Chapter 2 - Solutions
Chapter 3 - Electrochemistry
Chapter 4 - Chemical Kinetics
Chapter 5 - Surface Chemistry
Chapter 6 - General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Chapter 7 - The p-block Elements
Chapter 8 - The d-block and f-block Elements
Chapter 9 - Coordinate Compounds
Chapter 1 - The Solid State
Pages 4 - 29
Why are solids rigid?
Why do solids have a definite volume?
Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids:
Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.
Why is glass considered a super cooled liquid?
Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show cleavage property?
Classify the following solids in different categories based on the nature of intermolecular forces operating in them:
Potassium sulphate, tin, benzene, urea, ammonia, water, zinc sulphide, graphite, rubidium, argon, silicon carbide.
Solid A is a very hard electrical insulator in solid as well as in molten state and melts at extremely high temperature. What type of solid is it?
Ionic solids conduct electricity in molten state but not in solid state. Explain
Give the significance of a ‘lattice point’.
What is the two dimensional coordination number of a molecule in square close packed layer?
A compound forms hexagonal close-packed structure. What is the total number of voids in 0.5 mol of it? How many of these are tetrahedral voids?
Which of the following lattices has the highest packing efficiency (i) simple cubic (ii) body-centred cubic and (iii) hexagonal close-packed lattice?
An element with molar mass 2.7 × 10-2 kg mol-1 forms a cubic unit cell with edge length 405 pm. If its density is 2.7 × 103 kg m−3, what is the nature of the cubic unit cell?
What type of defect can arise when a solid is heated? Which physical property is affected by it and in what way?
What type of stoichiometric defect is shown by:
Explain how vacancies are introduced in an ionic solid when a cation of higher valence is added as an impurity in it.
A group 14 element is to be converted into n-type semiconductor by doping it with a suitable impurity. To which group should this impurity belong?
What type of substances would make better permanent magnets, ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic. Justify your answer.
Pages 30 - 32
Define the term 'amorphous'. Give a few examples of amorphous solids.
What makes a glass different from a solid such as quartz? Under what conditions could quartz be converted into glass?
Classify each of the following solids as ionic, metallic, molecular, network (covalent) or amorphous.
(i) Tetra phosphorus decoxide (P4O10)
(ii) Ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4
What is meant by the term 'coordination number'?
What is the coordination number of atoms:
(a) in a cubic close-packed structure?
(b) in a body-centred cubic structure?
How can you determine the atomic mass of an unknown metal if you know its density and the dimension of its unit cell? Explain.
'Stability of a crystal is reflected in the magnitude of its melting point'. Comment. Collect melting points of solid water, ethyl alcohol, diethyl ether and methane from a data book. What can you say about the intermolecular forces between these molecules?
How many lattice points are there in one unit cell of each of the following lattice?
(i) Face-centred cubic
(ii) Face-centred tetragonal
Explain The basis of similarities and differences between metallic and ionic crystals.
Explain Ionic solids are hard and brittle.
Calculate the efficiency of packing in case of a metal crystal for simple cubic
Calculate the efficiency of packing in case of a metal crystal for body-centred cubic
Calculate the efficiency of packing in case of a metal crystal for face-centred cubic (with the assumptions that atoms are touching each other).
Silver crystallises in fcc lattice. If edge length of the cell is 4.07 × 10−8 cm and density is 10.5 g cm−3, calculate the atomic mass of silver
A cubic solid is made of two elements P and Q. Atoms of Q are at the corners of the cube and P at the body-centre. What is the formula of the compound? What are the coordination numbers of P and Q?
Niobium crystallises in body-centred cubic structure. If density is 8.55 g cm−3, calculate atomic radius of niobium using its atomic mass 93 u.
If the radius of the octachedral void is r and radius of the atoms in close packing is R, derive relation between r and R.
Copper crystallises into a fcc lattice with edge length 3.61 × 10−8 cm. Show that the calculated density is in agreement with its measured value of 8.92 g cm−3.
Analysis shows that nickel oxide has the formula Ni0.98O1.00. What fractions of nickel exist as Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions?
What is a semiconductor
Describe the two main types of semiconductors and contrast their conduction mechanism.
Ferric oxide crystallises in a hexagonal close-packed array of oxide ions with two out of every three octahedral holes occupied by ferric ions. Derive the formula of the ferric oxide.
Classify the following as being either a p-type or an n-type semiconductor:
Ge doped with In
Classify the following as being either a p-type or an n-type semiconductor:
B doped with Si.
Gold (atomic radius = 0.144 nm) crystallises in a face-centred unit cell. What is the length of a side of the cell?
In terms of band theory, what is the difference Between a conductor and an insulator
In terms of band theory, what is the difference Between a conductor and a semiconductor
Define the following term
Explain the following terms with suitable examples: Frenkel defect
Explain the following terms with suitable examples : Interstitials
Explain the following terms with suitable examples: F-centres
Aluminium crystallises in a cubic close-packed structure. Its metallic radius is 125 pm.
(i) What is the length of the side of the unit cell?
(ii) How many unit cells are there in 1.00 cm3 of aluminium?
If NaCl is doped with 10−3 mol % of SrCl2, what is the concentration of cation vacancies?
What is ferromagnetism?
Explain the following with suitable examples: Paramagnetism
Explain the following with suitable examples: Ferrimagnetism
Explain the following with suitable examples: Antiferromagnetism
Explain the following with suitable examples:
12-16 and 13-15 group compounds.
Textbook solutions for Class 12
NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 1 - The Solid State
NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 1 (The Solid State) include all questions with solution and detail explanation from Chemistry Textbook for Class 12 Part 1. This will clear students doubts about any question and improve application skills while preparing for board exams. The detailed, step-by-step solutions will help you understand the concepts better and clear your confusions, if any. Shaalaa.com has created the CBSE Chemistry Textbook for Class 12 Part 1 solutions in a manner that help students grasp basic concepts better and faster.
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Concepts covered in Class 12 Chemistry chapter 1 The Solid State are Classification of Crystalline Solids, Amorphous and Crystalline Solids, Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells - Introduction, Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions, Concept of Close Packed Structures, Efficiency of Packing in Body-centred Cubic Structures, Close Packed Structures - Formula of a Compound and Number of Voids Filled, Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell, Imperfections in Solids - Introduction, Magnetic Properties, Band Theory of Metals, Electrical Properties - Introduction, Applications of N-type and P-type Semiconductors, General Characteristics of Solid State, Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells - Primitive and Centred Unit Cells, Packing Efficiency in hcp and ccp Structures, Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice, Types of Point Defects - Stoichiometric Defects, Types of Point Defects - Impurity Defects, Types of Point Defects - Non-stoichiometric Defects, Conduction of Electricity in Metals, Conduction of Electricity in Semiconductors, Solid State Numericals.
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