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# NCERT solutions Chemistry Class 12 Part 2 chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

## Chapter 12 - Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

#### Pages 353 - 376

Write the structures of the following compounds

α-Methoxypropionaldehyde

Q 1.1 | Page 353

Write the structures of the following compounds.

3-Hydroxybutanal

Q 1.2 | Page 353

Write the structures of the following compounds.

2-Hydroxycyclopentane carbaldehyde

Q 1.3 | Page 353

Write the structures of the following compounds.

4-Oxopentanal

Q 1.4 | Page 353

Write the structures of the following compounds

Di-sec-butyl ketone

Q 1.5 | Page 353

Write the structures of the following compounds

4-Fluoroacetophenone

Q 1.6 | Page 353

Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

Q 2.1 | Page 356

Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

(C_6H_5CH_2)_2Cd + 2CH_3COCl ->

Q 2.2 | Page 356

Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

Q 2.3 | Page 356

Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

Q 2.4 | Page 356

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their boiling points.

CH3CHO, CH3CH2OH, CH3OCH3, CH3CH2CH3

Q 3 | Page 358

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their reactivity in nucleophilic addition reactions

Ethanal, Propanal, Propanone, Butanone.

Q 4.1 | Page 365

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their reactivity in nucleophilic addition reactions.

Benzaldehyde, p-Tolualdehyde, p-Nitrobenzaldehyde, Acetophenone.

Q 4.2 | Page 365

Predict the products of the following reactions:

Q 5.1 | Page 365

Predict the products of the following reactions

Q 5.2 | Page 365

Predict the products of the following reactions:

Q 5.3 | Page 365

Predict the products of the following reactions:

Q 5.4 | Page 365

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

PhCH2CH2COOH

Q 6.1 | Page 367

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

(CH3)2C=CHCOOH

Q 6.2 | Page 367

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

Q 6.3 | Page 367

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

Q 6.4 | Page 367

Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.

Ethylbenzene

Q 7.1 | Page 370

Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.

Acetophenone

Q 7.2 | Page 370

Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.

Bromobenzene

Q 7.3 | Page 370

Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.

Phenylethene (Styrene)

Q 7.4 | Page 370

Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?

CH3CO2H or CH2FCO2H

Q 8.1 | Page 376

Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?

CH2FCO2H or CH2ClCO2H

Q 8.2 | Page 376

Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?

CH2FCH2CH2CO2H or CH3CHFCH2CO2H

Q 8.3 | Page 376

Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?

Q 8.4 | Page 376

#### Pages 377 - 379

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Schiff’s base

Q 1.1 | Page 377

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Cyanohydrin

Q 1.1 | Page 377

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Acetal

Q 1.2 | Page 377

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Semicarbazone

Q 1.3 | Page 377

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Aldol

Q 1.4 | Page 377

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Hemiacetal

Q 1.5 | Page 377

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Oxime

Q 1.6 | Page 377

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Ketal

Q 1.7 | Page 377

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

Imine

Q 1.8 | Page 377

What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

2,4-DNP-derivative

Q 1.9 | Page 377

Name the following compound according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH2CHO

Q 2.1 | Page 377

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature

CH3CH2COCH(C2H5)CH2CH2Cl

Q 2.2 | Page 377

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

CH3CH=CHCHO

Q 2.3 | Page 377

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

CH3COCH2COCH3

Q 2.4 | Page 377

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

CH3CH(CH3)CH2C(CH3)2COCH3

Q 2.5 | Page 377

Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:

OHCC6H4CHO-p

Q 2.7 | Page 377

Draw the structures of the given compound - 3-Methylbutanal

Q 3.1 | Page 377

Draw the structures of the given compound - p-Nitropropiophenone

Q 3.2 | Page 377

Write the structure of p-methylbenzaldehyde.

Q 3.3 | Page 377

Draw the structures of the given compounds - 4-Methylpent-3-en-2-one

Q 3.4 | Page 377

Write the structure of 4-chloropentan-2-one.

Q 3.5 | Page 377

Draw the structures of the given compound - 3-Bromo-4-phenylpentanoic acid

Q 3.6 | Page 377

Draw the structures of given compounds - p,p’-Dihydroxybenzophenone

Q 3.7 | Page 377

Draw the structures of the given compounds - Hex-2-en-4-ynoic acid

Q 3.8 | Page 377

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common name.

CH3CO(CH2)4CH3

Q 4.1 | Page 377

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common names.

CH3CH2CHBrCH2CH(CH3)CHO

Q 4.2 | Page 377

Write the IUPAC names of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common names.

CH3(CH2)5CHO

Q 4.3 | Page 377

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common name.

Ph-CH=CH-CHO

Q 4.4 | Page 377

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common name

Q 4.5 | Page 377

Write the IUPAC name of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common name.

PhCOPh

Q 4.6 | Page 377

Draw structures of the given derivatives - The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of benzaldehyde

Q 5.1 | Page 377

Draw structures of the given derivatives - Cyclopropanone oxime

Q 5.2 | Page 377

Draw structures of the given derivatives - Acetaldehydedimethylacetal

Q 5.3 | Page 377

Draw structures of given derivatives The semicarbazone of cyclobutanone

Q 5.4 | Page 377

Draw structures of the given derivatives The ethylene ketal of hexan-3-one

Q 5.5 | Page 377

Draw structures of the given derivatives The methyl hemiacetal of formaldehyde.

Q 5.6 | Page 377

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

PhMgBr and then H3O+

Q 6.1 | Page 378

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

Tollens’ reagent

Q 6.2 | Page 378

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

Semicarbazide and weak acid

Q 6.3 | Page 378

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

Excess ethanol and acid

Q 6.4 | Page 378

Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.

Zinc amalgam and dilute hydrochloric acid

Q 6.5 | Page 378

Which of the following compounds would undergo aldol condensation, which the Cannizzaro reaction and which neither? Write the structures of the expected products of aldol condensation and Cannizzaro reaction.

(i) Methanal

(ii) 2-Methylpentanal

(iii) Benzaldehyde

(iv) Benzophenone

(v) Cyclohexanone

(vi) 1-Phenylpropanone

(vii) Phenylacetaldehyde

(viii) Butan-1-ol

(ix) 2, 2-Dimethylbutanal

Q 7 | Page 378

How will you convert ethanal into the following compounds?

Butane-1, 3-diol

Q 8.1 | Page 378

How will you convert ethanal into the following compounds?

But-2-enal

Q 8.2 | Page 378

How will you convert ethanal into the following compounds?

But-2-enoic acid

Q 8.3 | Page 378

Write structural formulas and names of four possible aldol condensation products from propanal and butanal. In each case, indicate which aldehyde acts as nucleophile and which as electrophile.

Q 9 | Page 378

An organic compound with the molecular formula C9H10O forms 2, 4-DNP derivative, reduces Tollens’ reagent and undergoes Cannizzaro reaction. On vigorous oxidation, it gives 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. Identify the compound.

Q 10 | Page 378

An organic compound (A) (molecular formula C8H16O2) was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid to give a carboxylic acid (B) and an alcohol (C). Oxidation of (C) with chromic acid produced (B). (C) on dehydration gives but-1-ene.Write equations for the reactions involved.

Q 11 | Page 378

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated:

Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Di-tert-butyl ketone, Methyl tert-butyl ketone (reactivity towards HCN)

Q 12.1 | Page 378

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated:

CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH, CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH, (CH3)2CHCOOH, CH3CH2CH2COOH (acid strength)

Q 12.2 | Page 378

Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated:

Benzoic acid, 4-Nitrobenzoic acid, 3,4-Dinitrobenzoic acid, 4-Methoxybenzoic acid (acid strength)

Q 12.3 | Page 378

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds

Propanal and Propanone

Q 13.1 | Page 378

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Acetophenone and Benzophenone

Q 13.2 | Page 378

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Phenol and Benzoic acid

Q 13.3 | Page 378

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Benzoic acid and Ethyl benzoate

Q 13.4 | Page 378

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Pentan-2-one and Pentan-3-one

Q 13.5 | Page 378

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone

Q 13.6 | Page 378

Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds:

Ethanal and Propanal

Q 13.7 | Page 378

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

Methyl benzoate

Q 14.1 | Page 378

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

m-Nitrobenzoic acid

Q 14.2 | Page 378

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

p-Nitrobenzoic acid

Q 14.3 | Page 378

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

Phenylacetic acid

Q 14.4 | Page 378

How will you prepare the given compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom

Q 14.5 | Page 378

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Propanone to Propene

Q 15.1 | Page 378

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzoic acid to Benzaldehyde

Q 15.2 | Page 378

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Ethanol to 3-Hydroxybutanal

Q 15.3 | Page 378

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzene to m-Nitroacetophenone

Q 15.4 | Page 378

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzaldehyde to Benzophenone

Q 15.5 | Page 378

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Bromobenzene to 1-Phenylethanol

Q 15.6 | Page 378

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzaldehyde to 3-Phenylpropan-1-ol

Q 15.7 | Page 378

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benazaldehyde to α-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid

Q 15.8 | Page 378

How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps?

Benzoic acid to m- Nitrobenzyl alcohol

Q 15.8 | Page 378

Describe Acetylation

Q 16.1 | Page 378

Describe Cannizzaro reaction

Q 16.2 | Page 378

Describe Cross aldol condensation

Q 16.3 | Page 378

Describe Decarboxylation

Q 16.4 | Page 378

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.01 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.02 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.03 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.04 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.05 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.06 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.07 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.08 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.09 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.1 | Page 379

Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

Q 17.11 | Page 379

Give plausible explanation for each of the following:

Cyclohexanone forms cyanohydrin in good yield but 2, 2, 6 trimethylcyclohexanone does not.

Q 18.1 | Page 379

Give plausible explanation for each of the following:

There are two −NH2 groups in semicarbazide. However, only one is involved in the formation of semicarbazones.

Q 18.2 | Page 379

Give plausible explanation for each of the following:

During the preparation of esters from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst, the water or the ester should be removed as soon as it is formed.

Q 18.3 | Page 379

An organic compound contains 69.77% carbon, 11.63% hydrogen and rest oxygen. The molecular mass of the compound is 86. It does not reduce Tollens’ reagent but forms an addition compound with sodium hydrogensulphite and give positive iodoform test. On vigorous oxidation it gives ethanoic and propanoic acid. Write the possible structure of the compound

Q 19 | Page 379

Although phenoxide ion has more number of resonating structures than Carboxylate ion, Carboxylic acid is a stronger acid than phenol. Give two reasons.

Q 20 | Page 379

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