## Topics with syllabus and resources

- Introduction, interference due to reflected and transmitted light by thin transparent parallel film
- Origin of colours in thin film
- Wedge shaped thin film
- Newton’s rings.

- Introduction
- Fraunhoffer diffraction at single slit
- Fraunhoffer diffraction at Double slit
- Diffraction due to N- slits ( Diffraction Grating)
- Missing orders
- Highest possible orders
- Determination of wavelength of light with a plane transmission grating
- Resolving power of a grating
- Dispersive power of a grating.

- Determination of thickness of very thin wire or foil
- Determination of refractive index of liquid
- Wavelength of incident light
- Radius of curvature of lens
- Testing of surface flatness
- Non-reflecting films
- Highly reflecting film.

- Introduction
- Total internal reflection
- Basic construction
- Optical fibre as light guide and types of optical fibre
- Numerical Aperture and maximum angle of acceptance
- Numerical Aperture for graded index fibre
- V-number
- Maximum number of possible orders
- Losses in optical fibre
- Merits of optical fibre
- Applications.

- Quantum processes as absorption
- Spontaneous emission and stimulated emission
- Metastable states
- Population inversion
- Pumping
- Resonance cavity
- Einsteins’s equations
- Helium Neon laser
- Nd:YAG laser
- Semiconductor laser
- Applications of laser- Holography (construction and reconstruction of holograms) and other applications.

- Introduction
- Wave particle duality
- De Broglie wavelength
- Experimental verification of de Broglie theory
- Properties of matter waves
- Wave packet
- Group velocity and phase velocity
- Wave function
- Physical interpretation of wave function
- Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
- Electron diffraction experiment and Gama ray microscope experiment
- Applications of uncertainty principle
- Schrodinger’s time dependent wave equation
- Time independent wave equation
- Motion of free particle
- Particle trapped in one dimensional infinite potential well.

- Electrostatic focusing
- Magnetostatic focusing
- Cathode ray tube (CRT)
- Cathod ray Oscilloscope (CRO)
- Application of CRO.

- Introduction
- Meissner Effect
- Type I and Type II superconductors
- BCS Theory(concept of Cooper pair)
- Josephson effect
- Applications of superconductors- SQUID, MAGLEV

- Methods to produce nanomaterials
- Applications of nanomaterials
- Different forms of carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, properties and applications.

- Two main approaches in nanotechnology - Bottom up technique and top down technique
- Tools used in nanotechnology such as Scanning electron microscope, Scanning Tunneling Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope.

- Interference by Division of Amplitude and by Division of Wave Front
- Interference in Thin Film of Constant Thickness Due to Reflected and Transmitted Light
- Origin of Colours in Thin Film
- Wedge Shaped Film(Angle of Wedge and Thickness Measurement)
- Newton’S Rings
- Applications of Interference - Determination of Thickness of Very Thin Wire Or Foil
- Determination of Refractive Index of Liquid
- Wavelength of Incident Light
- Radius of Curvature of Lens
- Testing of Surface Flatness
- Anti-reflecting Films and Highly Reflecting Film
- Diffraction of Light
- Diffraction Grating
- Resolving Power of a Grating
- Dispersive Power of a Grating
- Application of Diffraction

Interference by division of amplitude and by division of wave front; Interference in thin film : of constant thickness due to reflected and transmitted light; origin of colours in thin film; Wedge shaped film(angle of wedge and thickness measurement); Newton’s rings Applications of interference - Determination of thickness of very thin wire or foil;

determination of refractive index of liquid; wavelength of incident light; radius of curvature Of lens; testing of surface flatness; Anti-reflecting films and Highly reflecting film. Diffraction of Light –Fraunhoffer diffraction at single slit, Fraunhoffer diffraction at double slit, Diffraction Grating, Resolving power of a grating, dispersive power of a grating Application of Diffraction - Determination of wavelength of light with a plane transmission grating

Quantum processes as absorption, spontaneous emission and stimulated emission; metastable states, population inversion, pumping, resonance cavity, Einsteins’s equations; Helium Neon laser; Nd:YAG laser; Semiconductor laser, Applications of laser- Holography (construction and reconstruction of holograms) and industrial applications(cutting, welding etc), Applications in medical field

- Total Internal Reflection
- Numerical Aperture
- Critical Angle
- Angle of Acceptance
- Vnumber
- Number of Modes of Propagation
- Types of Optical Fiber
- Losses in Optical Fibre(Attenuation and Dispersion)
- Applications of Optical Fibre
- Fibre Optic Communication System
- Sensors
- Applications in Medical Field

Total internal reflection; Numerical Aperture; critical angle; angle of acceptance; Vnumber; number of modes of propagation; types of optical fiber; Losses in optical fibre(Attenuation and dispersion)

Applications of optical fibre - Fibre optic communication system; sensors (Pressure, temperature, smoke, water level), applications in medical field

- Cartesian
- Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate System
- Scaler and Vector Field
- Physical Significance of Gradient
- Curl and Divergence
- Determination of Maxwell’S Four Equations
- Applications-design of Antenna
- Wave Guide
- Satellite Communication

Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate system, Scaler and Vector field, Physical significance of gradient, curl and divergence, Determination of Maxwell’s four equations. Applications-design of antenna, wave guide, satellite communication etc.

- Fundamentals of Electromagnetism
- Motion of Electron in Electric Field
- Motion of Electron in Magnetic Field
- Magnetic Deflection
- Motion of Electron in Crossed Field
- Velocity Selector
- Velocity Filter
- Electron Refraction
- Bethe’S Law
- Electrostatic Focusing
- Magnetostatic Focusing
- Cathode Ray Tube (Crt)
- Cathod Ray Oscilloscope (Cro)
- Application of Cro

Fundamentals of Electromagnetism, Motion of electron in electric field (parallel ,perpendicular, with some angle); Motion of electron in magnetic field (Longitudinal and Transverse); Magnetic deflection; Motion of electron in crossed field; Velocity Selector; Velocity Filter, Electron refraction; Bethe’s law; Electrostatic focusing; Magnetostatic

focusing; Cathode ray tube (CRT);Cathod ray Oscilloscope (CRO)

Application of CRO: Voltage (dc,ac), frequency, phase measurement .

- Introduction to Nano-science and Nanotechnology
- Surface to Volume Ratio
- Two Main Approaches in Nanotechnology
- Important Tools in Nanotechnology
- Nano Materials

Introduction to nano-science and nanotechnology, Surface to volume ratio, Two main approaches in nanotechnology -Bottom up technique and top down technique; Important tools in nanotechnology such as Scanning Electron Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope. Nano materials: Methods to synthesize nanomaterials (Ball milling, Sputtering, Vapour deposition, solgel), properties and applications of nanomaterials.