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Lakhmir Singh solutions for Class 10 Science chapter 3 - Metals and Non-metals

Chemistry for Class 10 (2019 Exam)

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Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 (2019 Exam)

Chemistry for Class 10 (2019 Exam) - Shaalaa.com

Chapter 3: Metals and Non-metals

Chapter 3: Metals and Non-metals solutions [Pages 131 - 137]

Q 1 | Page 131

Name one metal and one non-metal which exist in liquid state at room temperature.

Q 2 | Page 131

Why are metals called electropositive elements whereas non-metals are called electronegative elements?

Q 3.1 | Page 131

Name the most abundant metal in the earth's crust.

Q 3.2 | Page 131

Name the most abundant non-metal in the earth's crust.

Q 4 | Page 132

Name one metal which has a low melting point.

Q 5 | Page 132

Name the metal which is the poorest conductor of heat.

Q 6 | Page 132

State whether the following statement is true or false:
Non-metals react with dilute acids to produce a gas which burns with a 'pop' sound.

Q 7 | Page 132

From amongst the metals sodium, calcium aluminium, copper and magnesium, name the metal:
(i) which reacts with water only on boiling, and
(ii) another which does not react even with steam.

Q 8 | Page 132

What changes in the colour of iron nails and copper sulphate solution do you observe after keeping the iron nails dipped in copper sulphate solution for about 30 minutes?

Q 9 | Page 132

What is aqua-regia? Name two special metals which are insoluble in common reagents but dissolve in aqua-regia.

Q 10.1 | Page 132

Give the name and formulae of two acidic oxides.

Q 10.2 | Page 132

Give the name and formulae of two basic oxides.

Q 11 | Page 132

What name is given to those metal oxides which show basic as well as acidic behaviour?

Q 12 | Page 132

Name two metals which form amphoteric oxides.

Q 13 | Page 132

A copper coin is kept immersed in a solution of silver nitrate for some time. What will happen to the coin and the colour of the solution?

Q 14.1 | Page 132

Which property of copper and aluminium makes them suitable for making cooking utensils and boilers?

Q 14.2 | Page 132

Which property of copper and aluminium makes them suitable for making electric wires?

Q 15.1 | Page 132

Write the name and formulae of  a metal hydride.

Q 15.2 | Page 132

Write the name and formulae of a non-metal hydride.

Q 16.1 | Page 132

Name the metal which has been placed at the bottom of the reactivity series.

Q 16.2 | Page 132

Name the metal which has been placed at the top of the reactivity series.

Q 16.3 | Page 132

Name the metal which has been placed just below copper in the reactivity series.

Q 17 | Page 132

Which of the two metals is more reactive: copper or silver?

Q 18.1 | Page 132

Name one metal which is stored in kerosene oil.

Q 18.2 | Page 132

 Name one non-metal which is stored under water.

Q 19.1 | Page 132

Write equation for the reaction of sodium with oxygen.

Q 19.2 | Page 132

Write equation for the reaction of magnesium with oxygen.

Q 20.1 | Page 132

Name two metals which are used for making electric wires.

Q 20.2 | Page 132

Name two metals which are used for making domestic utensils and factory equipment.

Q 20.3 | Page 132

Name two metals which are used for making jewellery and to decorate sweets.

Q 21 | Page 132

Which metal foil is used for packing some of the medicine tablets?

Q 22.1 | Page 132

Name the non-metal which is used to convert vegetable oil into vegetable ghee (solid fat).

Q 22.2 | Page 132

Name the non-metal which is used as a rocket fuel (in liquid form).

Q 22.3 | Page 132

Name the non-metal which is used to make electrodes of dry cells.

Q 22.4 | Page 132

Name the non-metal which is used to preserve food materials.

Q 22.5 | Page 132

Name the non-metal which is used  in the vulcanisation  of rubber.

Q 23.1 | Page 132

Name one property which is characteristic of  metals.

Q 23.2 | Page 132

Name one property which is characteristic of  non-metals.

Q 24 | Page 132

What is meant by "brittleness"? Which type of elements usually show brittleness: metals or non-metals?

Q 25 | Page 132

What will happen if a strip of zinc is immersed in a solution of copper sulphate?

Q 26 | Page 132

What will happen if a strip of copper is kept immersed in a solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3)?

Q 27 | Page 132

What changes in the colour of iron nails and copper sulphate solution do you observe after keeping the iron nails dipped in copper sulphate solution for about 30 minutes?

Q 28 | Page 132

How would you show that silver is chemically less reactive than copper?

Q 29 | Page 132

Give reason for the following:
Blue colour of copper sulphate solution is destroyed when iron filings are added to it.

Q 30 | Page 132

Name a non-metal having a very high melting point.

Q 31 | Page 133

Which property of graphite is utilised in making electrodes?

Q 32 | Page 133

Name two non-metals which are both brittle and non-ductile.

Q 33 | Page 133

Explain why, the surface of some metals acquires a dull appearance when exposed to air for a long time.

Q 34.1 | Page 133

Complete and balance the following equation:

Na  +  O2 →

Q 34.2 | Page 133

Complete and balance the following equation:

Na2O  +  H2O →

Q 34.3 | Page 133

Complete and balance the following equation:

Q 34.4 | Page 133

Complete and balance the following equation:

Cu (NO3)2 (aq)  +  Zn(s)  →

 

Q 35.1 | Page 133

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

 Magnesium liberates ............... gas on reacting with hot boiling water.

Q 35.2 | Page 133

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The white powder formed when magnesium ribbon burns in oxygen is of ....................

Q 35.3 | Page 133

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

Ordinary aluminium strips are not attacked by water because of the presence of a layer of ................. on the surface of aluminium.

Q 35.4 | Page 133

Fill in the following blanks with suitable words:

A metal having low melting point is ..................... but a non-metal having very high melting point is ..............

Q 35.5 | Page 133

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

Calcium is a ................. reactive metal than sodium.

Q 36.1 | Page 133

Explain the meanings of malleable and ductile.

Q 36.2 | Page 133

Name two metals which are both malleable and ductile.

Q 36.3 | Page 133

Which property of iron metal is utilised in producing iron sheets required fro making buckets?

Q 36.4 | Page 133

Which property of copper metal is utilised in making thin wires?

Q 37 | Page 133

Name two metals which react violently with cold eater. Write any three observations you would make when such a metal is dropped into water.

Q 38.1 | Page 133

With the help of examples, describe how metal oxides differ from non-metal oxides.

Q 38.2 | Page 133

Which of the following elements would yield an acidic oxide.

Na, S, C, K, H

Q 38.3 | Page 133

Which of the following elements would yield a basic oxide.

Na, S, C, K, H

Q 38.4 | Page 133

Which of the following elements would yield a neutral oxide?

Na, S, C, K, H

Q 39.1 | Page 133

What are amphoteric oxides? Give two examples of amphoteric oxides.

Q 39.2 | Page 133

 Choose the acidic oxides, basic oxides and neutral oxides from the following:
Na2O; CO2; CO; SO2; MgO; N2O; H2O.

Q 39.3 | Page 133

 Which of the following are amphoteric oxides:
MgO, ZnO, P2O3, Al2O3, NO2

Q 40.1 | Page 133

What is the nature of the oxide SO2? What happens when it is dissolved in water? Write the chemical equation of the reaction involved.

Q 40.2 | Page 133

What is the nature of the oxide Na2O? What happens when it is dissolved in water? Write the chemical equation of the reaction involved.

Q 41.1 | Page 133

What type of oxides are formed when non-metals react with oxygen? Explain with an example.

Q 41.2 | Page 133

What type of oxides are formed when metals combine with oxygen? Explain with the help of an example.

Q 42.1 | Page 133

Explain why, metals usually do not liberate hydrogen gas with dilute nitric acid.

Q 42.2 | Page 133

Name two metals which can, however, liberate hydrogen gas from very dilute nitric acid.

Q 43.1 | Page 133

How do metals react with hydrogen? Explain with an example.

Q 43.2 | Page 133

How do non-metals react with hydrogen? Explain with an example.

Q 44.1 | Page 133

What happens when calcium reacts with chlorine? Write an equation for the reaction which takes place

Q 44.2 | Page 133

 What happens when magnesium reacts with very dilute nitric acid? Write an equation for the reaction involved.

Q 45.1 | Page 133

Arrange the following metals in order of their chemical reactivity, placing the most reactive metal first:
Magnesium, Copper, Iron, Sodium, Zinc, Lead, Calcium.

Q 45.2 | Page 133

What happens when a rod of zinc metal is dipped into a solution of copper sulphate? Give chemical equation of the reaction involved.

Q 46 | Page 134

A copper plate was dipped in AgNO3 solution. After certain time, silver from the solution was deposited on the copper plate. State the reason why it happened. Give the chemical equation of the reaction involved.

Q 47.1 | Page 134

State five uses of metals

Q 47.2 | Page 134

State five uses of non-metals.

Q 48.1 | Page 134

State one use of Copper.

Q 48.2 | Page 134

State one use of Aluminium.

Q 48.3 | Page 134

State one use of  Iron.

Q 48.4 | Page 134

State one use of Silver.

Q 48.5 | Page 134

State one use of Gold.

Q 48.6 | Page 134

State one use of Mercury.

Q 49.1 | Page 134

State one use of Hydrogen.

Q 49.2 | Page 134

State one use of Carbon (as Graphite).

Q 49.3 | Page 134

 State one use of Nitrogen.

Q 49.4 | Page 134

State one use of Sulphur.

Q 49.5 | Page 134

Name the metal which is used in making thermometers.

Q 50.1 | Page 134

Why does aluminium not react with water under ordinary conditions?

Q 50.2 | Page 134

 Name two metals which will displace hydrogen from dilute acids, and two metals which will not.

Q 50.3 | Page 134

Name two metals which cannot displace hydrogen from dilute acids.

Q 51.1 | Page 134

Why is sodium kept immersed in kerosene oil?

Q 51.2 | Page 134

Why is white phosphorus kept immersed under water?

Q 51.3 | Page 134

Can we keep sodium immersed under water? Why?

Q 52.1 | Page 134

Describe the reaction of potassium with water. Write the equation of the reaction involved.

Q 52.2 | Page 134

Write equations for the reactions of iron with steam 

Q 52.3 | Page 134

Which gas is produced when dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a reactive metal?

Q 53.1 | Page 134

Give one example, with equation, of the displacement of hydrogen by a metal from an acid.

Q 53.2 | Page 134

Name two metals (other than zinc and iron) which can displace hydrogen from dilute hydrochloric acid?

Q 54.1 | Page 134

What is the action of water on sodium ? Write equation of the chemical reaction involved.

Q 54.2 | Page 134

What is the action of water on magnesium ? Write equation of the chemical reaction involved.

Q 54.3 | Page 134

What is the action of water on aluminium ? Write equation of the chemical reaction involved.

Q 55 | Page 134

You are given samples of three metals − sodium, magnesium and copper. Suggest any two activities to arrange them in order of their decreasing reactivities.

Q 56.1 | Page 134

Write one reaction in which aluminium oxide behaves as a basic oxide and another in which it behaves as an acidic oxide.

Q 56.2 | Page 134

What special name is given to substances like aluminium oxide.

Q 56.3 | Page 134

Name another metal oxide which behaves like aluminium oxide.

Q 57.1 | Page 134

What happens when calcium reacts with water? Write the chemical equation of the reaction of calcium with eater.

Q 57.2 | Page 134

Write the chemical equation of the reaction which takes place when iron reacts with dilute sulphuric acid. What happens when the gas produced is ignited with a burning matchstick?

Q 58 | Page 134

You are given a dry cell, a torch bulb with holder, wires and crocodile clips. How would you use them to distinguish between samples of metals and non-metals?

Q 59.1 | Page 134

State any five physical properties of metals.

Q 59.2 | Page 134

State any five physical properties of non-metals.

Q 60.1 | Page 134

 Name two physical properties  of sodium  in which it's behaviour is not as expected from it's classification as metal.

Q 60.2 | Page 134

 Name two physical properties  of carbon in which it's behaviour is not as expected from it's classification as non-metal.

Q 60.3 | Page 134

Name two metals whose melting points are so low that they melt when held in the hand.

Q 61 | Page 134

Metals are said to be shiny. Why do metals generally appear to be dull? How can their brightness be restored?

Q 62.1 | Page 134

What are metals? Name five metals.

 

Q 62.2 | Page 134

Name a metal which is so soft that it can be cut with a knife.

Q 62.3 | Page 134

Name the metal which is the best conductor of heat and electricity.

Q 62.4 | Page 134

What happens when a metal reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid? Explain with the help of an example.

Q 62.5 | Page 134

Write the equation for the reaction of Magnesium with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Name the products formed. Also indicate the physical states of all the substances involved.

Q 62.6 | Page 134

Write the equation for the reaction of Aluminium with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Name the products formed. Also indicate the physical states of all the substances involved.

Q 62.7 | Page 134

Write the equation for the reaction of Zinc with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Name the products formed. Also indicate the physical states of all the substances involved.

Q 62.8 | Page 134

Write the equation for the reaction of Iron with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Name the products formed. Also indicate the physical states of all the substances involved.

Q 63.1 | Page 135

Define non-metals. Give five examples of non-metals.

Q 63.2 | Page 135

Name a non-metal which conducts electricity.

Q 63.3 | Page 135

Name a non-metal having lustre (shining surface).

Q 63.4 | Page 135

Name a non-metal which is extremely hard.

Q 63.5 | Page 135

How do non-metals react with oxygen? Explain with an example. Give equation of the reaction involved. What is the nature of the product formed? How will you demonstrate it?

Q 64.1 | Page 135

What is meant by the reactivity series of metals? Arrange the following metals in an increasing order of their reactivities towards water:
Zinc, Iron, Magnesium, Sodium

Q 64.2 | Page 135

Hydrogen is not a metal but still it has been assigned a place in the reactivity series of metals. Why?

Q 64.3 | Page 135

Name one metal more reactive and another less reactive than hydrogen.

Q 64.4 | Page 135

Name one metal which displaces copper from copper sulphate solution and one which does not.

Q 64.5 | Page 135

Name one metal which displaces silver from silver nitrate solution and one which does not.

Q 65.1 | Page 135

State any three differences between the physical properties of metals and non-metals.

Q 65.2 | Page 135

Differentiate between metal and non-metal on the basis of their chemical properties.

Q 65.3 | Page 135

State three reasons (of which at least one must be chemical) for believing that sodium is a metal.

Q 65.4 | Page 135

State three reasons (of which at least one must be chemical) for believing that sulphur is a non-metal.

Q 65.5 | Page 135

Which non-metal has been placed in the reactivity series of metals?

Q 66 | Page 135

The elements whose oxides can turn phenolphthalein solution pink are:
(a) Na and K
(b) K and C
(c) Na and S
(d) K and P

Q 67 | Page 135

"Is malleable and ductile". This best describes:
(a) a metal
(b) a compound
(c) a non-metal
(d) a solution

Q 68 | Page 135

One of the following is not a neutral oxide. This is:
(a) CO
(b) H2O
(c) N2O
(d) Na2O

Q 69 | Page 135

A basic oxide will be formed by the element:
(a) K
(b) S
(c) P
(d) Kr

Q 70 | Page 135

An acidic oxide is produced by the element:
(a) Na
(b) C
(c) Ca
(d) H

Q 71 | Page 135

You are given a solution of AgNO3. Which of the following do you think cannot displace Ag from AgNO3solution?
(a) Magnesium
(b) Zinc
(c) Gold
(d) Copper

Q 72 | Page 135

Out of aluminium, copper, calcium and tin, the most reactive metal is:
(a) aluminium
(b) copper
(c) tin
(d) calcium

Q 73 | Page 135

The least reactive metal among the following is:
(a) sodium
(b) silver
(c) copper
(d) lead

Q 74 | Page 135

An element X reacts with hydrogen, when heated, to form a covalent hydride H2X. If H2X has a smell of rotten eggs, the element X is likely to be:
(a) carbon
(b) sulphur
(c) chlorine
(d) phosphorus

Q 75 | Page 135

Out of the following oxides, the amphoteric oxide is:
(a) Fe2O3
(b) Al2O3
(c) P2O5
(d) N2O

Q 76 | Page 135

The metals which can produce amphoteric oxides are:
(a) sodium and aluminium
(b) zinc and potassium
(c) calcium and sodium
(d) aluminium and zinc

Q 77 | Page 135

An element X forms two oxides XO and XO2. The oxide XO is neutral but XO2 is acidic in nature. The element X is most likely to be:
(a) sulphur
(b) carbon
(c) calcium
(d) hydrogen

Q 78 | Page 135

The elements whose oxides can turn litmus solution blue are:
(a) carbon and sulphur
(b) sodium and carbon
(c) potassium and magnesium
(d) magnesium and sulphur

Q 79 | Page 135

The elements whose oxides can turn litmus solution red are:
(a) lithium and sodium
(b) copper and potassium
(c) carbon and hydrogen
(d) phosphorus and sulphur

Q 80 | Page 136

Zinc oxide is a metal oxide. Which of the following term best describes the nature of zinc oxide:
(a) an acidic oxide
(b) a basic oxide
(c) an amphoteric oxide
(d) a neutral oxide

Q 81 | Page 136

A metal less reactive and another metal more reactive than hydrogen are:
(a) aluminium and lead
(b) iron and magnesium
(c) copper and tin
(d) copper and mercury

Q 82 | Page 136

An element E reacts with water to form a solution which turns phenolphthalein solution pink. The element E is most likely to be:
(a) S
(b) Ca
(c) C
(d) Ag

Q 83 | Page 136

An element reacts with oxygen to give a compound with a high melting point. This compound is also soluble in water. The element is likely to be:
(a) calcium
(b) carbon
(c) silicon
(d) iron

Q 84 | Page 136

Which one of the following four metals would be displaced from the solution of its salt by the other three metals?
(a) Zn
(b) Ag
(c) Cu
(d) Mg

Q 85 | Page 136

An element is soft and can be cut with a knife. If is very reactive and cannot be kept open in the air. It reacts vigorously with water. The element is most likely to be:
(a) Mg
(b) S
(c) P
(d) Na

Q 86 | Page 136

Which of the following metal exists in the liquid state?
(a) Na
(b) Ag
(c) Cr
(d) Hg

Q 87 | Page 136

Which of the following non-metal is a liquid?
(a) carbon
(b) sulphur
(c) bromine
(d) iodine

Q 88 | Page 135

Which of the following pair of reactants can undergo a displacement reaction under appropriate conditions?
(a) MgSO4 + Fe
(b) ZnSO4 + Fe
(c) MgSO4 + Pb
(d) CuSO4 + Fe

Q 89 | Page 135

An element E forms an oxide E2O. An aqueous solution of E2O turns red litmus paper blue.
(a) What is the nature of the oxide E2O?
(b) State whether element E is a metal or a non-metal.
(c) Give one example of an element like E.

Q 90 | Page 136

Metal A burns in air, on heating, to form an oxide A2O3 whereas another metal B burns in air only on strong heating to form an oxide BO. The two oxides A2O3 and BO can react with hydrochloric acid as well as sodium hydroxide solution to form the corresponding salts and water.
(a) What is the nature of oxide A2O3?
(b) What is the nature of oxide BO?
(c) Name one metal like A.
(b) Name one metal like B.

Q 91 | Page 136

An element X forms two oxides XO and XO2. The oxide XO has no action on litmus solution but oxide XO2 turns litmus solution red.
(a) What is the nature of oxide XO?
(b) What is the nature of oxide XO2?
(c) Would you call element X a metal or a non-metal? Give reason for your choice.
(d) Can you give an example of element like X?

Q 92 | Page 136

State and explain the reaction, if any, of the following metals with a solution of copper sulphate:
(a) Gold
(b) Copper
(c) Zinc
(d) Mercury

Q 93 | Page 136

(a) Give the names and formulae of one metal chloride and one non-metal chloride.
(b) State an important property in which these metal chloride and non-metal chloride differ.
(c) Why do they differ in this property?

Q 94 | Page 137

In a solution of lead acetate, a strip of metal M was dipped. After some time, lead from the solution was deposited on the metal strip. Which metal is more reactive, M or lead?

Q 95 | Page 137

CuSO4(aq) + Fe(s) → FeSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

FeSO4(aq) + Zn(s) → ZnSO4(aq) + Fe(s)

On the basis of the above reactions, indicate which is most reactive and which is least reactive metal out of zinc, copper and iron.

Q 96 | Page 137

Which of the following reactions will not occur? Why not?

(a) MgSO(aq) + Cu (s) → CuSO(aq) + Mg (s)

(b) CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) → FeSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)

(c) MgSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) → FeSO4 (aq) + Mg (s)

Q 97 | Page 137

In nature, metal A is found in a free state while metal B is found in the form of its compounds. Which of these two will be nearer to the top of the activity series of metals?

Q 98 | Page 137

If A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J and K represent metals in the decreasing order of their reactivity, which one of them is most likely to occur in a free state in nature?

Q 99.1 | Page 137

Name a metal which does not react with cold as well as hot water but reacts with steam.

Q 99.2 | Page 137

Name a metal which It does not react with any physical state of water?

Q 99.3 | Page 137

When calcium metal is added to water, the gas evolved does not catch fire but the same gas evolved on adding sodium metal to water catches fire. Why is it so?

Q 100 | Page 137

A zinc plate was kept in a glass container having CuSO4 solution. On examining it was found that the blue colour of the solution is getting lighter and lighter. After a few days, when the zinc plate was taken out of the solution, a number of small holes were noticed in it. State the reason and give chemical equation of the reaction involved.

Chapter 3: Metals and Non-metals solutions [Pages 167 - 172]

Q 1.1 | Page 167

What is the name of the chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms?

Q 1.2 | Page 167

What is the name of the chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another?

Q 2 | Page 167

Name a carbon containing molecule which has two double bonds.

Q 3 | Page 167

What would be the electron-dot structure of carbon dioxide which has the formula CO2?

Q 4.1 | Page 167

What type of chemical bond is formed between  potassium and bromine?

Q 4.2 | Page 167

What type of chemical bond is formed between carbon and bromine?

Q 5.1 | Page 167

 What do we call those particles which have more or less electrons than the normal atoms?

Q 5.2 | Page 167

What do we call  those particles which have more electrons than the normal atoms?

Q 5.3 | Page 167

What do we call those particles which have less electrons than the normal atoms?

Q 6.1 | Page 167

The atomic number of sodium is 11. What is the number of electrons in Na+?

Q 6.2 | Page 167

The atomic number of chlorine is 17. What is the number of electrons in Cl?

Q 7 | Page 167

The atomic number of an element X is 8 and that of element Y is 12. Write down the symbols of the ions you would expect to be formed from their atoms.

Q 8.1 | Page 167

 Write down the electronic configuration of magnesium atom.

(At. No. of Mg = 12)

Q 8.2 | Page 167

Write down the electronic configuration of magnesium ion.
(At. No. of Mg = 12)

Q 8.3 | Page 167

Write down the electronic configuration of sulphur atom.
(At. No. of S = 16)

Q 8.4 | Page 167

Write down the electronic configuration of sulphide ion.
(At. No. of S = 16)

Q 9 | Page 167

What type of chemical bonds are present in a solid compound which has a high melting point, does not conduct electricity in the solid state but becomes a good conductor in the molten state?

Q 10 | Page 167

State whether the following statement is true or false:
The aqueous solution of an ionic compound conducts electricity because there are plenty of free electrons in the solution.

Q 11 | Page 167

What type of bonds are present in hydrogen chloride and oxygen?

Q 12.1 | Page 167

Write the electron-dot structure for the following molecule?

NaCl

Q 12.2 | Page 167

Write the electron-dot structure for the following molecule?

Cl2

Q 13 | Page 167

What type of bonds are present in water molecule? Draw the electron-dot structure of water (H2O).

Q 14 | Page 167

What type of bonds are present in methane (CH4) and sodium chloride (NaCl)?

Q 15 | Page 167

State one major difference between covalent and ionic bonds and give one example each of covalent and ionic compounds.

Q 16.1 | Page 167

What type of bonds are present in H molecule? Draw their electron-dot structures.

Q 16.2 | Page 167

What type of bonds are present in CH4  molecule? Draw their electron-dot structures.

Q 16.3 | Page 167

What type of bonds are present in Cl2 molecule? Draw their electron-dot structures.

Q 16.4 | Page 167

What type of bonds are present in CO2 molecule? Draw their electron-dot structures.

Q 17 | Page 167

Which inert gas electron configuration do the Cl atoms in Cl2 molecule resemble? What is this electron configuration?

Q 18 | Page 167

Which of the following compounds are ionic and which are covalent?
Urea, Cane sugar, Hydrogen chloride, Sodium chloride, Ammonium chloride, Carbon tetrachloride, Ammonia, Alcohol, Magnesium chloride.

Q 19.1 | Page 167

Give one example of a molecule containing a single covalent bond.

Q 19.2 | Page 167

Give one example of a molecule containing a double covalent bond

Q 19.3 | Page 167

Give one example of a molecule containing a triple covalent bond.

Q 19.4 | Page 167

Give one example of a molecule containing a ionic covalent bond.

Q 20.1 | Page 167

Fill in the blank in the following sentence:

Two atoms of the same element combine to form a molecule. The bond between them is known as ................ bond.

Q 20.2 | Page 167

Fill in the blank in the following sentence:

Two chlorine atoms combine to form a molecule. The bond between them is known as ..........

Q 20.3 | Page 167

Fill in the blanks in the following sentence:

In forming oxygen molecule, .............. electrons are shared by each atom of oxygen.

Q 20.4 | Page 167

Fill in the blank in the following sentence:

In forming N2 molecule, .............. electrons are shared by each atom of nitrogen.

Q 20.5 | Page 167

Fill in the blank in the following sentence:

The number of single covalent bonds in C2H2 molecule are ...........

Q 21.1 | Page 168

What is a covalent bond? 

Q 21.2 | Page 168

What type of bond exist in CCl4?

Q 21.3 | Page 168

What type of bond exist in Cacl2?

Q 21.4 | Page 168

What is an ionic bond? 

Q 21.5 | Page 168

What type of bond is present in oxygen molecule?

Q 22.1 | Page 168

What is an ion? Explain with examples?

Q 22.2 | Page 168

 What is the nature of charge on a cation?

Q 22.3 | Page 168

What is the nature of charge on an anion?

Q 22.4 | Page 168

Name the cation and anion present in MgCl2. Also write their symbols.

Q 23.1 | Page 168

What type of chemical bond is present in chlorine molecule? Explain your answer.

Q 23.2 | Page 168

 Explain the formation of a chlorine molecule on the basis of electronic theory of valency.

Q 24.1 | Page 168

Give one example , state what are ionic compounds?

Q 24.2 | Page 168

Give one example, state what are covalent compounds?

Q 24.3 | Page 168

Compare the properties of ionic compounds and covalent compounds.

Q 25.1 | Page 168

Explain why covalent compounds have generally high melting points?

Q 25.2 | Page 168

Why do ionic compounds have high melting points

Q 26.1 | Page 168

Give two general properties of ionic compounds and two those of covalent compounds.

Q 26.2 | Page 168

State one test by which sodium chloride can be distinguished from sugar.

Q 27.1 | Page 168

Explain why, ionic compounds conduct electricity in solution whereas covalent compounds do not conduct electricity.

Q 27.2 | Page 168

will MgCl2 conduct electricity or not?

give reason for your choice.

Q 27.3 | Page 168

will CCl4 conduct electricity or not?

give reason for your choice.

Q 27.4 | Page 168

will NaCl conduct electricity or not?

give reason for your choice.

Q 27.5 | Page 168

will  CS2 conduct electricity or not?

give reason for your choice.

Q 27.6 | Page 168

will Na2S conduct electricity or not?

give reason for your choice.

Q 28.1 | Page 168

Name one ionic compound containing chlorine.

Q 28.2 | Page 168

Name one  covalent compound containing chlorine.

Q 28.3 | Page 168

 How will you find out which of the water soluble compound A or B is ionic?

Q 29 | Page 168

Explain why, a solution of cane sugar does not conduct electricity but a solution of common salt is a good conductor of electricity.

Q 30.1 | Page 168

Give the formula of the compound that would be formed by the combination of the following pair of elements:

 Mg and N2

Q 30.2 | Page 168

Give the formula of the compound that would be formed by the combination of the following pair of elements:

Li and O2

Q 30.3 | Page 168

Give the formula of the compound that would be formed by the combination of the following pair of elements:

 Al and Cl2

Q 30.4 | Page 168

Give the formula of the compound that would be formed by the combination of the following pair of elements:

K and H

Q 31.1 | Page 168

What are noble gases

Q 31.2 | Page 168

What is the characteristic of the electronic configuration of noble gases?

Q 31.3 | Page 168

What is the cause of chemical bonding (or chemical combination) of atoms of elements?

Q 32.1 | Page 168

Write electron-dot structures for magnesium and oxygen.

Q 32.2 | Page 168

Show the formation of MgO by the transfer of electrons.

Q 32.3 | Page 168

What are the ions present in this compound?

Q 33.1 | Page 168

Draw the electron-dot structure of a hydrogen chloride molecule.

Q 33.2 | Page 168

Which inert gas does the H atom in HCl resemble in electron arrangement?

Q 33.3 | Page 168

Which inert gas does the Cl atom in HCl resemble in electron arrangement?

Q 34.1 | Page 168

What type of bonding would you expect between Calcium and Oxygen? 

Q 34.2 | Page 168

What type of bonding would you expect between Carbon and Chlorine? 

Q 34.3 | Page 168

What type of bonding would you expect between Hydrogen and Chlorine? 

Q 35 | Page 169

Describe how sodium and chlorine atoms are changed into ions when they react with each other to form sodium chloride, NaCl. What is the name given to this type of bonding? (At. No of sodium = 11; At. No. of chlorine = 17)

Q 36 | Page 169

What is the difference between a cation and an anion? How are they formed? Give the names and symbols of one cation and one anion.

Q 37 | Page 169

Using electron-dot diagrams which show only the outermost shell electrons, show how a molecule of nitrogen, N2, is formed from two nitrogen atoms. What name is given to this type of bonding? (Atomic number of nitrogen is 7)

Q 38.1 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of  CO2  compound and state the type of bonding.

Q 38.2 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of  MgO  compound and state the type of bonding.

Q 38.3 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of H2O  compound and state the type of bonding.

Q 38.4 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of  HCl  compound and state the type of bonding.

Q 38.5 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of  MgCl2  compound and state the type of bonding.

Q 39 | Page 169

Using electron-dot diagrams which show only the outermost shell electrons, show how a molecule of oxygen, O2, is formed from two oxygen atoms. What name is given to this type of bonding? (At. No. of oxygen = 8)

Q 40.1 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of KCl and state the type of bonding. 

Q 40.2 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of NHand state the type of bonding. 

Q 40.3 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of CaO and state the type of bonding. 

Q 40.4 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of N2 and state the type of bonding. 

Q 40.5 | Page 169

Draw the electron-dot structure of CaCl2 and state the type of bonding. 

Q 41 | Page 169

Explain why, a salt which does not conduct electricity in the solid state becomes a good conductor in molten state.

Q 42.1 | Page 169

Write down the electronic configuration of sodium atom.

Q 42.2 | Page 169

Write down the electronic configuration of chlorine atom.

Q 42.3 | Page 169

 How many electrons are there in the outermost shell of a sodium atom.

Q 42.4 | Page 169

How many electrons are there in the outermost shell of  a chlorine atom?

Q 42.5 | Page 169

Show the formation of NaCl from sodium and chlorine atoms by the transfer of electron(s).

Q 42.6 | Page 169

Why has sodium chloride a high melting point?

Q 42.7 | Page 169

Name the anode and the cathode used in the electrolytic refining of impure copper metal.

Q 43.1 | Page 169

Write the electron arrangement in a magnesium atom.

Q 43.2 | Page 169

Write the electron arrangement in an oxygen atom.

Q 43.3 | Page 169

How many electrons are there in the valence shell of  a magnesium atom?

Q 43.4 | Page 169

How many electrons are there in the valence shell of an oxygen atom?

Q 43.5 | Page 169

Show on a diagram the transfer of electrons between the atoms in the formation of MgO.

Q 43.6 | Page 169

Name the solvent in which ionic compounds are generally soluble.

Q 43.7 | Page 169

Why are aqueous solution of ionic compounds able to conduct electricity?

Q 44.1 | Page 169

What is the electronic configuration of a sodium atom?

Q 44.2 | Page 169

What is the electronic configuration of an oxygen atom?

Q 44.3 | Page 169

What is the number of outermost electrons in a sodium atom?

Q 44.4 | Page 169

What is the number of outermost electrons in an oxygen atom?

Q 44.5 | Page 169

Show the formation of Na2O by the transfer of electrons between the combining atoms.

Q 44.6 | Page 169

Why are ionic compounds usually hard ?

Q 44.7 | Page 169

 How is it that ionic compounds in the solid state do not conduct electricity but they do so when in molten state?

Q 45.1 | Page 169

Write the electron arrangement in a magnesium atom.

Q 45.2 | Page 169

Write down the electron arrangement in a chlorine atom.

Q 45.3 | Page 169

How many electrons are there in the valence shell of  a magnesium atom?

Q 45.4 | Page 169

How many electrons are there in the valence shell of a chlorine atom?

Q 45.5 | Page 169

Show the formation of magnesium chloride from magnesium and chlorine by the transfer of electrons.

Q 45.6 | Page 169

State whether magnesium chloride will conduct electricity or not. Give reason for your answer.

Q 45.7 | Page 169

Why are covalent compounds generally poor conductors of electricity?

Q 46 | Page 169

The atomic number of an element X is 19. The number of electrons in its ion X+ will be:
(a) 18
(b) 19
(c) 20
(d) 21

Q 47 | Page 169

The atomic number of an element Y is 17. The number of electrons in its ion Y will be:
(a) 17
(b) 18
(c) 19
(d) 20

Q 48 | Page 169

The atomic numbers of four elements A, B, C and D are 6, 8, 10 and 12 respectively. The two elements which can react to form ionic bonds (or ionic compound) are:
(a) A and D
(b) B and C
(c) A and C
(d) B and C

Q 49 | Page 169

The atomic numbers of four elements P, Q, R and S are 6, 10, 12 and 17 respectively. Which two elements can combine to form a covalent compound?
(a) P and R
(b) Q and S
(c) P and S
(d) R and S

Q 50 | Page 170

The solution of one of the following compounds will not conduct electricity. This compounds is:
(a) NaCl
(b) CCl4
(c) MgCl2
(d) CaCl2

Q 51 | Page 170

The electronic configurations of three elements X, Y and Z are:

X : 2 Y : 2, 8, 7 Z : 2, 8, 2

Which of the following is correct regarding these elements?
(a) X is a metal
(b) Y is a metal
(c) Z is a non-metal
(d) Y is a non-metal and Z is a metal

Q 52 | Page 170

Which one of the following property is generally not exhibited by ionic compounds?
(a) solubility in water
(b) electrical conductivity in solid state
(c) high melting and boiling points
(d) electrical conductivity in molten state

Q 53 | Page 170

The electrons present in the valence shell of a noble gas atom can be:
(a) 8 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 8 or 2
(d) 8 or 4

Q 54 | Page 170

The atomic number of an element X is 16. The symbol of ion formed by an atom of this element will be:
(a) X2+
(b) X3+
(c) X2
(d) X

Q 55 | Page 170

The number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of an element Y is 5. The symbol of ion formed by an atom of this element will be:
(a) Y3
(b) Y2+
(c) Y2−
(d) Y3+

Q 56 | Page 170

Out of KCl, HCl, CCl4 and NaCl, the compounds which are not ionic are:
(a) KCl and HCl
(b) HCl and CCl4
(c) CCl4 and NaCl
(d) KCl and CCl4

Q 57 | Page 170

Element X reacts with element Y to form a compound Z. During the formation of compound Z, atoms of X lose one electron each whereas atoms of Y gain one electron each. Which of the following property is not shown by compound Z?
(a) high melting point
(b) low melting point
(c) occurrence as solid
(d) conduction of electricity in molten state

Q 58 | Page 170

One of the following compounds is not ionic in nature. This compound is:
(a) Lithium chloride
(b) Ammonium chloride
(c) Calcium chloride
(d) Carbon tetrachloride

Q 59 | Page 170

The rechargeable battery used in a mobile phone hand set is usually:
(a) lead ion battery
(b) sodium ion battery
(c) hydrogen ion battery
(d) lithium ion battery

Q 60 | Page 170

The number of protons in one atom of an element X is 8. What will be the number of electrons in its ion X2?
(a) 8
(b) 9
(c) 10
(d) 11

Q 61 | Page 170

If the number of protons in one atom of an element Y is 20, then the number of electrons in its ion Y2+will be:
(a) 20
(b) 19
(c) 18
(d) 16

Q 62 | Page 170

The noble gas having only two electrons in its valence shell is:
(a) Ar
(b) Ne
(c) He
(d) Kr

Q 63 | Page 170

A covalent molecule having a double bond between its atoms is:
(a) Hydrogen
(b) Oxygen
(c) water
(d) ammonia

Q 64 | Page 170

The molecules having triple bond in them are:
(a) oxygen and ethyne
(b) carbon dioxide and ammonia
(c) methane and ethene
(d) nitrogen and ethyne

Q 65 | Page 170

One of the following contains a double bond as well as single bonds. This is:
(a) CO2
(b) O2
(c) C2H4
(d) C2H2

Q 66 | Page 170

Which of the following has a triple bond as well as single bonds?
(a) ethene
(b) methane
(c) ethyne
(d) nitrogen

Q 67 | Page 171

Two non-metals combine with each other by the sharing of electrons to form a compound X.
(a) What type of chemical bond is present in X?
(b) State whether X will have a high melting point or low melting point.
(c) Will it be a good conductor of electricity or not?
(d) Will it dissolve in an organic solvent or not?

Q 68 | Page 171

A metal combines with a non-metal by the transfer of electrons to form a compound Y.
(i) State the type of bonds in Y.
(ii) What can you say about its melting point and boiling point?
(iii) Will it be a good conductor of electricity?
(iv) Will it dissolve in an organic solvent or not?

Q 69 | Page 171

The electronic configurations of three elements X, Y and Z are as follows:

X 2, 4
Y 2, 7
Z 2, 1

(a) Which two elements will combine to form an ionic compound?
(b) Which two elements will react to form a covalent compound?
Give reasons for your choice.

Q 70 | Page 171

An element A has 4 valence electrons in its atom whereas element B has only one valence electron in its atom. The compound formed by A and B does not conduct electricity. What is the nature of chemical bond in the compound formed? Give its electron-dot structure.

Q 71 | Page 171

In the formation of a compound XY2 atom X gives one electron to each Y atom. What is the nature of bond in XY2? Give two properties of XY2.

Q 72 | Page 171

An element 'A' has two electrons in the outermost shell of its atom and combines with an element 'B' having seven electrons in the outermost shell, forming the compound AB2. The compound when dissolved in water conducts electric current. Giving reasons, state the nature of chemical bond in the compound.

Q 73 | Page 171

The electronic configurations of two elements A and B are given below:

A 2, 6
B 2, 8, 1

(a) What type of chemical bond is formed between the two atoms of A?
(b) What type of chemical bond will be formed between the atoms of A and B?

Q 74 | Page 171

Four elements A, B, C and D have the following electron arrangements in their atoms:

A 2, 8, 6
B 2, 8, 8
C 2, 8, 8, 1
D 2, 7

(a) What type of bond is formed when element C combines with element D?
(b) Which element is an inert gas?
(c) What will be the formula of the compound between A and C?

Q 75 | Page 171

An element X of atomic number 12 combines with an element Y of atomic number 17 to form a compound XY2. State the nature of chemical bond in XY2 and show how the electron configurations of X and Y change in the formation of this compound.

Q 76 | Page 171

The electronic configurations of three elements A, B and C are as follows:

A 2, 8, 1
B 2, 8, 7
C 2, 4

(a) Which of these element is a metal?
(b) Which of these elements are non-metals?
(c) Which two elements will combine to form an ionic bond?
(d) Which two elements will combine to form a covalent bond?
(e) Which element will form an anion of valency 1?

Q 77 | Page 172

The electronic configurations of four particles A, B, C and D given below:

A 2, 8, 8
B 2, 8, 2
C 2, 6
D 2, 8

Which electronic configuration represents:
(i) magnesium atom?
(ii) oxygen atom?
(iii) sodium ion
(iv) chloride ion?

Q 78 | Page 172

The atomic number of an element X is 12.
(a) What must an atom of X do to attain the nearest inert gas electron configuration?
(b) Which inert gas is nearest to X?

Q 79 | Page 172

The atomic number of an element Y is 16.
(a) What must an atom of Y do to achieve the nearest inert gas electron arrangement?
(b) Which inert gas is nearest to Y?

Q 80 | Page 172

You can buy solid air-freshners in shops. Do you think these substance are ionic or covalent? Why?

Q 81 | Page 172

Give the formulae of the chlorides of the elements X and Y having atomic numbers of 3 and 6 respectively. Will the properties of the two chlorides be similar or different? Explain your answer.

Chapter 3: Metals and Non-metals solutions [Pages 191 - 196]

Q 1 | Page 191

A zinc ore gave CO2 on treatment with a dilute acid. Identify the ore and write its chemical formula.

Q 2 | Page 191

What chemical process is used for obtaining a metal from its oxide?

Q 3 | Page 191

Write two methods of preventing the rusting of iron.

Q 4 | Page 191

What is meant by galvanisation? Why is it done?

Q 5 | Page 191

Name the metal which is used for galvanising iron.

Q 6 | Page 191

Explain why, iron sheets are coated with zinc.

Q 7 | Page 191

Why do we apply paint on iron articles?

Q 8 | Page 191

Give reasons Carbonate and sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides during the process of extraction.

Q 9 | Page 191

Name a reducing agent that may be used to obtain manganese from manganese dioxide.

Q 10 | Page 191

Name an alloy of lead and tin.

Q 11 | Page 191

Give the composition of an alloy called solder. State its one property and one use.

Q 12 | Page 191

What is an amalgam?

Q 13 | Page 191

How many carats is pure gold? Why is pure gold not suitable for making ornaments?

Q 14 | Page 191

Name one method for the refining of metals.

Q 15 | Page 191

State two conditions for the rusting of iron.

Q 16 | Page 191

In one method of rust prevention, the iron is not coated with anything. Which is this method?

Q 17 | Page 191

Name two alloys of iron. What elements are present in these alloys?

Q 18 | Page 191

Give reasons Platinum, gold and silver are used to make jewellery.

Q 19 | Page 191

Which metal becomes black in the presence of hydrogen sulphide gas in air?

Q 20 | Page 191

Name the gas in air which tarnishes silver articles slowly.

Q 21 | Page 191

Silver metal does not combine easily with oxygen but silver jewellery tarnishes after some time. How?

Q 22.1 | Page 191

Write the composition of the alloy called bronze.

Q 22.2 | Page 191

Give two uses of bronze.

Q 23 | Page 191

Why does a new aluminium vessel lose shine so soon after use?

Q 24 | Page 191

Why do gold ornaments look new even after several years of use?

Q 25 | Page 191

Name two metals which are highly resistant to corrosion.

Q 26 | Page 191

Which property of 'solder' alloy makes it suitable for welding electrical wires?

Q 27 | Page 191

Explain why, carbon cannot reduce oxides of sodium or magnesium.

Q 28 | Page 191

Why are the metals like Na, K, Ca and Mg never found in their free state in nature?

Q 29.1 | Page 191

Name one metal which is extracted by reduction with carbon.

Q 29.2 | Page 191

Name one metal which is extracted by electrolytic reduction.

Q 29.3 | Page 191

Name one metal which is extracted by reduction with aluminium.

Q 29.4 | Page 191

Name one metal which is extracted by reduction with heat alone.

Q 30.01 | Page 191

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The corrosion of iron is called ................

Q 30.02 | Page 191

Fill in the following blanks with suitable words:
............ and .............. are necessary for the rusting of iron.

Q 30.03 | Page 191

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:
The process of depositing a thin layer of zinc on iron articles is called .............

Q 30.04 | Page 191

Fill in the following blanks with suitable words:
Tiffin boxes are electroplated with .............. but car bumpers are electroplated with ............... to protect them from rusting.

Q 30.05 | Page 191

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The corrosion of copper produces a .............. coating of basic copper carbonate on its surface

Q 30.06 | Page 191

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

Brass is an alloy of copper and .........

Q 30.07 | Page 191

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

Bronze is an alloy of copper and .........

Q 30.08 | Page 191

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

 The non-metal present in steel is ............

Q 30.09 | Page 191

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The alloy in which one of the metals is mercury is called an ...............

Q 30.1 | Page 191

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The electrical conductivity and melting point of an alloy is ........... than that of pure metals.

Q 30.11 | Page 191

Fill in the following blank with suitable word:

The rocky material found with ores is called.............

Q 31 | Page 192

How is manganese extracted from manganese dioxide, MnO2? Explain with the help of an equation.

 
Q 32 | Page 192

What is a thermite reaction? Explain with the help of an equation. State one use of this reaction.

Q 33 | Page 192

Which one of the methods given in column I is applied for the extraction of each of the metals given in column II:

Column I Column II
Electrolytic reduction Aluminium
Reduction with Carbon Zinc
Reduction with Aluminium Sodium
  Iron
  Manganese
  Tin

 

Q 34.1 | Page 192

 Give reasons why copper is used to make hot water tanks and not steel (an alloy of iron).

Q 34.2 | Page 192

Explain why, the surface of some metals acquires a dull appearance when exposed to air for a long time.

Q 35.1 | Page 192

Why does aluminium not corrode right through?

Q 35.2 | Page 192

What is anodising? Give its applications.

Q 36.1 | Page 192

Why is an iron grill painted frequently?

Q 36.2 | Page 192

Explain why, through aluminium is more reactive than iron, yet there is less corrosion of aluminium when both are exposed to air.

Q 37.1 | Page 192

Name the method by which aluminium metal is extracted.

Q 37.2 | Page 192

Give the name and chemical formula of one ore of copper.

Q 37.3 | Page 192

 How is zinc extracted from its carbonate or (calamine)? Explain with equations.

Q 38.1 | Page 192

 Name two metals which occur in nature in free state as well as in combined state.

Q 38.2 | Page 192

Name one ore of manganese. Which compound of manganese is present in this ore? Also write its chemical formula.

Q 38.3 | Page 192

A zinc ore on heating in air forms sulphur dioxide. Describe briefly any two stages involved in the conversion of this concentrated ore into zinc metal.

Q 40 | Page 192

Explain giving one example, how highly reactive metals (which are high up in the reactivity series) are extracted.

Q 41 | Page 192

Describe with one example, how moderately reactive metals (which are in the middle of reactivity series) are extracted.

Q 42 | Page 192

How are the less reactive metals (which are quite low in the reactivity series) extracted? Explain with the help of an example.

Q 43 | Page 192

What is meant by refining of a metal? Name the most widely used method for the refining of impure metals obtained by various reduction processes. Describe this method with the help of a labelled diagram by taking the example of any metal.

Q 44.1 | Page 192

Define the term mineral.

Q 44.2 | Page 192

Define the term ore.

Q 44.3 | Page 192

What is meant by the 'concentration of ore'?

Q 44.3 | Page 192

Define the terms gangue.

Q 44.5 | Page 192

Name one ore of copper (other than cuprite). Which compound of copper is present in this ore? Also, write its chemical formula.

Q 45 | Page 193

Explain how, a reduction reaction of aluminium can be used for welding cracked machine parts of iron. Write a chemical equation for the reaction involved.

Q 46.1 | Page 193

What is corrosion?

Q 46.2 | Page 193

 Name any two metals which do not corrode easily.

Q 46.3 | Page 193

What is the corrosion of iron known as?

Q 46.4 | Page 193

Give reasons Aluminium is a highly reactive metal, yet it is used to make utensils for cooking.

Q 47 | Page 193

What is meant by 'rusting of iron'? With the help of labelled diagrams, describe an activity to find out the conditions under which iron rusts.

Q 48.1 | Page 193

What is an alloy? How is an alloy made?

Q 48.2 | Page 193

What elements are present in steel? How are the properties of steel different from those of pure iron?

Q 48.3 | Page 193

Give the constituents and one use of brass.

Q 49.1 | Page 193

Name two metals which resist corrosion due to the formation of a thin, hard and impervious layer of oxide on their surface.

Q 49.2 | Page 193

 Name five methods of preventing rusting of iron.

Q 49.3 | Page 193

What are the constituents of stainless steel?

Q 49.4 | Page 193

What are the special properties of stainless steel?

Q 50.1 | Page 193

Name an alloy of copper. State its chemical composition and any one use.

Q 50.2 | Page 193

Explain why, when a copper object remains in damp air for a considerable time, a green coating is formed on its surface. What is this process known as?

Q 51.2 | Page 193

How does the electrical conductivity of copper alloys, brass and bronze, differ from that of pure copper?

Q 51.3 | Page 193

What is meant by 22 carat gold? Name the metals which are usually alloyed with gold to make it harder.

Q 52.1 | Page 193

Explain given equation, what happens when ZnCO3 is heated in the absence of air?

Q 52.2 | Page 193

Explain givem equation, what happens when a mixture of Cu2O and Cu2S is heated?

Q 53.1 | Page 193

 For the reduction of metal oxide, suggest a reducing agent other than carbon.

Q 53.2 | Page 193

Explain why, an aqueous solution of sodium chloride is not used for the electrolytic extraction of sodium metal.

Q 54 | Page 193

How are metals refined by the electrolytic process? Describe the electrolytic refining of copper with the help of a neat labelled diagram.

Q 55.1 | Page 193

Name the chemical compound which is electrolysed in molten state to obtain aluminium metal. Which gas is evolved during this process?

Q 55.2 | Page 193

Name the chemical compound which is electrolysed in molten state to obtain sodium metal. Which gas is produced in this process?

Q 55.3 | Page 193

Name the gas produced when calamine ore is calcined.

 

Q 55.4 | Page 193

 Name the gas evolved when cinnabar ore is roasted.

Q 56.1 | Page 193

Name two metals which are found in nature mainly in the free state (as metallic elements).

Q 56.2 | Page 193

 Name two metals which are always found in combined state.

Q 56.3 | Page 193

What iron compound is present in haematite ore? Also write its chemical formula.

Q 57.1 | Page 193

What is the difference between a mineral and an ore?

Q 57.2 | Page 193

Which metal is extracted from cinnabar ore?

Q 57.3 | Page 193

Name one ore of sodium. Name the sodium compound present in this ore and write its chemical formula.

Q 57.4 | Page 193

How is sodium metal extracted? Explain with the help of equation of the reaction involved.

Q 57.5 | Page 193

Name three other metals which are extracted in a manner similar to sodium.

Q 58.1 | Page 193

Name the metal which is extracted from haematite ore.

Q 58.2 | Page 193

Name one ore of aluminium. Name the aluminium compound present in this ore and write its chemical formula.

Q 58.3 | Page 193

How is aluminium metal extracted? Explain with the help of an equation.

Q 58.4 | Page 193

Name the electrode at which aluminium metal is produced.

Q 58.5 | Page 193

Which gas is produced during the extraction of aluminium? At which electrode is this gas produced?

Q 59.1 | Page 194

Which metal is extracted from bauxite ore?

Q 59.2 | Page 194

Give the name of one ore of iron. Which iron compound is present in this ore? Write its chemical formula.

Q 59.3 | Page 194

Describe the extraction of zinc metal from its sulphide ore (zinc blende). Write equations of the reactions involved.

Q 59.4 | Page 194

Explain why, the galvanised iron article is protected against rusting even if the zinc layer is broken.

Q 59.5 | Page 194

 Name a common metal which is highly resistant to corrosion.

Q 60.1 | Page 194

Name the metal which is extracted from the ore called 'rock salt'.

Q 60.2 | Page 194

Name two ores of zinc. Write the names of the chemical compounds present in them and give their chemical formulae.

Q 60.3 | Page 194

Explain how, mercury is extracted from its sulphide ore (cinnabar). Give equations of the reactions involved.

Q 60.4 | Page 194

In the electrolytic refining of a metal M, what would you take as the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte?

Q 60.5 | Page 194

Name any five metals which are purified by electrolytic refining method.

Q 61.1 | Page 194

Which metal is extracted from calamine ore?

Q 61.2 | Page 194

Name one ore of mercury. Which mercury compound is present in this ore? Write its chemical formula.

Q 61.3 | Page 194

How is copper extracted from its sulphide ore (copper glance), Cu2S? Explain with equations of the reactions involved.

Q 61.4 | Page 194

What is an alloy? Give two examples of alloys.

Q 61.5 | Page 194

How are the properties of an alloy different from those of the constitutent elements?

Q 62 | Page 194

An ore of manganese metal is:
(a) bauxite
(b) haematite
(c) cuprite
(d) pyrolusite

Q 63 | Page 194

Which of the following is an iron ore?
(a) cinnabar
(b) calamine
(c) haematite
(d) rock salt

Q 64 | Page 194

The metal which can be extracted from the bauxite ore is:
(a) Na
(b) Mn
(c) Al
(d) Hg

Q 65 | Page 194

The two metals which can be extracted just by heating their sulphides in air are:
(a) sodium and copper
(b) copper and aluminium
(c) potassium and zinc
(d) mercury and copper

Q 66 | Page 194

A common metal which is highly resistant to corrosion is:
(a) iron
(b) copper
(c) aluminium
(d) magnesium

Q 67 | Page 194

An important ore of zinc metal is:
(a) calamine
(b) cuprite
(c) pyrolusite
(d) haematite

Q 68 | Page 194

The major ore of aluminium is known as:
(a) cinnabar
(b) calamine
(c) bauxite
(d) pyrolusite

Q 69 | Page 194

The two metals which are extracted by means of electrolytic reduction of their molten salts are:
(a) magnesium and manganese
(b) iron and aluminium
(c) zinc and magnesium
(d) magnesium and aluminium

Q 70 | Page 194

In stainless steel alloy, iron metal is mixed with:
(a) Cu and Cr
(b) Cr and Ni
(c) Cr and Sn
(d) Cu and Ni

Q 71 | Page 194

If copper is kept exposed to damp air for a considerable time, it gets a green coating on its surface. This is due to the formation of:
(a) hydrated copper sulphate
(b) copper oxide
(c) basic copper carbonate
(d) copper nitrate

Q 72 | Page 194

Which of the following alloys contains mercury as one of the constituents?
(a) stainless steel
(b) solder
(c) duralumin
(d) zinc amalgam

Q 73 | Page 194

Which of the following is an ore of mercury metal?
(a) rock salt
(b) cinnabar
(c) calamine
(d) haematite

Q 74 | Page 194

Calamine ore can be used to extract one of the following metals. This metal is:
(a) copper
(b) mercury
(c) aluminium
(d) zinc

Q 75 | Page 195

Which of the following pair of metals exists in their native state in nature?
(a) Ag and Hg
(b) Ag and Zn
(c) Au and Hg
(d) Au and Ag

Q 76 | Page 195

Which of the following reactants are used to carry out the thermite reaction required for welding the broken railway tracks?
(a) Al2O3 + Fe
(b) MnO2 + Al
(c) Fe2O3 + Al
(d) Cu2O + Fe

Q 77 | Page 195

Which of the following alloys contains a non-metal as one of the constituents?
(a) brass
(b) amalgam
(c) steel
(d) bronze

Q 78 | Page 195

During the refining of an impure metal by electrolysis, the pure metal is a deposited:
(a) at cathode
(b) on the walls of electrolytic tank
(c) at anode
(d) at the bottom of electrolytic tank

Q 79 | Page 194

Which of the following metals can be obtained from haematite ore?
(a) copper
(b) sodium
(c) zinc
(d) iron

Q 80 | Page 195

Brass is an alloy of:
(a) Cu and Sn
(b) Cu and Pb
(c) Pb and Sn
(d) Zn and Cu

Q 81 | Page 195

The metal which is always present in an amalgam is:
(a) iron
(b) aluminium
(c) mercury
(d) magnesium

Q 82 | Page 195

Manganese metal is extracted from manganese dioxide by a reduction process by making use of:
(a) carbon
(b) hydrogen
(c) electrolysis
(d) aluminium

Q 83 | Page 195

The metal which can be extracted simply by heating the cinnabar ore in air is:
(a) Zn
(b) Cu
(c) Al
(d) Hg

Q 84 | Page 195

During galvanisation, iron metal is given a thin coating of one of the following metals. This metal is:
(a) chromium
(b) tin
(c) zinc
(d) copper

Q 85 | Page 195

Which of the following metals are extracted by the electrolysis of their molten chlorides?
(a) Na and Hg
(b) Hg and Mg
(c) Na and Mg
(d) Cu and Fe

Q 86 | Page 195

Rock salt is an ore of one of the following metals. This metal is:
(a) Mn
(b) Na
(c) Fe
(d) Cu

Q 87 | Page 195

The articles made of silver metal become dark on prolonged exposure to air. This is due to the formation of a layer of its:
(a) oxide
(b) hydride
(c) sulphide
(d) carbonate

Q 88 | Page 195

A sulphide ore is converted into metal oxide by the process of:
(a) carbonation
(b) roasting
(c) calcination
(d) anodising

Q 89 | Page 195

The metal which can be extracted from pyrolusite ore is:
(a) mercury
(b) manganese
(c) aluminium
(d) magnesium

Q 90 | Page 195

Calamine ore can be converted into zinc oxide by the process of:
(a) dehydration
(b) roasting
(c) calcination
(d) sulphonation

Q 91 | Page 195

Zinc blende ore can be converted into zinc oxide by the process of:
(a) roasting
(b) hydrogenation
(c) chlorination
(d) calcination

Q 92 | Page 195

An element A which is a part of common salt and kept under kerosene reacts with another element B of atomic number 17 to give a product C. When an aqueous solution of product C is electrolysed then a compound D is formed and two gases are liberated.
(a) What are A and B?
(b) Identify C and D.
(c) What will be the action of C on litmus solution? Why?
(d) Write formula of the compound formed when element B reacts with an element E having atomic number 5.

Q 93 | Page 195

A metal which exists as a liquid at room temperature is obtained by heating its sulphide ore in the presence of air.
(a) Name the metal and write its chemical symbol.
(b) Write the name and formula of the sulphide ore.
(c) Give the equations of chemical reactions involved in the production of metal from its sulphide ore.
(d) Name a common device in which this metal is used.
(e) Can this metal displace copper from copper sulphate solution? Why?

Q 94 | Page 196

No chemical reaction takes place when granules of a rusty-brown solid A are mixed with the powder of another solid B. However, when the mixture is heated, a reaction takes place between its components. One of the products C is a metal and settles down in the molten state while the other product D floats over it. It was observed that the reaction is highly exothermic.
(a) What could the solids A and B be?
(b) What are the products C and D most likely to be?
(c) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between A and B leading to the formation of C and D. Mention the physical states of all the reactants and products in this equation and indicate the heat change which takes place.
(d) What is the special name of such a reaction? State one use of such a reaction.
(e) Name any two types of chemical reactions under which the above reaction can be classified.

Q 95 | Page 196

In an electrolytic tank, aluminium metal is being extracted by the electrolysis of molten aluminium oxide using carbon electrodes. It is observed that one of the carbon electrodes is gradually burnt away and has to be replaced.
(a) Which carbon electrode (cathode or anode) is burnt away?
(b) Why is this carbon electrode burnt away?

Q 96 | Page 196

A metal X which is resistant to corrosion is produced by the electrolysis of its molten oxide whereas another metal Y which is also resistant to corrosion is produced by the reduction of its oxide with carbon. Metal X can be used in powder form in thermite welding whereas metal Y is used in making cathodes of ordinary dry cells.
(a) Name the metals X and Y.
(b) Which of the two metals is more reactive : X or Y?
(c) Name one ore or metal X. Also write its chemical formula.
(d) Name one ore or metal Y. Also write its chemical formula.
(e) Name one alloy of metal X and one alloy of metal Y.

Q 97 | Page 196

When an object made of metal A is kept in air for a considerable time, it loses its shine and becomes almost black due to the formation of a layer of substance B. When an object made of another metal C is kept in damp air for a considerable time, it gets covered with a green layer of substance D. Metal A is the best conductor of electricity whereas metal C is the next best conductor of electricity.
(a) What is metal A?
(b) What is metal C?
(c) Name the substance B.
(d) Name the substance D.

Q 98 | Page 196

Four metals P, Q, R and S are all obtained by the reduction of their oxides with carbon. Metal P is used to form a thin layer over the sheets of metal S to prevent its corrosion. Metal Q is used for electroplating tiffin boxes made of metal S whereas metal R is used in making car batteries. Metals Q and R form an alloy called solder. What are metals P, Q, R and S? How have you arrived at this conclusion?

Q 99 | Page 196

A black metal oxide XO2 is used as a catalyst in the preparation of oxygen gas from potassium chlorate. The oxide XO2 is also used in ordinary dry cells. The metal oxide XO2 cannot be reduced satisfactorily with carbon to form metal X.
(a) Name the metal X.
(b) Name the metal oxide XO2.
(c) Which reducing agent can be used to reduce XO2 to obtain metal X?
(d) Name another metal which can also be extracted by the reduction of its oxide with the above reducing agent.

Q 100 | Page 196

Metals X and Y can be recovered from the anode mud left behind after the electrolytic refining of copper metal. The coins made of metal X look new even after several years of use but the coins made of metal Y lose their shine gradually and get blackened soon. When metal X is alloyed with a small amount of metal Y, it becomes hard and hence suitable for making ornaments. What are metals X and Y? Also state the colour of metal X.

Chapter 3: Metals and Non-metals

Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 (2019 Exam)

Chemistry for Class 10 (2019 Exam) - Shaalaa.com

Lakhmir Singh solutions for Class 10 Science chapter 3 - Metals and Non-metals

Lakhmir Singh solutions for Class 10 Science chapter 3 (Metals and Non-metals) include all questions with solution and detail explanation. This will clear students doubts about any question and improve application skills while preparing for board exams. The detailed, step-by-step solutions will help you understand the concepts better and clear your confusions, if any. Shaalaa.com has the CBSE Chemistry for Class 10 (2019 Exam) solutions in a manner that help students grasp basic concepts better and faster.

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Concepts covered in Class 10 Science chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals are Extracting Metals in the Middle of the Activity Series, Metal and Non Metals Introduction, Metal and Non Metals Questions, Formation and Properties of Covalent Compounds, Physical Properties - Metal, Physical Properties - Non Metal, Chemical Properties of Metals - When Metals React with Oxygen, Chemical Properties of Metals - When Metals React with Water, Chemical Properties of Metals - When Metals React with Acids, Chemical Properties of Metals - Metals React with Solutions of Other Metal Salts, Chemical Properties of Metals - Reactivity Series, Formation and Properties of Ionic Compounds, Corrosion and Its Prevention, Basic Metallurgical Processes, Extraction of Metals, Enrichment of Ores, Extracting Metals Low in the Activity Series, Extracting Metals Towards the Top of the Activity Series, Refining of Metals.

Using Lakhmir Singh Class 10 solutions Metals and Non-metals exercise by students are an easy way to prepare for the exams, as they involve solutions arranged chapter-wise also page wise. The questions involved in Lakhmir Singh Solutions are important questions that can be asked in the final exam. Maximum students of CBSE Class 10 prefer Lakhmir Singh Textbook Solutions to score more in exam.

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