Topics with syllabus and resources
- Various modes of heat transfer Viz. Conduction, Convection and Radiation.
- Fouriers law
- Steady state unidirectional heat flow through single and multiple layer slabs
- Cylinders and spheres for constant and variable thermal conductivity.
- Properties of insulation materials
- Types of insulation
- Critical and Optimum thickness of insulation.
4 Extended Surfaces
- Types of fins
- Derivation of fin efficiency for longitudinal fins
- Fin effectiveness.
- Elementary treatment of unsteady state heat conduction.
- Individual and overall heat transfer coefficient, LMTD, LMTD correction factor.
- Dimensionless numbers
- Dimensional analysis
- Empirical correlation for forced and natural convection.
- Analogy between momentum and heat transfer – Reynolds, Coulburn and Prandtl analogies.
6 Heat Transfer with Phase Change
- Boiling phenomena, Nucleate and film boiling
- Condensation – Film and Drop wise condensation, Nusselts equations.
- Properties and definitions
- Emissive power and intensity of radiation
- Black body radiation
- Gray body radiation
- Stefen – Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law, Kirchoffs law, View factors
- Radiation between surfaces- different shapes
- Radiation involving gases and vapours
- Radiation shields.
8 Heat Transfer Equipment
- Double pipe heat exchangers
- Shell and tube heat exchangers – Types of shell and tube heat exchangers
- Condenser – types of condensers.
- Design of heat exchanger.
- Types of evaporators
- performance of tubular evaporator – Evaporator capacity, Evaporator economy, Multiple effect evaporator.
- Molecular diffusion in fluids
- Diffusion coefficient
- Flick’s Law of diffusion
- Dependence of diffusion coefficient on temperature, pressure and composition
- Diffusion in multi-component gas mixtures.
- Diffusion in solids:- Molecular, Knudsen & surface diffusion Inter- phase mass transfer, Mass transfer coefficients
- Diffusion between phases
- Equilibrium solubility of gases in liquids
- Mass Transfer theories
- Mass transfer in fluidized beds, flow past solids and boundary layers
- Simultaneous heat and mass transfer.
11 Mass Transfer in Bioprocess Operations
- Role of Diffusion in Bioprocessing
- Oxygen Uptake in Cell Culture
- Factors affecting cellular oxygen demand
- oxygen transfer from gas bubble to cell
- oxygen transfer in fermenters
- sparging stirring and medium properties
- anti foaming agents
- gas pressure and oxygen partial pressure
- presence of cells
- measuring dissolved oxygen concentration
- estimating oxygen solubility
- effect of oxygen partial pressure
- effect of temperature
- effect of solutes
- mass transfer correlations
- measurement of kLa
- oxygen balance method
- dynamic method
- sulphite oxidation method
- oxygen transfer in large vessels.
- simple, steam & equilibrium distillation
- MccabeThiele method