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NCERT solutions Chemistry Textbook for Class 12 Part 2 chapter 3 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

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Chapter 3 - Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Pages 353 - 376

Write the structures of the following compounds

α-Methoxypropionaldehyde

Q 1.1 | Page 353 | view solution

Write the structures of the following compounds.

3-Hydroxybutanal

Q 1.2 | Page 353 | view solution

Write the structures of the following compounds.

2-Hydroxycyclopentane carbaldehyde

Q 1.3 | Page 353 | view solution

Write the structures of the following compounds.

4-Oxopentanal

Q 1.4 | Page 353 | view solution

Write the structures of the following compounds

Di-sec-butyl ketone

Q 1.5 | Page 353 | view solution

Write the structures of the following compounds

4-Fluoroacetophenone

Q 1.6 | Page 353 | view solution

Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

Q 2.1 | Page 356 | view solution

Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

`(C_6H_5CH_2)_2Cd + 2CH_3COCl ->`

Q 2.2 | Page 356 | view solution

Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

Q 2.3 | Page 356 | view solution

Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

Q 2.4 | Page 356 | view solution

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their boiling points.

CH3CHO, CH3CH2OH, CH3OCH3, CH3CH2CH3

Q 3 | Page 358 | view solution

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their reactivity in nucleophilic addition reactions

Ethanal, Propanal, Propanone, Butanone.

Q 4.1 | Page 365 | view solution

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their reactivity in nucleophilic addition reactions.

Benzaldehyde, p-Tolualdehyde, p-Nitrobenzaldehyde, Acetophenone.

Q 4.2 | Page 365 | view solution

Predict the products of the following reactions:

Q 5.1 | Page 365 | view solution

Predict the products of the following reactions

Q 5.2 | Page 365 | view solution

Predict the products of the following reactions:

Q 5.3 | Page 365 | view solution

Predict the products of the following reactions:

Q 5.4 | Page 365 | view solution

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

 PhCH2CH2COOH

Q 6.1 | Page 367 | view solution

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

(CH3)2C=CHCOOH

Q 6.2 | Page 367 | view solution

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

Q 6.3 | Page 367 | view solution

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

Q 6.4 | Page 367 | view solution

Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.

Ethylbenzene 

Q 7.1 | Page 370 | view solution

Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.

Acetophenone

Q 7.2 | Page 370 | view solution

Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.

Bromobenzene 

Q 7.3 | Page 370 | view solution

Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.

Phenylethene (Styrene)

Q 7.4 | Page 370 | view solution

Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?

CH3CO2H or CH2FCO2H

Q 8.1 | Page 376 | view solution

Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?

CH2FCO2H or CH2ClCO2H

Q 8.2 | Page 376 | view solution

Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?

CH2FCH2CH2CO2H or CH3CHFCH2CO2H

Q 8.3 | Page 376 | view solution

Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?

Q 8.4 | Page 376 | view solution

Pages 377 - 379

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Cyanohydrin 

Q 1.1 | Page 377 | view solution

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Schiff’s base

Q 1.1 | Page 377 | view solution

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Acetal

Q 1.2 | Page 377 | view solution

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Semicarbazone 

Q 1.3 | Page 377 | view solution

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Aldol

Q 1.4 | Page 377 | view solution

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Hemiacetal

Q 1.5 | Page 377 | view solution

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Oxime

Q 1.6 | Page 377 | view solution

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Ketal 

Q 1.7 | Page 377 | view solution

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Imine

Q 1.8 | Page 377 | view solution

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

2,4-DNP-derivative

Q 1.9 | Page 377 | view solution

Name the following compound according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH2CHO

 

Q 2.1 | Page 377 | view solution

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature

CH3CH2COCH(C2H5)CH2CH2Cl

Q 2.2 | Page 377 | view solution

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

CH3CH=CHCHO

Q 2.3 | Page 377 | view solution

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

CH3COCH2COCH3

Q 2.4 | Page 377 | view solution

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

CH3CH(CH3)CH2C(CH3)2COCH3

Q 2.5 | Page 377 | view solution

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

OHCC6H4CHO-p

Q 2.7 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw the structures of the given compound - 3-Methylbutanal

Q 3.1 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw the structures of the given compound - p-Nitropropiophenone

Q 3.2 | Page 377 | view solution

Write the structure of p-methylbenzaldehyde.

Q 3.3 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw the structures of the given compounds - 4-Methylpent-3-en-2-one

Q 3.4 | Page 377 | view solution

Write the structure of 4-chloropentan-2-one.

Q 3.5 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw the structures of the given compound - 3-Bromo-4-phenylpentanoic acid

Q 3.6 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw the structures of given compounds - p,p’-Dihydroxybenzophenone

Q 3.7 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw the structures of the given compounds - Hex-2-en-4-ynoic acid

Q 3.8 | Page 377 | view solution

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common name.

CH3CO(CH2)4CH3

Q 4.1 | Page 377 | view solution

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common names.

CH3CH2CHBrCH2CH(CH3)CHO

Q 4.2 | Page 377 | view solution

Write the IUPAC names of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common names.

CH3(CH2)5CHO

Q 4.3 | Page 377 | view solution

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common name.

Ph-CH=CH-CHO

Q 4.4 | Page 377 | view solution

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common name

Q 4.5 | Page 377 | view solution

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common name.

PhCOPh

 

Q 4.6 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw structures of the given derivatives - The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of benzaldehyde

Q 5.1 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw structures of the given derivatives - Cyclopropanone oxime

Q 5.2 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw structures of the given derivatives - Acetaldehydedimethylacetal

Q 5.3 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw structures of given derivatives The semicarbazone of cyclobutanone

Q 5.4 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw structures of the given derivatives The ethylene ketal of hexan-3-one

Q 5.5 | Page 377 | view solution

Draw structures of the given derivatives The methyl hemiacetal of formaldehyde.

Q 5.6 | Page 377 | view solution

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

PhMgBr and then H3O+

Q 6.1 | Page 378 | view solution

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

Tollens’ reagent

 

Q 6.2 | Page 378 | view solution

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

Semicarbazide and weak acid

Q 6.3 | Page 378 | view solution

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

Excess ethanol and acid

Q 6.4 | Page 378 | view solution

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

Zinc amalgam and dilute hydrochloric acid

Q 6.5 | Page 378 | view solution

Which of the following compounds would undergo aldol condensation, which the Cannizzaro reaction and which neither? Write the structures of the expected products of aldol condensation and Cannizzaro reaction.

(i) Methanal 

(ii) 2-Methylpentanal

(iii) Benzaldehyde 

(iv) Benzophenone

(v) Cyclohexanone 

(vi) 1-Phenylpropanone

(vii) Phenylacetaldehyde 

(viii) Butan-1-ol

(ix) 2, 2-Dimethylbutanal

Q 7 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you convert ethanal into the following compounds?

Butane-1, 3-diol 

Q 8.1 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you convert ethanal into the following compounds?

But-2-enal

Q 8.2 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you convert ethanal into the following compounds?

But-2-enoic acid

Q 8.3 | Page 378 | view solution

Write structural formulas and names of four possible aldol condensation products from propanal and butanal. In each case, indicate which aldehyde acts as nucleophile and which as electrophile.

Q 9 | Page 378 | view solution

An organic compound with the molecular formula C9H10O forms 2, 4-DNP derivative, reduces Tollens’ reagent and undergoes Cannizzaro reaction. On vigorous oxidation, it gives 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. Identify the compound.

Q 10 | Page 378 | view solution

An organic compound (A) (molecular formula C8H16O2) was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid to give a carboxylic acid (B) and an alcohol (C). Oxidation of (C) with chromic acid produced (B). (C) on dehydration gives but-1-ene.Write equations for the reactions involved.

Q 11 | Page 378 | view solution

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated:

Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Di-tert-butyl ketone, Methyl tert-butyl ketone (reactivity towards HCN)

Q 12.1 | Page 378 | view solution

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated:

CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH, CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH, (CH3)2CHCOOH, CH3CH2CH2COOH (acid strength)

Q 12.2 | Page 378 | view solution

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated:

Benzoic acid, 4-Nitrobenzoic acid, 3,4-Dinitrobenzoic acid, 4-Methoxybenzoic acid (acid strength)

Q 12.3 | Page 378 | view solution

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds

Propanal and Propanone

Q 13.1 | Page 378 | view solution

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Acetophenone and Benzophenone

Q 13.2 | Page 378 | view solution

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Phenol and Benzoic acid

 

Q 13.3 | Page 378 | view solution

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Benzoic acid and Ethyl benzoate

Q 13.4 | Page 378 | view solution

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Pentan-2-one and Pentan-3-one

Q 13.5 | Page 378 | view solution

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone

Q 13.6 | Page 378 | view solution

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds:

Ethanal and Propanal

 

Q 13.7 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

Methyl benzoate

Q 14.1 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

m-Nitrobenzoic acid

Q 14.2 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

p-Nitrobenzoic acid

Q 14.3 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

Phenylacetic acid

Q 14.4 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

Q 14.5 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Propanone to Propene

Q 15.1 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzoic acid to Benzaldehyde

Q 15.2 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Ethanol to 3-Hydroxybutanal

Q 15.3 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzene to m-Nitroacetophenone

Q 15.4 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzaldehyde to Benzophenone

Q 15.5 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Bromobenzene to 1-Phenylethanol

Q 15.6 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzaldehyde to 3-Phenylpropan-1-ol

Q 15.7 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzoic acid to m- Nitrobenzyl alcohol

Q 15.8 | Page 378 | view solution

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benazaldehyde to α-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid

Q 15.8 | Page 378 | view solution

Describe Acetylation

Q 16.1 | Page 378 | view solution

Describe Cannizzaro reaction

Q 16.2 | Page 378 | view solution

Describe Cross aldol condensation

Q 16.3 | Page 378 | view solution

Describe Decarboxylation

Q 16.4 | Page 378 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.01 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.02 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

 

Q 17.03 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.04 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.05 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.06 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.07 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.08 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.09 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.1 | Page 379 | view solution

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.11 | Page 379 | view solution

Give plausible explanation for each of the following:

Cyclohexanone forms cyanohydrin in good yield but 2, 2, 6 trimethylcyclohexanone does not.

Q 18.1 | Page 379 | view solution

Give plausible explanation for each of the following:

There are two −NH2 groups in semicarbazide. However, only one is involved in the formation of semicarbazones.

Q 18.2 | Page 379 | view solution

Give plausible explanation for each of the following:

During the preparation of esters from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst, the water or the ester should be removed as soon as it is formed.

Q 18.3 | Page 379 | view solution

An organic compound contains 69.77% carbon, 11.63% hydrogen and rest oxygen. The molecular mass of the compound is 86. It does not reduce Tollens’ reagent but forms an addition compound with sodium hydrogensulphite and give positive iodoform test. On vigorous oxidation it gives ethanoic and propanoic acid. Write the possible structure of the compound

Q 19 | Page 379 | view solution

Although phenoxide ion has more number of resonating structures than Carboxylate ion, Carboxylic acid is a stronger acid than phenol. Give two reasons.

Q 20 | Page 379 | view solution

Where to buy

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