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# Lakhmir Singh solutions for Class 10 Chemistry chapter 4 - Carbon And Its Compounds [Latest edition]

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## Chapter 4: Carbon And Its Compounds

#### Lakhmir Singh solutions for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 4 Carbon And Its Compounds [Pages 220 - 225]

Q 1 | Page 220

Name the element whose one of the allotropic forms is buckminsterfullerene.

Q 2 | Page 220

What are the two properties of carbon which lead to the huge number of carbon compounds we see around us?

Q 3 | Page 220

State whether the following statement is true or false:

Diamond and graphite are the covalent compounds of carbon element (C)

Q 4 | Page 220

Name the scientist who disproved the 'vital force theory' for the formation of organic compounds.

Q 5 | Page 220

Name the element whose allotropic form is graphite.

Q 6 | Page 221

In addition to some propane and ethane, LPG cylinders contain mainly two isomers of another alkane. Name the two isomers and write their condensed structural formulae.

Q 7.1 | Page 221

Buckminsterfullerene is spherical molecule in which 60 carbon atoms are arranged in interlocking hexagonal and pentagonal rings of carbon atoms.
How many hexagons of carbon atoms are present in one molecule of buckminsterfullerene?

Q 7.2 | Page 221

Buckminsterfullerene is spherical molecule in which 60 carbon atoms are arranged in interlocking hexagonal and pentagonal rings of carbon atoms.
How many pentagons of carbon atoms are present in one molecule of buckminsterfullerene?

Q 8 | Page 221

Name the black substance of pencil. Will the current flow through the electrical circuit when we use the sharpened ends of the pencil to complete the circuit?

Q 9 | Page 221

How does graphite act as a lubricant?

Q 10 | Page 221

Name the hardest natural substance known.

Q 11 | Page 221

Which of the following molecule is called buckministerfullerene?
C90 C60 C70 C120

Q 12 | Page 221

Give the name and structural formula of an alkyl group.

Q 13.1 | Page 221

Write the electron-dot structures for ethane.

Q 13.2 | Page 221

Write the electron-dot structures for ethene.

Q 13.3 | Page 221

Write the electron-dot structures for ethyne.

Q 14 | Page 221

Give the IUPAC name of the following compound:
C2H6

Q 15 | Page 221

Write the structural formula of propene.

Q 16 | Page 221

Write the structural formula of propyne.

Q 17 | Page 221

Write the structural formula of butane.

Q 18 | Page 221

What do you call the compounds having the same molecular formula but different structural arrangements of atoms?

Q 19 | Page 221

Write the names of any two isomers represented by the molecular formula C5H12.

Q 20.1 | Page 221

Write down (i) structural formula, of any one isomer of hexane (C6H14), other than n-hexane.

Q 20.2 | Page 221

Write down electron-dot formula, of any one isomer of hexane (C6H14), other than n-hexane.

Q 21.1 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The form of carbon which is known as black lead is ...........

Q 21.1 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The general formula CnH2n for cycloalkanes is the same as that of ...........

Q 21.11 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The IUPAC name of ethylene is .........

Q 21.12 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The IUPAC name of acetylene is ............

Q 21.2 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The form of carbon which is used as a lubricant at high temperature is .........

Q 21.3 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

Compounds of carbon with hydrogen alone are called ..........

Q 21.4 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

CnH2n is the general formula of .......... hydrocarbons.

Q 21.5 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

Hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n−2 are called ..........

Q 21.6 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

Ethene and ethyne are examples of ..... hydrocarbons.

Q 21.7 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

Ethyne has ......... carbon-hydrogen single bonds.

Q 21.8 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

Carbon compounds have usually ... melting points and boiling points because they are ...... in nature.

Q 21.9 | Page 221

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The property of carbon atoms to form long chains in compounds is called ...........

Q 22.1 | Page 221

What is the atomic number of carbon. Write its electronic configuration.

Q 22.2 | Page 221

What type of chemical bonds are formed by carbon? Why?

Q 22.3 | Page 221

Name the three allotropic forms of carbon.

Q 23.1 | Page 221

What is the general name of all the compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen?

Q 23.2 | Page 221

Why does carbon form compounds mainly by covalent bonding?

Q 24.1 | Page 221

What is meant by catenation?

Q 24.1 | Page 221

Name two elements which exhibit the property of catenation.

Q 24.2 | Page 221

Write the names and structural formulae of all the possible isomers of hexane.

Q 25.1 | Page 221

What is buckminsterfullerene?

Q 25.1 | Page 221

How  buckminsterfullerene is it related to diamond and graphite?

Q 25.2 | Page 221

Why is diamond used for making cutting tools (like glass cutters) but graphite is not?

Q 25.3 | Page 221

Why is graphite used for making dry cell electrodes but diamond is not?

Q 26.1 | Page 222

Give the general formula of an alkane

Q 26.1 | Page 222

Give the general formula of an alkene.

Q 26.1 | Page 222

Give the general formula of an alkyne.

Q 26.2 | Page 222

Classify the following compounds as alkanes :

C2H4, C3H4, C4H8, C5H12, C5H8, C3H8, C6H6

Q 26.2 | Page 222

Classify the following compounds as  alkenes:
C2H4, C3H4, C4H8, C5H12, C5H8, C3H8, C6H6

Q 26.2 | Page 222

Classify the following compounds as alkynes:
C2H4, C3H4, C4H8, C5H12, C5H8, C3H8, C6H6

Q 27.1 | Page 222

Friedrich Wohler converted an inorganic compound into an organic compound in the laboratory.
Give the name and formula of inorganic compound.

Q 27.1 | Page 222

Friedrich Wohler converted an inorganic compound into an organic compound in the laboratory.

Write the name and formula of organic compound formed.

Q 27.2 | Page 222

Give the molecular formula of butane and mention the names of its two isomers. Name one fuel which contains both these isomers.

Q 28.1 | Page 222

Give IUPAC names and formulae of an organic compound containing single bonds and the other containing a triple bond.

Q 28.2 | Page 222

Which of the following is the molecular formula of benzene?
C6H6, C6H10, C6H12, C6H14

Q 28.3 | Page 222

Which of the two has a branched chain : isobutane or normal butane?

Q 29 | Page 222

Catenation is the ability of an atom to form bonds with other atoms of the same element. It is exhibited by both carbon and silicon. Compare the ability of catenation of the two elements. Give reasons.

Q 30.1 | Page 222

How can diamonds be made artificially?

Q 30.1 | Page 222

How do synthetic diamonds differ from natural ones?

Q 30.2 | Page 222

Give any two differences between the properties of diamond and graphite. What causes these differences?

Q 31.1 | Page 222

Why does the element carbon from a large number of carbon compounds?

Q 31.2 | Page 222

Write down the structures and names of two isomers of butane (C4H10)

Q 32.1 | Page 222

Give the name and structural formula of one member each of the following:
alkane

Q 32.1 | Page 222

Give the name and structural formula of one member each of the following:

alkene

Q 32.1 | Page 222

Give the name and structural formula of one member each of the following:

alkyne

Q 32.1 | Page 222

Give the name and structural formula of one member each of the following:

cycloalkane

Q 32.2 | Page 222

Give the common name of ethyne.

Q 32.2 | Page 222

Give the common name of ethene.

Q 32.3 | Page 222

Write the molecular formula and structure of benzene.

Q 33.1 | Page 222

What is the unique property of carbon atom? How is this property helpful to us?

Q 33.2 | Page 222

Explain why, diamond is hard while graphite is soft (though both are made of carbon atoms).

Q 34.1 | Page 222

Giving their structures, state the number of single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds (if any) in the following compounds:
ethyne

Q 34.1 | Page 222

Giving their structures, state the number of single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds (if any) in the following compounds:

ethene

Q 34.1 | Page 222

Giving their structures, state the number of single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds (if any) in the following compounds:

benzene

Q 34.2 | Page 222

Write the molecular formula and structure of cyclohexane. How many covalent bonds are there in a molecule of cyclohexane?

Q 35.1 | Page 222

Write two points of difference in the structures of diamond and graphite.

Q 35.2 | Page 222

Explain why, graphite can be used as a lubricant but diamond cannot.

Q 35.3 | Page 222

Explain why, diamond can be used in rock drilling equipment but graphite cannot.

Q 35.4 | Page 222

State one use of diamond which depends on its 'extraordinary brilliance' and one use of graphite which depends on its being 'black and quite soft'.

Q 36.1 | Page 222

What is diamond? Of what substance is diamond made?

Q 36.2 | Page 222

Describe the structure of diamond. Draw a simple diagram to show the arrangement of carbon atoms in diamond.

Q 36.3 | Page 222

Explain why, diamond has a high melting point.

Q 36.4 | Page 222

State any two uses of diamond.

Q 37.1 | Page 222

What is graphite?

Q 37.1 | Page 222

Q 37.2 | Page 222

Describe the structure of graphite with the help of a labelled diagram.

Q 37.3 | Page 222

Why is graphite a good conductor of electricity but diamond is a non-conductor of electricity?

Q 37.4 | Page 222

State any two uses of graphite.

Q 38.1 | Page 222

Explain the term 'isomers'. Give one example of isomers.

Q 38.2 | Page 222

Write structural formula.

Q 38.2 | Page 222

Write electron-dot structure, of any one isomer of n-heptane (C7H16).

Q 38.3 | Page 222

Write IUPAC name of the compound having the formula n-C4H10.

Q 38.4 | Page 222

Give the IUPAC names for the given

Q 38.4 | Page 222

Give the IUPAC names for the following:

Q 38.4 | Page 222

Give the IUPAC names for the following:

Q 38.4 | Page 222

Give the IUPAC names for the following:

Q 39.1 | Page 223

What are hydrocarbons? Explain with examples.

Q 39.2 | Page 223

Explain the meaning of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with two examples each.

Q 39.3 | Page 223

Give the names and structural formulae of one saturated cyclic hydrocarbon and one unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbon.

Q 39.4 | Page 223

Give one example of a hydrocarbon, other than pentane, having more than three isomers.

Q 39.5 | Page 223

How many isomers of the following hydrocharbons are possible?

C3H8

Q 39.5 | Page 223

How many isomers of the following hydrocharbons are possible?

C4H10

Q 39.5 | Page 223

How many isomers of the following hydrocharbons are possible?

C5H12

Q 39.5 | Page 223

How many isomers of the following hydrocharbons are possible?

C6H14

Q 40 | Page 223

Buckminsterfullerene is an allotropic form of the element:
(a) phoshorus
(b) fluorine
(c) carbon
(d) sulphur

Q 41 | Page 223

Out of the following pairs of compounds, the unsaturated compounds are:
(a) C2H6 and C4H6
(b) C6H12 and C5H12
(c) C4H6 and C6H12
(d) C2H6 and C4H10

Q 42 | Page 223

The number of covalent bonds in pentane (molecular formula C5H12) is:

• 5

• 12

• 17

• 16

Q 43 | Page 223

The property of self-combination of the atoms of the same element to form long chains is known as:
(a) protonation
(b) carbonation
(c) coronation
(d) catenation

Q 44 | Page 223

A cyclic hydrocarbon having carbon-carbon single bonds as well as carbon-carbon double bonds in its molecule is:
(a) C6H12
(b) C6H14
(c) C6H6
(d) C6H10

Q 45 | Page 223

The hydrocarbon 2-methylbutane is an isomer of:
(a) n-pentane
(b) n-butane
(c) propane
(d) iso-butane

Q 46 | Page 223

An unsaturated hydrocarbon having a triple covalent bond has 50 hydrogen atoms in its molecule. The number of carbon atoms in its molecule will be:
(a) 24
(b) 25
(c) 26
(d) 28

Q 47 | Page 223

An alkyne has seventy five carbon atoms in its molecule. The number of hydrogen atoms in its molecule will be:
(a) 150
(b) 148
(c) 152
(d) 146

Q 48 | Page 223

A diamond-toothed saw is usually used for cutting:
(a) steel girders
(b) logs of wood
(c) marble slabs
(d) asbestos sheets

Q 49 | Page 223

The organic compound prepared by Wohler from an inorganic compound called ammonium cyanate was:
(a) glucose
(b) urea
(c) uric acid
(d) vinegar

Q 50 | Page 223

One of the following is not an allotrope of carbon. This is:
(a) diamond
(b) graphite
(c) cumene
(d) buckministerfullerene

Q 51 | Page 223

The number of carbon atoms in the organic compound named as 2,2-dimethylpropane is:
(a) two
(b) five
(c) three
(d) four

Q 52 | Page 223

The pair of elements which exhibits the property of catenation is:

• sodium and silicon

• chlorine and carbon

• carbon and sodium

• silicon and carbon

Q 53 | Page 223

A saturated hydrocarbon has fifty hydrogen atom in its molecule. The number of carbon atoms in its molecule will be
(a) twenty five
(b) twenty four
(c) twenty six
(d) twenty seven

Q 54 | Page 223

A hydrocarbon having one double bond has 100 carbon atoms in its molecule. The number of hydrogen atoms in its molecule will be
(a) 200
(b) 198
(c) 202
(d) 196

Q 55 | Page 224

The hydrocarbon which has alternate single and double bonds arranged in the form of a ring is:
(a) cyclobutane
(b) benzene
(c) butene
(d) hexene

Q 56 | Page 224

Which of the following cannot exhibit isomerism?
(a) C4H10
(b) C5H12
(c) C3H8
(d) C6H14

Q 57 | Page 224

(a) lithium
(b) charcoal
(d) graphite

Q 58 | Page 224

The number of isomers formed by the hydrocarbon with molecular formula C5H12 is:
(a) 2
(b) 5
(c) 3
(d) 4

Q 59 | Page 224

The number of carbon atoms joined in a spherical molecule of buckminsterfullerene is:
(a) fifty
(b) sixty
(c) seventy
(d) ninety

Q 60 | Page 224

A solid element X has four electrons in the outermost shell of its atom. An allotrope Y of this element is used as a dry lubricant in machinery and also in making pencil leads.
(a) What is element X?
(b) Name the allotrope Y.
(c) State whether allotrope Y is a good conductor or non-conductor of electricity.
(d) Name one use of allotrope Y (other than lubrication and pencil leads)
(e) Name two other allotropes of element X.

Q 61.1 | Page 224

Two organic compounds A and B have the same molecular formula C6H12. Write the names and structural formulae:
if A is a cyclic compound

Q 61.2 | Page 224

Two organic compounds A and B have the same molecular formula C6H12. Write the names and structural formulae:

if B is an open chain compound

Q 61.3 | Page 224

Two organic compounds A and B have the same molecular formula C6H12. Write the names and structural formulae:

Which compound contains single bonds as well as a double bond?

Q 61.4 | Page 224

Two organic compounds A and B have the same molecular formula C6H12. Write the names and structural formulae:

Which compound contains only single bonds?

Q 62 | Page 224

The solid element A exhibits the property of catenation. It is also present in the form of a gas B in the air which is utilised by plants in photosynthesis. An allotrope C of this element is used in glass cutters.
(a) What is element A?
(b) What is the gas B?
(c) Name the allotrope C.
(d) State another use of allotrope C (other than in glass cutters).
(e) Name another allotrope of element A which exists as spherical molecules.
(f) Name a yet another allotrope of element A which conduct electricity.

Q 63 | Page 224

An element E exists in three allotropic forms A, B and C. In allotrope A, the atoms of element E are joined to form spherical molecules. In allotrope B, each atom of element E is surrounded by three other E atoms to form a sheet like structure. In allotrope C, each atom of element E is surrounded by four other E atoms to form a rigid structure.
(a) Name the element E.
(b) What is allotrope A.
(c) What is allotrope B?
(d) What is allotrope C?
(e) Which allotrope is used in making jewellery?
(f) Which allotrope is used in making anode of a dry cell?

Q 64.1 | Page 224

You are given the following molecular formulae of some hydrocarbons:
C5H8; C7H14; C6H6; C5H10; C7H12; C6H12
Which formula represent cyclohexane as well as hexene?

Q 64.2 | Page 224

You are given the following molecular formulae of some hydrocarbons:

Which formula represents benzene?

Q 64.3 | Page 224

You are given the following molecular formulae of some hydrocarbons:
C5H8; C7H14; C6H6; C5H10; C7H12; C6H12

Which three formulae represent open chain unsaturated hydrocarbons having double bonds?

Q 64.4 | Page 224

You are given the following molecular formulae of some hydrocarbons:
C5H8; C7H14; C6H6; C5H10; C7H12; C6H12

Which two formulae represent unsaturated hydrocarbons having triple bonds?

Q 64.5 | Page 224

You are given the following molecular formulae of some hydrocarbons:
C5H8; C7H14; C6H6; C5H10; C7H12; C6H12

Which three formulae can represent cyclic hydrocarbons?

Q 65 | Page 225

Which of the following compounds can have a triple bond?
C2H4, C3H4, C3H6

Q 66 | Page 225

Write the molecular and structural formula of a cyclic hydrocarbon whose molecule contains 8 atoms of carbon.

Q 67 | Page 225

What is the molecular formula and structural formula of a cyclic hydrocarbon whose one molecule contains 8 hydrogen atoms?

Q 68.1 | Page 225

Write the molecular formula of an alkane having 20 carbon atoms?

Q 68.2 | Page 225

Write the molecular formula of  an alkene having 20 carbon atoms?

Q 68.3 | Page 225

Write the molecular formula of an alkyne having 20 carbon atoms?

Q 69 | Page 225

Which of the following compounds can have a double bond?
C4H10; C5H8; C5H10

Q 70 | Page 225

Which of the following hydrocarbons is unsaturated?
C3H4; C2H6

#### Lakhmir Singh solutions for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 4 Carbon And Its Compounds [Pages 239 - 243]

Q 1 | Page 239

Write the molecular formula of ethanol.

Q 2 | Page 239

What is the next higher homologue of methanol (CH3OH)?

Q 3 | Page 239

Identify the functional group present in the following compound and name it according to IUPAC system:
CH3OH

Q 4 | Page 239

Give the common name and IUPAC name of the simplest aldehyde.

Q 5 | Page 239

What is the common name of methanal?

Q 6.1 | Page 239

Write the names of the following functional group:

Q 6.2 | Page 239

Write the names of the following functional group:

Q 7 | Page 239

Name the simplest ketone.

Q 8 | Page 239

What is the common name of propanone?

Q 9.1 | Page 239

Write the IUPAC names of the following:

CH3COCH3

Q 9.2 | Page 239

Write the IUPAC names of the following:

CH3COCH2CH3

Q 10 | Page 240

Write the name and chemical formula of the simplest organic acid.

Q 11 | Page 240

Write the IUPAC names, common names and formulae of the first two members of the homologous series of carboxylic acids.

Q 12.1 | Page 240

What is the common name of  methanoic acid.

Q 12.2 | Page 240

What is the common name of ethanoic acid?

Q 13.1 | Page 240

Draw the structures for the following compounds of Ethanoic acid.

Q 13.2 | Page 240

Draw the structures for the following compounds of Propanoic acid.

Q 14.1 | Page 240

Give the common names and IUPAC names of the following compounds of  HCOOH.

Q 14.2 | Page 240

Give the common names and IUPAC names of the following compounds of CH3COOH.

Q 15 | Page 240

Give the name and structural formula of one homologue of HCOOH.

Q 16.1 | Page 240

Write the formulae of methanoic acid.

Q 16.2 | Page 240

Write the formulae of ethanoic acid.

Q 17 | Page 240

Give the common name and IUPAC name of C2H5OH.

Q 18 | Page 240

Give the IUPAC name of the following compound:
C3H7OH

Q 19 | Page 240

Give the name and structural formula of one member of the following:
Alcohols

Q 20.1 | Page 240

Give IUPAC names of the following compounds:

C4H9OH

Q 20.2 | Page 240

Give IUPAC names of the following compounds of C5H11OH

Q 21 | Page 240

What is the common name of methanol?

Q 22 | Page 240

What is the difference between two consecutive homologues:
(1) in terms of molecular mass?
(2) in terms of number and kind of atoms per molecule?

Q 23.1 | Page 240

What type of fuels burn with a flame?

Q 23.2 | Page 240

What type of fuels burn without a flame?

Q 24 | Page 240

State whether the following statement is true of false:
The minimum number of carbon atoms in a ketone molecule is two.

Q 25.1 | Page 240

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:
The next higher homologue of ethanol is ...............

Q 25.2 | Page 240

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The next homologue of C2H5OH is ...............

Q 25.3 | Page 240

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The next higher homologue of ethane is ...............

Q 25.4 | Page 240

Fill in the following blank with suitable word.

The functional group present in ethanol is ...............

Q 25.5 | Page 240

Organic compounds having functional group are known as

Q 26.1 | Page 240

Give the general name of the class of compounds having the general formula CnH2n−2. Write name of the first member of this homologous series.

Q 26.2 | Page 240

The general formula of a homologous series of carbon compounds if CnH2n. Write the molecular formula out the second and fourth members of the series.

Q 26.3 | Page 240

Write the molecular formulae of the third and fifth members of homologous series of carbon compounds represented by the general formula CnH2n+2

Q 27.1 | Page 240

Give the names and structural formulae of the next two higher homologues of methane.

Q 27.2 | Page 240

The molecular formula of a hydrocarbon is C10H18. Name its homologous series.

Q 27.3 | Page 240

Select the hydrocarbons which are members of the same homologous series. Give the name of each series.
C5H10; C3H8; C6H10; C4H10; C7H12; C8H16

Q 28.1 | Page 240

Give the molecular formula of one homologue of the following:

C3H6

Q 28.2 | Page 240

Give the molecular formula of one homologue of each of the following:

C2H6

Q 28.3 | Page 240

By how many carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms do any two adjacent homologues differ?

Q 29.1 | Page 241

Write the formula of the functional group present in carboxylic acids.

Q 29.2 | Page 241

Name the functional group present in CH3—C ≡ CH.

Q 29.3 | Page 241

Name the functional groups present in the following compound:
CH3CHO

Q 29.3 | Page 241

Name the functional groups present in the following compound:

CH3CH2COOH

Q 29.3 | Page 241

Name the functional groups present in the following compound:

CH3COCH3

Q 29.3 | Page 241

Name the functional groups present in the following compound:
CH3CH2CH2OH

Q 30.1 | Page 241

Write the IUPAC name and common name of CH3CI.

Q 30.2 | Page 241

Draw the structure of chlorobutane.

Q 30.3 | Page 241

Draw the structure for bromopentane. Are structural isomers possible for bromopentane?

Q 31.1 | Page 241

Write the name and formula of an organic compound containing a ketone functional group.

Q 31.2 | Page 241

Write the names and formulae for the first three members of the homologous series for chloroalkanes.

Q 31.3 | Page 241

How would you name the following compound ?

CH3—CH2—Br

Q 32.1 | Page 241

What is the general name of the organic compounds containing the  -CO- group?

Q 32.2 | Page 241

Which of the following compounds contains a carboxylic acid group?
CH3OH, CH3COOH, CH3CHO, CH3COCH3

Q 32.3 | Page 241

How would you name the following compound?
Figure

Q 33.1 | Page 241

Define a homologous series. Give the name and structural formula of one homologue of the following:
CH3OH

Q 33.2 | Page 241

Write the molecular formula of the third member of the homologous series of carbon compounds with general formula CnHO2n+1OH.

Q 33.3 | Page 241

Name any two fossil fuels.

Q 34.1 | Page 241

Draw the structures for Butanone

Q 34.1 | Page 241

Draw the structures for the following compounds of Propanone.

Q 34.2 | Page 241

Write the IUPAC names of the following:
HCHO

Q 34.2 | Page 241

Write the IUPAC names of the following:

CH3CHO

Q 34.2 | Page 241

Write the IUPAC names of the following:

CH3CH2CHO

Q 34.2 | Page 241

Write the IUPAC names of the following:

CH3CH2CH2CHO

Q 34.3 | Page 241

Which functional group is likely to be present in an organic compound having the molecular formula C4H10O? Write the formula of the organic compound.

Q 35.1 | Page 241

Match the formulae in group A with appropriate names from group B:
Group A: CH3COOH, CH3CHO, CH3OH
Group B: Ethanol, Methanol, Ethanal, Ethanoic acid

Q 35.2 | Page 241

Draw the structure of butanoic acid.

Q 35.3 | Page 241

What is the IUPAC name of acetic acid?

Q 36.1 | Page 241

Which functional group do you think can be present in an organic compound having the molecular formula C5H10O2? Write the formula of the organic compound.

Q 36.2 | Page 241

Give one example of the compound having the following functional group:
Aldehyde group

Q 36.2 | Page 241

Give one exampleof the compound having the following functional group:
Alcohol group

Q 36.2 | Page 241

Give one example of the compound having the following functional group:

Carboxylic acid group

Q 36.2 | Page 241

Give one example of the compound having the following functional group:

Halo group

Q 36.3 | Page 241

Give one example  of the compound having the following functional group:

Alkene group

Q 36.3 | Page 241

Give one example of the compound having the following functional group:
Alkyne group

Q 37.1 | Page 241

What is the molecular formula and structure of the alcohol which can be thought to be derived from pentane?

Q 37.2 | Page 241

Write the names of the following functional groups:

Q 37.2 | Page 241

Write the name of the following functional group:

Q 37.2 | Page 241

Write the name of the following functional group:

Q 37.2 | Page 241

Write the names of the following functional groups:

Q 37.2 | Page 241

Write the name of the following functional group:

Q 37.3 | Page 241

What makes the candle flame yellow and luminous?

Q 38.1 | Page 241

What is a homologous series? Explain with an example.

Q 38.2 | Page 241

State any four characteristics of a homologous series

Q 38.3 | Page 241

The molecular formula of an organic compound is C18H36. Name its homologous series.

Q 38.4 | Page 241

Select the hydrocarbons which are members of the same homologous series. Give the name of each series.
C5H10; C3H8; C6H10; C4H10; C7H12; C8H16

Q 38.5 | Page 241

What is meant by 'heteroatom'? Give examples. Write the names and formulae of two organic compounds containing different heteroatoms.

Q 39.1 | Page 242

What is meant by a functional group? Explain with an example.

Q 39.2 | Page 242

Write three common functional groups present in organic compounds. Giver their symbols/formulae.

Q 39.3 | Page 242

Name the functional groups present in the following compound:
CH3COOH

Q 39.3 | Page 242

Name the functional groups present in the following compound:

CH3CH2CHO

Q 39.3 | Page 242

Name the functional groups present in the following compound.

C2H5OH

Q 39.3 | Page 242

Name the functional groups present in the following compound:

CH3COCH2CH3

Q 39.4 | Page 242

Name the functional group which always occurs in the middle of a carbon chain.

Q 39.5 | Page 242

Draw the structures for the following compounds:
Ethanal

Q 39.5 | Page 242

Draw the structures for the following compounds:
Propanal

Q 39.5 | Page 242

Draw the structures for the following compounds:
Butanal

Q 39.5 | Page 242

Draw the structures for the following compounds of Pentanal

Q 40.1 | Page 242

What happens when carbon burns in air? Write the chemical equation of the reaction which takes place.

Q 40.2 | Page 242

Why are coal and petroleum called fossil fuels?

Q 40.3 | Page 242

Explain how coal was formed in the earth.

Q 40.4 | Page 242

Describe how petroleum was formed in the earth.

Q 40.5 | Page 242

Name a fossil fuel other than coal and petroleum.

Q 41 | Page 242

The molecular formula of a homologue of butane is:
(a) C4H8
(b) C3H6
(c) C4H6
(d) C3H8

Q 42 | Page 242

One of the following molecular formula can represent two organic compounds having different functional groups. This molecular formula is:

(a) C5H12O
(b) C5H10O
(c) C5H10O2
(d) C5H12

Q 43 | Page 242

The number of carbon atoms present in the molecule of fifth member of the homologous series of alkynes is:

(a) four
(b) five
(c) six
(d) seven

Q 44 | Page 242

One of the following burns without producing a flame. This is:
(a) wood
(b) charcoal
(c) LPG
(d) candle

Q 45 | Page 242

The functional group which always occurs in the middle of a carbon chain is:
(a) alcohol group
(b) aldehyde group
(c) carboxyl group
(d) ketone group

Q 46 | Page 242

The molecular formulae of some organic compounds are given below. Which of these compounds contains an aldehyde group?
(a) C3H8O
(b) C3H6O2
(c) C3H6O
(d) C3H7Cl

Q 47 | Page 242

The organic compounds which are isomeric with one another are:
(a) alcohols and aldehydes
(b) aldehydes and carboxylic acids
(c) ketones and aldehydes
(d) alcohols and ketones

Q 48 | Page 242

The fuel which usually burns with a blue flame is:
(a) coal
(b) LPG
(c) candle wax
(d) kerosene (in lamp)

Q 49 | Page 242

Which of the following burns by producing a yellow, luminous flame?
(a) natural gas
(b) coke
(c) wax
(d) charcoal

Q 50 | Page 242

The molecular formula of an organic compound is C48H94This compound belongs to the homologous series of:
(a) alkenes
(b) aldehydes
(c) alkynes
(d) alkanes

Q 51 | Page 242

One of the following molecular formulae represents a ketone. This formula is:
(a) C5H12O
(b) C6H12O2
(c) C6H14O
(d) C6H12O

Q 52 | Page 242

Which one of the following is not a fossil fuel?
(a) petrol
(b) cock
(c) charcoal
(d) coal

Q 53 | Page 242

Butanone is a four-carbon compound having the functional group:
(a) −OH
(b) −COOH
(c) −CO−
(d) −CHO

Q 54 | Page 242

The molecular formula of the third member of the homologous series of ketones is:
(a) C4H8O
(b) C3H6O
(c) C5H10O
(d) C6H12O

Q 55 | Page 242

The functional group present in propanal is:
(a) −OH
(b) −COOH
(c) −CO−
(d) −CHO

Q 56 | Page 243

An organic compound having the molecular formula C3H6O can exist in the form of two isomers A and B having different functional groups. The isomer A is a liquid which is used as a solvent for nail polish. The isomer B is also a liquid. An aqueous solution of one of the lower homologues of B is used for preserving biological specimens in the laboratory
(a) What is compound A?
(b) Write the electron-dot structure of A.
(c) What is compound B?
(d) Write the electron-dot structure of B.
(e) Name the lower homologue of compound B  which is used in preserving biological specimens.

Q 57 | Page 243

A hard material X which is mined from the earth is used as a house hold fuel and also for the generation of electricity at Thermal Power Stations. A soft material Y is also used us a fuel in the form of candles. A gaseous material Z which occurs along with petroleum is increasingly being used as a fuel in running vehicles in its compressed form.
(a) What are materials, X, Y and Z?
(b) When materials X, Y and Z are burned separately:
(1) When material burns by producing a yellow, luminous flame?
(2) Which material ultimately burns without producing a flame?
(3) Which material can burn in a gas stove by producing a blue flame?

Q 58.1 | Page 243

Three organic compounds A, B and C have the following molecular formulae: C4H8O2

Which compound contains an alcohol group? Write its name and structural formula.

Q 58.2 | Page 243

Three organic compounds A, B and C have the following molecular formulae: C4H10O

Which compound contains a carboxyl group? Write its name and structural formula.

Q 58.3 | Page 243

Three organic compounds A, B and C have the following molecular formulae:  C4H8O

Which molecular formula can represent an aldehyde as well as a ketone? Write the names and structural formulae of the aldehyde and ketone represented by this molecular formula.

Q 59 | Page 243

A colourless organic liquid X of molecular formula C2H4O2 turns blue litmus to red. Another colourless organic liquid Y of molecular formula C3H6O has no action on any litmus but it is used as a nail polish remover. A yet another colourless organic liquid Z of molecular formula C2H6O has also no action on litmus but it is used in tincture of iodine.

(a) Name the liquid X. To which homologous series does it belong? Give the name of another member of this homologous series.
(b) Name the liquid Y. To which homologous series does it belong? Write the name of another member of this homologous series.
(c) Can you name an organic compound having the same molecular formula as liquid Y but which belongs to a different homologous series? What is this homologous series?
(d) Name the liquid Z. To which homologous series does it belong? Write the name of another member of this homologous series.

Q 60.1 | Page 243

You are given an organic compound having the molecular formula C3H8. Give the name and formula of the compound formed:
when one H atom of C3H8 is replaced by a Cl atom.

Q 60.2 | Page 243

You are given an organic compound having the molecular formula C3H8. Give the name and formula of the compound formed:

when one H atom of C3H8 is replaced by a OH group.

Q 60.3 | Page 243

You are given an organic compound having the molecular formula C3H8. Give the name and formula of the compound formed:

when one H atom of C3H8 is replaced by a CHO group.

Q 60.4 | Page 243

You are given an organic compound having the molecular formula C3H8. Give the name and formula of the compound formed

when one H atom of C3H8 is replaced by a COOH group.

Q 60.5 | Page 243

You are given an organic compound having the molecular formula C3H8. Give the name and formula of the compound formed:

when two H atoms joined to the middle carbon atom of C3H8 are replaced by one O atom.

#### Lakhmir Singh solutions for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 4 Carbon And Its Compounds [Pages 262 - 266]

Q 1 | Page 262

Name the gas evolved when ethanoic acid is added to sodium carbonate. How would you prove the presence of this gas?

Q 2 | Page 262

Which of the following will give brisk effervescence with sodium hydrogen carbonate and why?
CH3COOH, CH3CH2OH

Q 3 | Page 262

Name the functional group present in an organic compound which gives brisk effervescence with NaHCO3.

Q 4 | Page 262

Name the hydrocarbon formed when ethanol is heated with conc. H2SO4 at 170°C? What is this reaction known as?

Q 5 | Page 262

Why does ethyne (acetylene) burns with a sooty flame?

Q 6 | Page 262

Name the product formed when hydrogen is added to ethene.

Q 7 | Page 262

Explain why, ethene decolourises bromine water whereas ethane does not.

Q 8 | Page 262

Name two catalysts which can be used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds.

Q 9 | Page 262

State two disadvantages of incomplete combustion.

Q 10 | Page 262

What happens when (give chemical equation):
Sodium reacts with ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

Q 11 | Page 262

Describe one reaction of ethanol.

Q 12 | Page 262

Name one liquid carbon compound which is being used as an additive in petrol in some countries.

Q 13 | Page 262

What are the raw materials required for making soap in a laboratory (or at home)?

Q 14 | Page 262

Would you be able to check if water is hard by using a detergent?

Q 15 | Page 262

Describe a test for carboxylic acid.

Q 16 | Page 262

Why is the conversion of ethanol into ethanoic acid an oxidation reaction?

Q 17 | Page 262

Explain why, alkanes are excellent fuel.

Q 18 | Page 262

Name one chemical compound which can be used to distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid.

Q 19.1 | Page 262

Complete the following equation:

CH_3 CH_2 OH

Q 19.2 | Page 262

Complete the following equation:

CH_3 COOH + CH_2 H_5 OH

Q 20.1 | Page 263

Complete and balance the following equation:

Q 20.2 | Page 263

Complete and balance the following equation:

Q 21.1 | Page 263

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:
The process of burning of a hydrocarbon in the presence of air to give CO2, H2O, heat and light is known as .............

Q 21.2 | Page 263

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The sodium salt of a long chain fatty acid is called .............

Q 21.3 | Page 263

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

............. is better than soap for washing clothes when the water is hard.

Q 21.4 | Page 263

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The organic acid present in vinegar is .............

Q 22 | Page 263

Which of the following hydrocarbons will give substitution reactions and why?
CH4, C3H6, C3H8, C4H6, C5H12, C5H10

Q 23 | Page 263

Which of the following will give addition reaction and why?
C4H10, C2H6, C2H4, CH4, C3H8, C3H4

Q 24.1 | Page 263

Write the chemical equation of the reaction which takes place during the burning of ethanol in air.

Q 24.2 | Page 263

Why is ethanol used as a fuel?

Q 24.3 | Page 263

State two used of ethanol (other than as a fuel).

Q 25.1 | Page 263

What happens when propanoic acid is warmed with methanol in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid? Write equation of the reaction involved.

Q 25.2 | Page 263

What change will you observe if you test soap solution with a litmus paper (red and blue)? Give reason for your observation.

Q 25.3 | Page 263

What is meant by denatured alcohol? What is the need to denature alcohol?

Q 26.1 | Page 263

How would you test for an alcohol?

Q 26.2 | Page 263

Give the harmful effects of drinking alcohol.

Q 26.3 | Page 263

Explain why, methanol is much more dangerous to drink than ethanol.

Q 27.1 | Page 263

How would you convert of thanol into ethene?

Q 27.2 | Page 263

propanol into propanoic acid?
Name the process in each case and write the equations of the reactions involved.

Q 28.1 | Page 263

Give reasons for the following observation.

Air holes of a gas burner have to be adjusted when the vessels being heated get blackened by the flame.

Q 28.2 | Page 263

Use of synthetic detergents causes pollution of water.

Q 29.1 | Page 263

What would be observed on adding a 5% alkaline potassium permanganate solution drop by drop to some warm ethanol in a test-tube? Write the name of the compound formed during the chemical reaction. Also write chemical equation of the reaction which takes place.

Q 29.2 | Page 263

How would you distinguish experimentally between an alcohol and  carboxylic acid on the basis of a chemical property?

Q 30 | Page 263

Name the functional group of organic compounds that can be hydrogenated. With the help of a suitable example, explain the process of hydrogenation, mentioning the conditions of the reaction and any one change in physical property with the formation of the product. Name any one natural source of organic compounds that are hydrogenated.

Q 31.1 | Page 263

Name the gas evolved when ethanol reacts with sodium.

Q 31.2 | Page 263

What type of compound is formed when a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol in the presence of conc. H2SO4?

Q 31.3 | Page 263

What will you observe when dilute ethanoic acid and dilute hydrochloric acid are put on universal indicator paper, one by one? What does it show?

Q 32.1 | Page 263

What type to compound is CH3COOH?

Q 32.2 | Page 263

What substance should be oxidised to prepare CH3COOH?

Q 32.3 | Page 263

What is the physical state of CH3COOH?

Q 32.4 | Page 263

State one advantage of soaps over detergent.

Q 33.1 | Page 264

What happens when ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid in the presence of a little of concentrated sulphuric acid? Write equation of the reaction involved.

Q 33.2 | Page 264

What happens when ethanol is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 170°C? Write the equation of the reaction which takes place.

Q 34.1 | Page 264

What happens when ethanol is oxidised with alkaline potassium permanganate (or acidified potassium dichromate)? Write the equation of the reaction involved.

Q 34.2 | Page 264

Choose those compounds from the following which can turn blue litmus solution red:
HCHO, CH3COOH, CH3OH, C2H5OH, HCOOH, CH3CHO

Q 35.1 | Page 264

Explain the process of preparation of soap in laboratory.

Q 35.2 | Page 264

Why is common salt (sodium chloride) added during the preparation of soap?

Q 35.3 | Page 264

Why is soap not suitable for washing clothes when the water is hard?

Q 36.1 | Page 264

What happens when methane (natural gas) burns in air? Write the chemical equation of the reaction involved.

Q 36.2 | Page 264

What happens when ethanoic acid reacts with sodium carbonate? Write chemical equation of the reaction involved.

Q 36.3 | Page 264

Give a test that can be used to differentiate chemically between butter and cooking oil.

Q 37.1 | Page 264

Describe, giving equation, a chemical reaction which is characteristic of saturated hydrocarbons (or alkanes).

Q 37.2 | Page 264

What is an oxidising agent?

Q 37.2 | Page 264

Name two oxidising agents which can oxidise ethanol to ethanoic acid.

Q 37.2 | Page 264

What is a detergent? Name one detergent.

Q 37.3 | Page 264

Describe one reaction of a carboxylic acid.

Q 38.1 | Page 264

Write names and formulae of hydrocarbons containing a single and a double bond (one example for each). Give one characteristic chemical property of each.

Q 38.3 | Page 264

Why have detergents replaced soap as a washing agent?

Q 39.1 | Page 264

How does ethanoic acid react with sodium hydrogen carbonate? Give equation of the reaction which takes place.

Q 39.2 | Page 264

Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?

Q 39.3 | Page 264

Which of the two is better for washing clothes when the water is hard: soap or detergent? Give reason for your answer.

Q 40.1 | Page 264

What is meant by a substitution reaction? Give an example (with equation) of the substitution reaction of an alkane.

Q 40.2 | Page 264

How is soap made? Write a word equation involved in soap making.

Q 41.1 | Page 264

How is ethanoic acid obtained from ethanol? Write down the chemical equation of the reaction involved.

Q 41.2 | Page 264

How would you distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid by chemical test?

Q 41.3 | Page 264

Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.

Q 42.1 | Page 264

What happens when methane reacts with chlorine? Give equation of the reaction which takes place.

Q 42.2 | Page 264

What is hydrogenation? What is its industrial application?

Q 42.3 | Page 264

Give any two differences between soaps and detergents.

Q 43.1 | Page 264

What happens when ethanoic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide? Write equation of the reaction involved.

Q 43.2 | Page 264

What happens when vegetable oils are hydrogenated? Name the catalyst used.

Q 43.3 | Page 264

What is the advantage of detergents over soaps for washing clothes? Also state one disadvantage.

Q 44.1 | Page 264

An organic compound X of molecular formula C2H4O2 gives brisk effervescence with sodium hydrogen carbonate. Give the name and formula of X.

Q 44.2 | Page 264

A mixture of ethyne (acetylene) and oxygen is burnt for welding. Can you tell why a mixture of ethyne and air is not used?

Q 44.3 | Page 264

Name a chemical reaction which is characteristic of unsaturated hydrocarbons (like alkenes and alkynes).

Q 45.1 | Page 264

What is meant by an addition reaction? Give an example (with equation) of an addition reaction of an alkene.

Q 45.2 | Page 264

What is added to groundnut oil when it is to be converted to vanaspati ghee?

Q 45.3 | Page 264

Which of the two is better for our health : butter or vegetable oil? Why?

Q 46.1 | Page 265

When ethanoic acid reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate, then a salt X is formed and a gas Y is evolved. Name the salt X and gas. Y Describe an activity with the help of a labelled diagram of the apparatus used to prove that the evolved gas is the one which you have named. Also write the chemical equation of the reaction involved.

Q 46.2 | Page 265

Give any two uses of ethanoic acid.

Q 47.1 | Page 265

Esters are sweet-smelling substances and are used in making perfumes. Describe an activity for the preparation of an ester with the help of a well labelled diagram. Write an equation for the chemical reaction involved in the formation of the ester. Also write the names of all the substances involved in the process of esterification.

Q 47.2 | Page 265

State any two uses of esters.

Q 48.1 | Page 265

Name the reaction which is usually used in the conversion of vegetables oils to fats. Explain the reaction involved in detail. Write a chemical equation to illustrate your answer.

Q 48.2 | Page 265

What is saponification? Write the chemical equation of the reaction involved in this process. Name all the substances which take part in this process and also those which are formed.

Q 48.3 | Page 265

Why does micelle formation take place when soap is added to water? Will a micelle be formed in other solvents like ethanol also?

Q 49.1 | Page 265

What is a soap? Name one soap.

Q 49.2 | Page 265

Describe the structure of a soap molecule with the help of a diagram.

Q 49.3 | Page 265

Explain the cleansing action of soap. Draw diagrams to illustrate your answer.

Q 50 | Page 265

While cooking, if the bottom of the utensil is getting blackened on the outside, it means that:
(a) the food is not cooked completely.
(b) the fuel is not burning completely.
(c) the fuel is wet.
(d) the fuel is burning completely.

Q 51 | Page 265

When ethanol is heated with alkaline potassium permanganate solution, it gets converted into ethanoic acid. In this reaction, alkaline potassium permanganate acts as:
(a) reducing agent
(b) oxidising agent
(c) catalyst
(d) dehydrating agent

Q 52 | Page 265

When ethanol is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 170°C, it gets converted into ethene. In this reaction, concentrated sulphuric acid acts as:
(a) oxidising agent
(b) catalyst
(c) dehydrating agent
(d) reducing agent

Q 53 | Page 265

When a vegetable oil is treated with hydrogen in the presence of nickel (or palladium) catalyst, it forms a fat. This is an example of:
(a) anodising reaction
(b) substitution reaction
(c) displacement reaction

Q 54 | Page 265

The soap molecule has a:
(a) hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail
(b) hydrophobic head and a hydrophilic tail
(c) hydrophobic head and a hydrophobic tail
(d) hydrophilic head and a hydrophilic tail

Q 55 | Page 265

Chlorine reacts with saturated hydrocarbons at room temperature in the:
(a) absence of sunlight
(b) presence of sunlight
(c) absence of moisture
(d) presence of H2SO4

Q 56 | Page 265

In a soap micelle, the soap molecules are arranged radially with:
(a) ionic ends directed towards the centre and hydrocarbon ends directed outwards
(b) hydrocarbon ends directed towards the centre and ionic ends directed outwards
(c) both ionic ends and hydrocarbon ends directed toward the centre
(d) both hydrocarbon ends and ionic ends directed outwards

Q 57 | Page 265

When ethanol reacts with sodium metal, it forms two products. These products are:
(a) sodium ethanaoate and oxygen
(b) sodium ethanaoate and hydrogen
(c) sodium ethoxide and oxygen
(d) sodium ethoxide and hydrogen

Q 58 | Page 265

Vinegar is a solution of about:
(a) 5 to 8 per cent ethanoic acid in alcohol
(b) 5 to 8 per cent ethanoic acid in water
(c) 50 to 80 per cent ethanoic acid in water
(d) 50 to 80 per cent ethanoic acid in alcohol

Q 59 | Page 266

One of the following substances is not added to make denatured alcohol. This is:
(a) methyl alcohol
(b) copper sulphate
(c) chloroform
(d) pyridine

Q 60 | Page 266

One of the following organic compounds cannot decolourise the red-brown colour bromine water. This compound is:
(a) C14H28
(b) C14H28
(c) C14H28
(d) C14H28

Q 61 | Page 266

The substance which can produce brisk effervescence with baking soda solution is:
(a) ethanol
(b) vegetable oil
(c) vinegar
(d) soap solution(b) hydrocarbon ends directed towards the centre and ionic ends directed outwards
In a soap micelle, the soap molecules are arranged radially with the hydrocarbon ends, i.e. hydrophobic, directed towards the centre; and, ionic ends, i.e. hydrophilic, directed outwards.

Q 62 | Page 266

The chemical which is not required for the preparation of soap in the laboratory is:
(a) vegetable oil
(b) baking soda
(c) caustic soda
(d) common salt

Q 63 | Page 266

Which of the following can damage optic nerve leading to blindness, if taken internally?
(a) CH3COOH
(b) C2H5OH
(c) NaHCO3
(d) CH3OH

Q 64 | Page 266

The usual disease caused by the excessive drinking of alcohol over a long period of time is:
(a) diabetes
(b) cataract
(c) cirrhosis
(d) arthritis

Q 65 | Page 266

Which of the following molecular formula corresponds to ethylbutanoate ester?
(a) C5H10O2
(b) C6H12O2
(c) C7H14O2
(d) C8H16O2

Q 66 | Page 266

A neutral organic compound X of molecular formula C2H6O on oxidation with acidified potassium dichromate gives an acidic compound Y. Compound X reacts with Y on warming in the presence of conc. H2SO4 to give a sweet smelling substance Z. What are X, Y and Z?

Q 67 | Page 266

Consider the following organic compounds:
HCHO, C2H5OH, C2H6, CH3COOH, C2H5CI
Choose two compounds which can react in the presence of conc. H2SO4 to form an ester. Give the name and formula of the ester formed.

Q 68 | Page 266

A neutral organic compound is warmed with some ethanoic acid and a little of conc. H2SO4. Vapours having sweet smell (fruity smell) are evolved. What type of functional group is present in this organic compound?

Q 69 | Page 266

The structural formula of an ester is :

Write the formula of the acid and the alcohol from which it is formed.

Q 70.1 | Page 266

Consider the following organic compound:
CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3, CH3COOH, C2H5COOH, C4H9COOC2H5, CH4, C2H6, CH3CHO, HCHO
Out of these compound:

Which compound is most likely to be sweet-smelling?

Q 70.2 | Page 266

Consider the following organic compound:
CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3, CH3COOH, C2H5COOH, C4H9COOC2H5, CH4, C2H6, CH3CHO, HCHO
Out of these compound:

Which compound on treatment with conc. H2SO4 at 170°C forms an alkene?

Q 70.3 | Page 266

Consider the following organic compound:
CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3, CH3COOH, C2H5COOH, C4H9COOC2H5, CH4, C2H6, CH3CHO, HCHO
Out of these compound:

Which compound on repeated chlorination forms chloroform?

Q 70.4 | Page 266

Consider the following organic compound:
CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3, CH3COOH, C2H5COOH, C4H9COOC2H5, CH4, C2H6, CH3CHO, HCHO
Out of these compound:

Which compound is added to alcohol to denature it?

Q 70.5 | Page 266

Consider the following organic compound:
CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3, CH3COOH, C2H5COOH, C4H9COOC2H5, CH4, C2H6, CH3CHO, HCHO
Out of these compound:

Which compound is a constituent of vinegar?(e) Which compound is a constituent of vinegar?

Q 70.6 | Page 266

Consider the following organic compound:
CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3, CH3COOH, C2H5COOH, C4H9COOC2H5, CH4, C2H6, CH3CHO, HCHO
Out of these compound:

Which compound is used to sterilise wounds and syringes?

Q 71 | Page 266

An organic acid X is a liquid, which often freezes during winter time in cold countries, having the molecular formula C2H4O2. On warming it with methanol in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, a compound Y with a sweet  smell is formed.
(a) Identify X and Y. Also write their formulae showing the functional group present in them.
(b) Write a chemical equation for the reaction involved.

Q 72 | Page 266

An organic compound A having the molecular formula C3H8O is a liquid at room temperature. The organic liquid A reacts with sodium metal to evolve a gas which burns causing a little explosion. When the organic liquid A heated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 170°C, it forms a compound B which decolourizes bromine water. The compound B adds on one molecule of hydrogen in the presence of Ni as catalyst to forms compound C which gives substitution reactions with chlorine.
(a) What is compound A?
(b) What is compound B?
(c) What type of reaction occurs when A is converted into B?
(d) What is compound C?
(e) What type of reaction takes place when B is converted into C?

Q 73 | Page 266

An organic compound A (molecular formula C2H4O2) reacts with Na metal to form a compound B and evolves a gas which burns with a pop sound. Compound A on treatment with an alcohol C in the presence of a little of concentrated sulphuric acid forms a sweet-smelling compound D (molecular formula C3H6O2). Compound D on treatment with NaOH solution gives back B and C. Identify A, B, C and

Q 74 | Page 266

Which of the following hydrocarbons can decolourise bromine water and which cannot? Why?
C6H12, C6H14, C6H10

Q 75 | Page 266

A four carbons atoms containing neutral organic compound X reacts with sodium metal to evolve a gas which burns with 'pop' sound. Another four carbon atoms containing carbon compound reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate to evolve a gas which turns lime water milky. When compounds X and Y are heated together in the presence of a little of concentrated sulphuric acid, then a new compound Z is formed.

(a) What is compound X ? Also write its formula.
(b) What is compound Y ? Also write its formula.
(c) What is compound Z ? Also write its formula.
(d) What type of smell is given by compound Z?
(e) What is the general name of compounds like Z?
(f) What is the general name of the reaction which which takes place between X and Y to form Z?

## Lakhmir Singh solutions for Class 10 Chemistry chapter 4 - Carbon And Its Compounds

Lakhmir Singh solutions for Class 10 Chemistry chapter 4 (Carbon And Its Compounds) include all questions with solution and detail explanation. This will clear students doubts about any question and improve application skills while preparing for board exams. The detailed, step-by-step solutions will help you understand the concepts better and clear your confusions, if any. Shaalaa.com has the CBSE Class 10 Chemistry solutions in a manner that help students grasp basic concepts better and faster.

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Concepts covered in Class 10 Chemistry chapter 4 Carbon And Its Compounds are Carbon and Compounds Introduction, Carbon and Compounds Question, Bonding in Carbon - Covalent Bond, Versatile Nature of Carbon - Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds, Versatile Nature of Carbon - Chains, Branches and Rings, Versatile Nature of Carbon - Homologous Series, Versatile Nature of Carbon - Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds, Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds - Combustion, Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds - Oxidation, Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds - Addition Reaction, Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds - Substitution Reaction, Important Carbon Compounds - Ethanol, Important Carbon Compounds - Ethanoic Acid (Acetic acid), Soaps and Detergents.

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