Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 12

Zoology HSC Science Class 12 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24

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Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Zoology Syllabus - Free PDF Download

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24 Class 12: The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Zoology Syllabus for the examination year 2023-24 has been released by the , Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2023-24 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Zoology Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Zoology Syllabus for 2023-24 is below.

Academic year:

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Zoology Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Zoology and their Unit wise marks distribution

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Zoology Course Structure 2023-24 With Marking Scheme

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Syllabus

1 Reproduction in Organisms
  • Types of Reproduction  
    • Asexual Reproduction  
    • Sexual Reproduction  
      • Definition and meaning of sexual reproduction
      • Basic characteristics of asexual reproduction
      • Examples of asexual reproduction
2 Human Reproduction
  • Human Reproductive System  
  • Gametogenesis  
    • Gametogenesis
    1. Spermatogenesis
    2. Structure of human spermatozoan
    3. Oogenesis
    4. Structure of ovum
  • Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)  
    • Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)
    • Phases menstrual cycle
    1. Menstrual phase
    2. Follicular or proliferative phase
    3. Ovulatory phase
    4. Luteal or secretory phase
  • Menstrual Disorders  
    • Menstrual hygiene
    • Menopause
  • Fertilization and Implantation  
  • Maintenance of Pregnancy and Embryonic Development  
  • Parturition and Lactation  
3 Reproductive Health
  • Reproductive Health  
    • Family Welfare Programme
    • Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) Programme
      - Goals of RCH Programmes
  • Amniocentesis and Its Statutory Ban  
  • Social Impact of Sex Ratio, Female Foeticide and Infanticide  
  • Population Explosion - Rising Population a Global Threat  
    • Population Explosion
    • Reasons for population explosion
    • Impact of population explosion
    • Methods to control population explosion
  • Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)  
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)  
  • Infertility  
    • IVF-ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. 
    • ICSI: Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection  
    • GIFT: Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer 
    • ZIFT: Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer  
    • IUT: Intra-Uterine Transfer
    • IUI: Intra-Uterine insemination
  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)  
    • Intra-uterine insemination (IUI)
    • In vitro fertilization (IVF) or Test tube baby
    • Zygote intra-fallopian transfer (ZIFT)
    • Intra uterine transfer (IUT)
    • Gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT)
    • Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
    • Surrogacy
    • Male infertility
  • Detection of Foetal Disorders During Early Pregnancy  
    • Ultrasound scanning
    • Amniocentesis
    • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
    • Foetoscope
4 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Extensions of Mendelian Genetics (Deviation from Mendelism)  
    • Multiple Alleles  
  • Human Blood Groups  
    • ABO blood types
    • Rhesus or Rh Factor
  • Genetic Control of Rh Factor  
    • Fisher and Race hypothesis
    • Wiener Hypothesis
    • Incompatibility of Rh Factor – Erythroblastosis foetalis
    • Prevention of Erythroblastosis foetalis
  • Sex Determination  
  • Sex Linked Inheritance  
    • X-linked (sex-linked) genes
    • Y-linked (Holandric) genes
    1. Colour blindness
    2. Haemophilia (Bleeder’s disease)
  • Karyotyping  
    • Preparation of Karyotype
    • Applications of Karyotyping
    • Human Karyotype
  • Pedigree Analysis  
  • Genetic Disorders  
    • Chromosomal Abnormalities  
      • Autosomal aneuploidy in human beings
      1. Down’s Syndrome/Trisomy - 21
      2. Patau’s Syndrome/Trisomy - 13
      • Allosomal abnormalities in human beings
      1. Klinefelter’s Syndrome (XXY Males)
      2. Turner’s Syndrome (XO Females)
  • Extra Chromosomal / Cytoplasmic Inheritance  
  • Eugenics, Euphenics and Euthenics  
    • Eugenics
    • Euphenics
    • Euthenics
5 Molecular Genetics
  • Gene as the Functional Unit of Inheritance  
  • Search for Genetic Material  
    • Introduction of Search for Genetic Material  
      • Transforming Principle (Griffith’s experiment)
      • Biochemical Characterisation of Transforming Principle: Avery, McLeod and McCarty’s experiment
    • The Genetic Material is a DNA  
      • Hershey - Chase Experiment
    • Properties of Genetic Material (DNA Versus RNA)  
  • Chemistry of Nucleic Acids  
    • Pentose sugar
    • Nitrogenous bases
    • The phosphate functional group
    • Nucleoside and nucleotide
  • The RNA World  
  • Packaging of DNA Helix  
    • Packaging in Prokaryotes
    • Packaging in Eukaryotes
  • DNA Replication  
    • Functions of DNA:
    1. Heterocatalytic function
    2. Autocatalytic function
    • Process of semi-conservative replication:
    1. Activation of Nucleotides
    2. Point of Origin or Initiation point
    3. Unwinding of DNA molecule
    4. Replicating fork
    5. Synthesis of new strands
    6. Leading and Lagging strand
    7. Formation of daughter DNA molecules
  • Protein synthesis - Transcription  
    • Introduction of Transcription  
  • Genetic Code  
    • Introduction of Genetic Code  
      • Mutation and genetic code
    • tRNA – the Adapter Molecule  
  • Translation  
    • Mechanism of Translation
  • Regulation of Gene Expression  
  • Human Genome Project  
    • Human Genome Project
    • Goals of HGP
    • Methodologies
    • Salient Features of Human Genome
    • Applications and Future Challenges
  • DNA Fingerprinting Technique  
6 Evolution
  • Theories of Origin of Life  
    • Origin of life
    • Theories of origin of life
    1. Big Bang Theory
    2. Theory of Panspermia
    3. Theory of Spontaneous Generation or Abiogenesis
    4. Theory of Biogenesis
    5. Theory of Chemical Origin
    6. Urey and Miller's experiment
  • Geological Time Scale  
  • Theories of Biological Evolution  
  • Evidences for Biological Evolution  
    • Paleontological evidences
    • Evidences from comparative anatomy
    1. Homologous structures
    2. Analogous structures
    3. Vestigial organs 
    4. Connecting link
    5. Atavistic organs
    • Embryological evidences
    1. Molecular evidences
  • Theories of Biological Evolution  
    • Lamarck’s theory
    • The main objection to Lamarckism 
    • Neo-Lamarckism
    • Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection
    1. Objections to Darwinism
    2. Neo Darwinism 
    • Mutation theory
    1. Salient features of Mutation Theory
    • Modern synthetic theory
    • Evolution by anthropogenic sources
    1. Natural Selection (Industrial melanism)
    • Adaptive Radiation 
    1. Darwin’s finches
  • Mechanism of Organic Evolution  
  • Hardy Weinberg’s Principle  
  • Origin and Evolution of Man  
  • Isolating Mechanism  
  • Speciation  
    • Speciation
    • Modes to form New species
    1. Intraspecific Speciation: Allopatric speciation and Sympatric speciation
    2. Interspecific Speciation: Hybridisation
  • Extinction of Animals  
7 Human Health and Diseases
8 Immunology
  • Basic Concepts of Immunology  
    • Innate immunity
    • Acquired immunity
    • Components of acquired immunity
    • Types of acquired immunity
    • Immune responses
    • Primary immune response
    • Secondary immune response
    • Lymphoid organs
    • Primary lymphoid organs
    • Secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs
    • Cells of the immune system
    • Antigens
    • Types of antigens
    • Antibodies
    • Antigen -antibody interaction 
    • Binding force of antigen - antibody reaction
    • Different types of antigen and antibody reactions
    • Vaccines
    • Vaccination and immunization
    • Hypersensitivity 
  • Types of Immunity  
    • Types of Immunity
    1. Innate immunity or Inborn immunity
      ⇒ Types of Barriers
      a) Physical barriers: Skin, Mucous membrane
      b) Physiological barriers: Acid, Saliva
      c) Cellular barriers: Leukocytes, Natural killer cells, Macrophages
      d) Cytokine barriers: Interferons
    2. Acquired immunity
      ⇒ Structure of antibody
      ⇒ Types of Acquired Immunity
      (i) Active Immunity: Natural acquired active immunity and artificial acquired active immunity
      (ii) Passive immunity: Natural Acquired Passive immunity and Artificially Acquired Passive immunity
  • Immune Responses  
  • Lymphoid Organs  
    • Primary lymphoid organs
    • Secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs
    • Cells of the immune system
  • Antigens  
    • Types of antigens
  • Antibodies  
    • Structure of a typical antibody molecule
    • Types of antibodies - IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE (function and occurrence, e,g. in serum, saliva, colostrum)
  • Antigen -antibody Interaction  
    • Binding force of antigen - antibody reaction
    • Different types of antigen and antibody reactions
  • Vaccines  
  • Vaccination and Immunization  
  • Hypersensitivity  
  • Immunodeficiency Diseases  
    • Structure of HIV
    • HIV Transmission
  • Autoimmune Diseases  
    • Tumour immunology
    • Immunotherapy of cancer
  • Tumour Immunology  
    • Immunotherapy of cancer
9 Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Microbes in Household Products  
    • Microbes in Household Food Processing
    • Curd, Idli, Bread, Traditional drinks and food, Cheese
    • Single cell protein (SCP)
  • Microbes in Industrial Production  
    1. Fermented beverages
    2. Antibiotics
    3. Chemicals, enzymes and other bioactive molecules
  • Microbes in Sewage Treatment  
    • Primary Treatment
    • Secondary treatment or Biological treatment
    • Ganga Action Plan and Yamuna Action Plan
  • Bioremediation  
    • Microorganisms involved in bioremediation
10 Applications of Biotechnology
  • Biotechnological Applications in Medicine  
    • In medicine: Genetically Engineered Insulin, Gene therapy - with reference to the treatment of SCID, molecular diagnosis by PCR, ELISA and use of DNA/RNA probe.
  • Gene Therapy  
  • Stem Cell Therapy  
  • Molecular Diagnostics  
  • Transgenic Animals  
    • Transgenic animals for bioactive products like alpha-1-antitrypsin for emphysema, alpha-lactalbumin
    1. Normal physiology and development
    2. Study of disease
    3. Biological products
    4. Vaccine safety
    5. Chemical safety testing
  • Biological Products and Their Uses  
  • Animal Cloning  
  • Ethical Issues  
    • Bio Piracy and Patents
    • GEAC (Genetic Engineering Approval Committee)
    • Biopiracy
    • Patents
    • Cyber Crime
    • Software Piracy
    • Hacking
    • Cracking
  • Regulations in Biotechnology  
  • Possible Threats of Genetically Modified Organisms  
    • The possible risks of GMOs 
  • Biosafety Guidelines  
    • Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and Protection (IPP)
    • Patents
    • Geographical indication (GI)
    • Copyright
    • Trade marks
11 Organisms and Populations
  • Organism and Its Environment  
    • Responses to Abiotic Factors  
      • Responses to Abiotic Factors
      • Living organisms deal with the extreme weather conditions through the following adaptations:
        (i) Regulation
        (ii) Conformation
        (iii) Migration
        (iv) Suspension
  • Habitat  
    • Niche (or) Ecological Niche
  • Major Abiotic Components or Factors  
    • Temperature
    • Adaptations to temperature
    • Light
    • Water
    • Soil 
    • Wind
    • Humidity
    • Altitude
  • Concept of Biome and Their Distribution  
    • Characters of a biome
    • Aquatic Biomes
    • Terrestrial biomes
    • Major Biomes of the Earth
    • Tundra Biome 
    • Taiga Biome 
    • Grassland Biome
    • Alpine biome
    • Forest biomes
    • Desert biomes
  • Adaptations and Its Types  
    • Adaptation
    • Some more examples of adaptations
    • Three basic types of adaptations
    1. Structural adaptations
    2. Physiological adaptations
    3. Behavioural adaptations
  • Population  
    •  Population
    •  Natality
    1. Absolute Natality
    2. Realized Natality
    •  Mortality
    1. Absolute Mortality
    2. Realized Mortality
    • Sex ratio
    • Age distribution and Age pyramid
    • Population Growth 
    • Population Attributes  
      • Population Ecology
      • The population has certain attributes
      1. Birth Rate, Death Rate
      2. Sex Ratio
      3. Age Distribution
      4. Age Pyramid
      5. Population Size
      6. Population density
      7. Population Growth
  • Population Age Distribution  
  • Growth Models / Curves  
    • Growth Models / Curves
    • S-Shaped growth form (sigmoid growth)
  • Population Regulation  
  • Population Interactions  
    • Population Interactions
    1. Predation (adaptations in organisms to avoid predation)
    2. Competition (Interspecific, interference, Competitive exclusion, Competitive release, Gause's Competitive Exclusion Principle)
    3. Parasitism 
      ⇒ Types of parasites: Ectoparasites, Endoparasites, Brood parasitism
    4. Commensalism
    5. Mutualism
    6. Amensalism
12 Biodiversity and Its Conservation
  • Biodiversity  
    • Biodiversity
    • Type of biodiversity
      (i) Genetic diversity
      (ii) Species diversity
      (iii) Ecosystem diversity
    • Global biodiversity and a proportionate number of species of major taxa of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates
  • Importance of Biodiversity  
    • Ecological Role of Biodiversity
    • Economic Role of Biodiversity
    • Scientific Role of Biodiversity
    • Rivet Popper hypothesis
  • Biogeographical Regions of India  
  • Threats to Biodiversity  
  • Causes of Biodiversity Loss  
    • Habitat Loss
    • Habitat fragmentation
    • Over exploitation
    • Exotic species invasion
    • Global Climate changes
    • Shifting or Jhum cultivation (Slash-and-burn agriculture)
    • Coextinctions
    • Intensive agriculture
    • Loss of biodiversity
    • Hotspots
    • Endangered organisms
    • Extinction
  • IUCN  
    • Red Data Book
  • Biodiversity and Its Conservation (Questions)  
    • In-situ Conservation 
    • Protected Areas
    • National Parks (NP)
    • Wild Life Sanctuaries (WLS)
    • Biosphere Reserve (BR)
    • Sacred Groves
    • Ex-Situ Conservation
    • Offsite Collections
    • Gene Banks
  • Restoration of Degraded Habitats  
  • Biodiversity Act (BDA)  
13 Environmental Issues
  • Pollution  
    • Meaning
    • Types of Pollution 
    1. Air pollution
    2. Water Pollution
    3. Noise Pollution 
    4. Land Pollution 
    • Classification of Pollutants
  • Air Pollution and Its Causes  
    • Air Pollution
    • Causes of Air pollution
    • Sources of Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution and Its Causes  
    • Water Pollution
    • Causes of Water Pollution
    • Sources of Water Pollution
  • Noise Pollution  
    • Noise Pollution
    • Health hazards due to noise pollution
  • Agrochemicals and Their Effects  
    • Agrochemicals
    • Effects of Agrochemicals
    • Biomagnification
    • Eutrophication
    • Case Study of Organic Farming
  • Biomagnification  
    • Biomagnification of DDT
  • Eutrophication  
    • Integrated Wastewater Management
    • Wastewater Treatment
    1. Primary treatment
    2. Secondary treatment or biological treatment
    3. Tertiary treatment
  • Organic Farming and Its Implementation  
  • Solid Waste Management  
  • Ecosan Toilets  

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