## Topics with syllabus and resources

- i. Definitions: Rock, Soil - origin & formation, Soil mechanics, Rock mechanics, Soil engineering, Geotechnical engineering.
- ii. Scope of soil engineering- Importance of field exploration & characterization, design construction phases of foundations, post construction phase monitoring.
- iii. Limitations of soil engineering.
- iv. Cohesionless cohesive soil; Terminology of different types of soil.

- i. Soil as three phase and two phase system in terms of weight, volume, void ratio, porosity.
- ii. Weight, volume weight–volume relationships: water content, void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, air voids, air content, unit weights, specific gravity of solids, mass absolute specific gravity.
- iii. Relationships between: different unit weights with void ratio-degree of saturation-specific gravity; different unit weights with porosity; void ratio-water content; different unit weights with water content; unit weight – air voids.
- iv. Mention different methods to find water content, specific gravity, unit weight of soil (Detailed description to be covered during practical).

i. Mechanical analysis: dry sieve analysis combined sieve sedimentation analysis; Stokes’ law, theory of sedimentation; introduction to hydrometer method of analysis, relation between percentage finer hydrometer reading, Limitation of sedimentation analysis, Particle size distribution curve & its uses.

ii. Relative density

iii. Plasticity of soil, consistency limits- determination of liquid limit, plastic limit, shrinkage limit, definitions of: shrinkage parameters, plasticity, liquidity consistency indices, measurement of consistency, flow toughness indices, uses of consistency limits.

iv. Clay mineralogy:- gravitational surface forces, primary valance bond, hydrogen bond, secondary valance bonds, basic structural units of clay minerals, difference in kaolinite, montmorillonite illite minerals, adsorbed water, soil structure.

v. Sensitivity, thixotropy activity of soils.

- i. Necessity of soil classification, Indian Standard particle size classification, Indian standard soil classification system, boundary classifications
- ii. General characteristics of soils of different groups

- i. Introduction: ground water flow- water table, types of aquifers; capillary water – types of soil water, surface tension, capillary rise in small diameter tubes, capillary tension, capillary rise in soils.
- ii. Hydraulic head, hydraulic gradient, Darcy’s law, validity of Darcy’s law.
- iii. General laminar flow, Laminar flow through soil, Factors affecting permeability of soil.
- iv. Determination of coefficient of permeability of soil:- Laboratory methods: constant head variable head; Field methods: pumping out pumping in tests; Indirect methods: Consolidation test data.
- v. Permeability of stratified soil.

- i. Two dimensional flow- Laplace equation, analytical solution: stream potential functions, graphical representation: flow net, characteristics of flow net, uses of flow nets.
- ii. Other solution methods for Laplace equation- numerical methods.
- iii. Soil migration filtration: Seepage velocity; Effect of seepage pressure soil migration in structures such as earth dams, retaining walls, pavements, basements; soil migration prevention through graded soil filters, geotextile & geo-composite filters.
- iv. Geosynthetics: Definition, basic functions, types of geosynthetics— geotextiles, geogrids, geo cells, geomembranes, geo composites; geotextile types– woven nonwoven, Apparent Opening Size (AOS), basic hydraulic properties- permittivity transmissivity of geotextiles
- v. Filter design criteria for graded soil geotextile filters.

- i. Sources of stress in the ground- geostatic stresses induced stresses; vertical, horizontal shear stresses, effective stress principle, and nature of effective stress.
- ii. Effect of water table fluctuations, surcharge, capillary action, seepage pressure on effective stress; quick s condition

- i. Introduction, theory of compaction, laboratory methods of determination of optimum moisture content, maximum dry density,
- ii. Factors affecting compaction, effect of compaction on properties of soil; Relative compaction.

- i. Compressibility settlement, comparison between compaction consolidation, concept of excess pore water pressure, initial, primary secondary consolidation, spring analogy for primary consolidation, consolidation test results, coefficient of compressibility, coefficient of volume change , compression, expansion recompression indices, normally over consolidated soils.
- ii. Terzhaghi’s theory of consolidation- assumptions, coefficient of vertical consolidation, distribution of hydrostatic excess pore water pressure with depth time, time factor, relationship between time factor degree of consolidation, determination of coefficient of vertical consolidation, pre-consolidation pressure.
- iii. Final settlements of a soil deposit in the field, time settlement curve, field consolidation curve.

- i. Introduction, three dimensional state of stress in soil mass, principal stresses in soil, shear failure in soils- frictional cohesive strength, general shear stress-strain curves in soil definition of failure, graphical method of determination of stresses on a plane inclined to the principal planes through Mohr’s circle, important characteristics of Mohr’s circle.
- ii. Mohr-Coulomb theory- shear strength parameters; Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion- relation between major minor principle stresses, total effective stress analysis.
- iii. Different types of shear tests drainage conditions; Direct shear test, Triaxial compression test (UU, CU CD), Unconfined compression test, Vane shear test; comparison between direct triaxial tests, interpretation of test results of direct shear triaxial shear tests- stressstrain curves Mohr failure envelopes
- iv. Determination of shear strength of soil with geosynthetics- pull out test: ASTM procedure for finding shear strength of soil-geosynthtic system.

- i. Introduction, methods of investigation, methods of boring, soil samples sampling, number disposition of trial pits borings, penetrometers tests- SPT,CPT; borehole logs.