CBCGS [2018 - current]

CBGS [2014 - 2017]

Old [2000 - 2013]

## Units and Topics

# | Unit/Topic | Marks |
---|---|---|

100 | Basic Concepts | - |

200 | Laws of Thermodynamics | - |

300 | PVT Behaviour | - |

400 | Biochemical Energetics | - |

500 | Properties of Pure Fluids | - |

600 | Fugacity and Activity | - |

700 | Properties of Solutions | - |

800 | Phase Equilibria | - |

Total | - |

## Syllabus

100 Basic Concepts

- System
- Surrounding & Processes
- Closed and Open systems
- State and Properties
- Intensive & Extensive Properties
- State and Path functions
- Equilibrium state and Phase rule
- Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
- Heat reservoir and Heat engines
- Reversible and Irreversible processes

200 Laws of Thermodynamics

- General statement of First law of Thermodynamics
- First law for Cyclic Process
- Non-Flow Process
- Flow process
- Heat capacity
- General statements of the second law
- Concept of entropy
- The Carnot principle
- Calculation of entropy changes
- Clausius inequality
- Entropy and Irreversibility
- Third law of Thermodynamics

300 PVT Behaviour

- PVT behaviour of pure fluids
- equations of state and ideal gas law
- Processes involving ideal gas law: Constant volume, constant pressure constant temperature, adiabatic and polytrophic processes.
- Equations of state for real gases: Van-der Waals equation, Redlich- Kwong equation, Peng-Robinson equation, virial equation.

400 Biochemical Energetics

- Coupled reactions and energy rise compounds
- Reaction Stoichiometry
- criteria of biochemical reaction equilibrium
- equilibrium constant and standard free energy change
- effect of temperature
- pressure on free energy change
- effect of temperature
- pressure on equilibrium constants and other- factors affecting equilibrium conversion.
- Le Chateliers principle
- liquid phase reactions
- heterogeneous bioreaction equilibria
- phase rule for reacting systems

500 Properties of Pure Fluids

- Principles of corresponding states
- Generalized compressibility charts
- Reference properties
- energy properties
- Derived properties
- Helmholtz free energy
- Gibbs free energy
- Relationships among thermodynamic Properties:-
- Exact differential equations
- fundamental property relations
- Maxwell’s equations
- Clapeyron equations
- Entropy heat capacity relations
- modified equations for internal energy (U) & enthalpy (H)
- Effect of temperature on U
- H & Entropy (S)
- Relationships between Cp & Cv
- Gibbs- Helmholtz equation

600 Fugacity and Activity

- Fugacity
- Fugacity coefficient
- effect of temperature and pressure on fugacity
- Determination of fugacity of pure gases
- Fugacities of solids and liquids
- Activity: Effect of temperature and pressure on activity
- Departure functions and generalized charts
- thermodynamic diagrams types of diagrams and construction of thermodynamic diagrams

700 Properties of Solutions

- Partial molar properties of solutions
- determination of partial molar properties
- chemical potential effect of temperature and pressure
- lewis randall rule
- Raoults law for ideal solutions
- Henry’s law and dilute solutions ideal behavior of real solutions and Henrys law
- Activity in solutions
- Activity coeffi- cients effect of temperature and pressure
- Gibbs - Duhem equation
- Property changes of mixing
- excess properties excess Gibbs free energy.

800 Phase Equilibria

- Criteria of phase Equilibria
- criterion of stability
- Duhem’s theorem
- Vapour-Liquid Equilibria
- VLE in ideal solutions
- Non-Ideal solutions -
- azeotropes
- VLE at low pressures activity co efficient equation
- bubble point and dew point equilibria
- Consistency test for VLE data using slope of ln ? curves
- using partial pressure data
- calculation of activity coefficients using Gibbs - Duhem equation
- Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium diagrams binary liquid Equilibrium diagrams

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