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# NCERT solutions for Class 11 Chemistry chapter 12 - Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques

## Chapter 12: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques

#### Chapter 12: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques solutions [Pages 361 - 364]

Q 1 | Page 361

What are hybridisation states of each carbon atom in the following compounds?

CH2=C=O, CH3CH=CH2, (CH3)2CO, CH2=CHCN, C6H6

Q 2.1 | Page 361

Indicate the σ and π bonds in the following molecules:

C6H6

Q 2.2 | Page 361

Indicate the σ and π bonds in the following molecules:

C6H12

Q 2.3 | Page 361

Indicate the σ and π bonds in the following molecules:

CH2Cl2

Q 2.4 | Page 361

Indicate the σ and π bonds in the following molecules:

CH= C = CH2

Q 2.5 | Page 361

Indicate the σ and π bonds in the following molecules:

HCONHCH3

Q 2.5 | Page 361

Indicate the σ and π bonds in the following molecules:

CH3NO2

Q 3.1 | Page 361

Write bond line formulas for Isopropyl alcohol

Q 3.2 | Page 361

Write bond line formulas for 2,3-Dimethyl butanal

Q 3.3 | Page 361

Write bond line formulas for Heptan-4-one

Q 4.1 | Page 361

Give the IUPAC names of the following compound

Q 4.2 | Page 361

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

Q 4.3 | Page 361

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

Q 4.4 | Page 361

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

Q 4.5 | Page 361

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

Q 4.6 | Page 361

Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

Cl2CHCH2OH

Q 5.1 | Page 361

Which of the following represents the correct IUPAC name for the compounds concerned?

2,2-Dimethylpentane or 2-Dimethylpentane

Q 5.2 | Page 361

Which of the following represents the correct IUPAC name for the compounds concerned?

2,4,7-Trimethyloctane or 2,5,7-Trimethyloctane

Q 5.3 | Page 361

Which of the following represents the correct IUPAC name for the compounds concerned?

2-Chloro-4-methylpentane or 4-Chloro-2-methylpentane

Q 5.4 | Page 361

Which of the following represents the correct IUPAC name for the compounds concerned?

But-3-yn-1-ol or But-4-ol-1-yne

Q 6.1 | Page 362

Draw formulas for the first five members of each homologous series beginning with the given compounds

H–COOH

Q 6.2 | Page 362

Draw formulas for the first five members of each homologous series beginning with the given compounds

CH3COCH3

Q 6.3 | Page 362

Draw formulas for the first five members of each homologous series beginning with the given compounds.

H–CH=CH2

Q 7.1 | Page 362

Give condensed and bond line structural formulas and identify the functional group(s) present, if any, for :

2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

Q 7.2 | Page 362

Give condensed and bond line structural formulas and identify the functional group(s) present, if any, for

2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid

Q 7.3 | Page 362

Give condensed and bond line structural formulas and identify the functional group(s) present, if any, for

Hexanedial

Q 8.1 | Page 362

Identify the functional groups in the following compound

Q 8.2 | Page 362

Identify the functional groups in the following compounds

Q 8.3 | Page 362

Identify the functional groups in the following compounds

Q 9 | Page 362

Which of the two: O2NCH2CH2O or CH3CH2O is expected to be more stable and why?

Q 10 | Page 362

Explain why alkyl groups act as electron donors when attached to a π system

Q 11.1 | Page 362

Draw the resonance structures for the following compounds. Show the electron shift using curved-arrow notation.

C6H5OH

Q 11.2 | Page 362

Draw the resonance structures for the following compounds. Show the electron shift using curved-arrow notation.

C6H5NO2

Q 11.3 | Page 362

Draw the resonance structures for the following compounds. Show the electron shift using curved-arrow notation.

CH3CH = CH – CHO

Q 11.4 | Page 362

Draw the resonance structures for the following compounds. Show the electron shift using curved-arrow notation.

C6H5CHO

Q 11.5 | Page 362

Draw the resonance structures for the following compounds. Show the electron shift using curved-arrow notation.

Q 11.6 | Page 362

Draw the resonance structures for the following compounds. Show the electron shift using curved-arrow notation

Q 12 | Page 362

What are electrophiles and nucleophiles? Explain with examples.

Q 13 | Page 362

Identify the reagents shown in bold in the following equations as nucleophiles or electrophiles:

a) CH3COOH +HO- → CH3COO− + H2O

b)

c)

Q 14.1 | Page 362

Classify the following reactions in one of the reaction type studied in this unit.

CH3CH2Br + HS → CH3CH2SH + Br

Q 14.2 | Page 362

Classify the following reactions in one of the reaction type studied in this unit.

(CH3)2 C = CH2 + HCl → (CH3)2 ClC–CH3

Q 14.3 | Page 362

Classify the following reactions in one of the reaction type studied in this unit.

CH3CH2Br + HO → CH2 = CH2 + H2O + Br

Q 14.4 | Page 362

Classify the following reactions in one of the reaction type studied in this unit.

(CH3)3 C – CH2 OH + HBr → (CH3)2 CBrCH2CH3 + H2O

Q 15 | Page 362

What is the relationship between the members of following pairs of structures? Are they structural or geometrical isomers or resonance contributors?

a)

b)

c)

Q 16.1 | Page 363

For the following bond cleavages, use curved-arrows to show the electron flow and classify each as homolysis or heterolysis. Identify reactive intermediate produced as free radical, carbocation and carbanion.

Q 16.2 | Page 363

For the following bond cleavages, use curved-arrows to show the electron flow and classify each as homolysis or heterolysis. Identify reactive intermediate produced as free radical, carbocation and carbanion.

Q 16.3 | Page 363

For the following bond cleavages, use curved-arrows to show the electron flow and classify each as homolysis or heterolysis. Identify reactive intermediate produced as free radical, carbocation and carbanion.

Q 16.4 | Page 363

For the following bond cleavages, use curved-arrows to show the electron flow and classify each as homolysis or heterolysis. Identify reactive intermediate produced as free radical, carbocation and carbanion.

Q 17 | Page 363

Explain the terms Inductive and Electromeric effects. Which electron displacement effect explains the following correct orders of acidity of the carboxylic acids?

a) Cl3CCOOH > Cl2CHCOOH > ClCH2COOH

b) CH3CH2COOH > (CH3)2CHCOOH > (CH3)3C.COOH

Q 18.1 | Page 363

Give a brief description of the principles of the following techniques taking an example in each case.

Crystallisation

Q 18.2 | Page 363

Give a brief description of the principles of the following techniques taking an example in each case.

Distillation

Q 18.3 | Page 363

Give a brief description of the principles of the following techniques taking an example in each case.

Chromatography

Q 19 | Page 363

Describe the method, which can be used to separate two compounds with different solubilities in a solvent S.

Q 20 | Page 363

What is the difference between distillation, distillation under reduced pressure and steam distillation ?

Q 21 | Page 363

Discuss the chemistry of Lassaigne’s test.

Q 22.1 | Page 363

Differentiate between the principle of estimation of nitrogen in an organic compound by Dumas method

Q 22.2 | Page 363

Differentiate between the principle of estimation of nitrogen in an organic compound by Kjeldahl’s method.

Q 23 | Page 363

Discuss the principle of estimation of halogens, sulphur and phosphorus present in an organic compound.

Q 24 | Page 363

Explain the principle of paper chromatography.

Q 25 | Page 363

Why is nitric acid added to sodium extract before adding silver nitrate for testing halogens?

Q 26 | Page 363

Explain the reason for the fusion of an organic compound with metallic sodium for testing nitrogen, sulphur and halogens.

Q 27 | Page 363

Name a suitable technique of separation of the components from a mixture of calcium sulphate and camphor.

Q 28 | Page 363

Explain, why an organic liquid vaporises at a temperature below its boiling point in its steam distillation?

Q 29 | Page 363

Will CCl4 give white precipitate of AgCl on heating it with silver nitrate? Give reason for your answer.

Q 30 | Page 364

Why is a solution of potassium hydroxide used to absorb carbon dioxide evolved during the estimation of carbon present in an organic compound?

Q 31 | Page 364

Why is it necessary to use acetic acid and not sulphuric acid for acidification of sodium extract for testing sulphur by lead acetate test?

Q 32 | Page 364

An organic compound contains 69% carbon and 4.8% hydrogen, the remainder being oxygen. Calculate the masses of carbon dioxide and water produced when 0.20 g of this substance is subjected to complete combustion.

Q 33 | Page 364

A sample of 0.50 g of an organic compound was treated according to Kjeldahl’s method. The ammonia evolved was absorbed in 50 mL of 0.5 M H2SO4. The residual acid required 60 mL of 0.5 M solution of NaOH for neutralisation. Find the percentage composition of nitrogen in the compound.

Q 34 | Page 364

0.3780 g of an organic chloro compound gave 0.5740 g of silver chloride in Carius estimation. Calculate the percentage of chlorine present in the compound.

Q 35 | Page 364

In the estimation of sulphur by Carius method, 0.468 g of an organic sulphur compound afforded 0.668 g of barium sulphate. Find out the percentage of sulphur in the given compound.

Q 36 | Page 364

In the organic compound CH2=CH–CH2–CH2–C≡CH, the pair of hydridised orbitals involved in the formation of: C2 – C3 bond is:

(a) sp – sp2

(b) sp – sp3

(c) sp2 – sp3

(d) sp3– sp3

Q 37 | Page 364

In the Lassaigne’s test for nitrogen in an organic compound, the Prussian blue colour is obtained due to the formation of:

(a) Na4[Fe(CN)6]

(b) Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3

(c) Fe2[Fe(CN)6]

(d) Fe3[Fe(CN)6]4

Q 38 | Page 364

Which of the following carbocation is most stable?

a)

b)

c)

d)

Q 39 | Page 364

The best and latest technique for isolation, purification and separation of organic compounds is:

(a) Crystallisation

(b) Distillation

(c) Sublimation

(d) Chromatography

Q 40 | Page 364

The reaction: CH_3CH_2I + KOH_((aq)) -> CH_3CH_2OH + KI is classified as :

(a) electrophilic substitution

(b) nucleophilic substitution

(c) elimination

## NCERT solutions for Class 11 Chemistry chapter 12 - Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques

NCERT solutions for Class 11 Chemistry chapter 12 (Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques) include all questions with solution and detail explanation. This will clear students doubts about any question and improve application skills while preparing for board exams. The detailed, step-by-step solutions will help you understand the concepts better and clear your confusions, if any. Shaalaa.com has the CBSE Chemistry Textbook for Class 11 solutions in a manner that help students grasp basic concepts better and faster.

Further, we at Shaalaa.com are providing such solutions so that students can prepare for written exams. NCERT textbook solutions can be a core help for self-study and acts as a perfect self-help guidance for students.

Concepts covered in Class 11 Chemistry chapter 12 Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques are Tetravalence of Carbon - Shapes of Organic Compounds, Complete, Condensed and Bond-line Structural Formulas, Three-dimensional Representation of Organic Molecules, Classification of Organic Compounds, The IUPAC System of Nomenclature, IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes, Nomenclature of Organic Compounds Having Functional Group(s), Nomenclature of Substituted Benzene Compounds, Fission of a Covalent Bond, Nucleophiles and Electrophiles, Electron Movement in Organic Reactions, Electron Displacement Effects in Covalent Bonds, Inductive Effect, Resonance Structure, Resonance Effect, Electromeric Effect (E Effect), Hyperconjugation, Types of Organic Reactions and Mechanisms, Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds - Introduction, Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds - Sublimation, Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds - Crystallisation, Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds - Distillation, Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds - Differential Extraction, Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds - Chromatography, Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds - Detection of Carbon and Hydrogen, Quantitative Analysis of Nitrogen, Quantitative Analysis of Halogens, Quantitative Analysis of Sulphur, Quantitative Analysis of Phosphorus, Quantitative Analysis of Oxygen, Isomerism, Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds - Detection of Other Elements, Quantitative Analysis of Carbon and Hydrogen.

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