in a family, each child is equally likely to be a boy or a girl. A family with three children is chosen at random. The probability that the eldest child is a girl given that the family has at least one girl is ______.

`1/2`

`1/3`

`2/3`

`4/7`

A die is thrown and a card is selected at random from a deck of 52 playing cards. The probability of getting an even number on the die and a spade card is ______.

`1/2`

`1/4`

`1/8`

`3/4`

A box contains 3 orange balls, 3 green balls and 2 blue balls. Three balls are drawn at random from the box without replacement. The probability of drawing 2 green balls and one blue ball is ______.

`3/28`

`2/21`

`1/28`

`167/168`

A flashlight has 8 batteries out of which 3 are dead. If two batteries are selected without replacement and tested, the probability that both are dead is ______.

`33/56`

`9/64`

`1/14`

`3/28`

Eight coins are tossed together. The probability of getting exactly 3 heads is ______.

`1/256`

`7/32`

`5/32`

`3/32`

Two dice are thrown. If it is known that the sum of numbers on the dice was less than 6, the probability of getting a sum 3, is ______.

`1/18`

`5/18`

`1/5`

`2/5`

Which one is not a requirement of a binomial distribution?

There are 2 outcomes for each trial

There is a fixed number of trials

The outcomes must be dependent on each other

The probability of success must be the same for all the trials

Two cards are drawn from a well-shuffled deck of 52 playing cards with replacement. The probability, that both cards are queens, is ______.

`1/13 xx 1/13`

`1/13 xx 1/13`

`1/13 xx 1/17`

`1/13 xx 4/51`

The probability of guessing correctly at least 8 out of 10 answers on a true-false type-examination is ______.

`7/64`

`7/128`

`45/1024`

`7/41`

The probability that a person is not a swimmer is 0.3. The probability that out of 5 persons 4 are swimmers is ______.

`""^5"C"_4 (0.7)^4 (0.3)`

`""^5"C"_1 (0.7) (0.3)^4`

`""^5"C"_4 (0.7) (0.3)^4`

`(0.7)^4 (0.3)`

The probability distribution of a discrete random variable X is given below:

X | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

P(X) | `5/"k"` | `7/"k"` | `9/"k"` | `11/"k"` |

The value of k is ______.

8

16

32

48

For the following probability distribution:

X | – 4 | – 3 | – 2 | – 1 | 0 |

P(X) | 0.1 | 0.2 | 0.3 | 0.2 | 0.2 |

E(X) is equal to ______.

0

– 1

– 2

– 1.8

For the following probability distribution:

X | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |

P(X) | `1/10` | `3/10` | `3/10` | `2/5` |

E(X^{2}) is equal to ______.

3

5

7

10

Suppose a random variable X follows the binomial distribution with parameters n and p, where 0 < p < 1. If P(x = r)/P(x = n – r) is independent of n and r, then p equals ______.

`1/2`

`1/3`

`1/5`

`1/7`

In a college, 30% students fail in physics, 25% fail in mathematics and 10% fail in both. One student is chosen at random. The probability that she fails in physics if she has failed in mathematics is ______.

`1/10`

`2/5`

`9/20`

`1/3`

A and B are two students. Their chances of solving a problem correctly are `1/3` and `1/4`, respectively. If the probability of their making a common error is, `1/20` and they obtain the same answer, then the probability of their answer to be correct is ______.

`1/12`

`1/40`

`13/120`

`10/13`

A box has 100 pens of which 10 are defective. What is the probability that out of a sample of 5 pens drawn one by one with replacement at most one is defective?

`(9/10)^5`

`1/2(9/10)^4`

`1/2(9/10)^5`

`(9/10)^5 + 1/2(9/10)^4`

#### State whether the following is True or False: 94 to 103

Let P(A) > 0 and P(B) > 0. Then A and B can be both mutually exclusive and independent.

True

False

If A and B are independent events, then A′ and B′ are also independent

True

False

If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then they will be independent also.

True

False

Two independent events are always mutually exclusive.

True

False

If A and B are two independent events then P(A and B) = P(A).P(B).

True

False

Another name for the mean of a probability distribution is expected value.

True

False

If A and B′ are independent events, then P(A' ∪ B) = 1 – P (A) P(B')

True

False

If A and B are independent, then P(exactly one of A, B occurs) = P(A)P(B') + P(B)P(A')

True

False

If A and B are two events such that P(A) > 0 and P(A) + P(B) >1, then P(B|A) ≥ `1 - ("P"("B'"))/("P"("A"))`

True

False

If A, B and C are three independent events such that P(A) = P(B) = P(C) = p, then P(At least two of A, B, C occur) = 3p^{2} – 2p^{3}

True

False

#### Fill in the blanks in the following questions:

If A and B are two events such that P(A|B) = p, P(A) = p, P(B) = `1/3` and P(A ∪ B) = `5/9`, then p = ______.

If A and B are such that P(A' ∪ B') = `2/3` and P(A ∪ B) = `5/9` then P(A') + P(B') = ______.

If X follows binomial distribution with parameters n = 5, p and P(X = 2) = 9, P(X = 3), then p = ______.

Let X be a random variable taking values x_{1}, x_{2},..., x_{n} with probabilities p_{1}, p_{2}, ..., p_{n}, respectively. Then var(X) = ______.

Let A and B be two events. If P(A | B) = P(A), then A is ______ of B.

## Chapter 13: Probability

## NCERT solutions for Mathematics Exemplar Class 12 chapter 13 - Probability

NCERT solutions for Mathematics Exemplar Class 12 chapter 13 (Probability) include all questions with solution and detail explanation. This will clear students doubts about any question and improve application skills while preparing for board exams. The detailed, step-by-step solutions will help you understand the concepts better and clear your confusions, if any. Shaalaa.com has the CBSE Mathematics Exemplar Class 12 solutions in a manner that help students grasp basic concepts better and faster.

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Concepts covered in Mathematics Exemplar Class 12 chapter 13 Probability are Variance of a Random Variable, Probability Examples and Solutions, Conditional Probability, Multiplication Theorem on Probability, Independent Events, Random Variables and Its Probability Distributions, Mean of a Random Variable, Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution, Introduction of Probability, Properties of Conditional Probability, Bayesâ€™ Theorem.

Using NCERT Class 12 solutions Probability exercise by students are an easy way to prepare for the exams, as they involve solutions arranged chapter-wise also page wise. The questions involved in NCERT Solutions are important questions that can be asked in the final exam. Maximum students of CBSE Class 12 prefer NCERT Textbook Solutions to score more in exam.

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