Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationSSLC (English Medium) Class 9

Social Science SSLC (English Medium) Class 9 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2024-25

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Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 9 Social Science Syllabus - Free PDF Download

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2024-25 Class 9: The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 9 Social Science Syllabus for the examination year 2024-25 has been released by the , Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2024-25 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 9 Social Science Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 9 Social Science Syllabus for 2024-25 is below.

Academic year:
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Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 9 Social Science Syllabus for Chapter 1: History

1.01 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period
  • Introduction of Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period  
  • Origin of the Earth and the Geological Ages  
  • Human Enquiries into the Past and Origin of the World  
    • The Age of Speculation 
    • Scientific Foundations of Geology, Biology and Archaeology
  • Prehistory: from Australopithecus Through Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens  
    • Human Evolution and Migration
    • Prehistoric Cultures
    • Earliest Lithic Assemblages of Human Ancestors
    • Lower Paleolithic Culture
    • Middle Paleolithic Culture
    • Upper Paleolithic Culture
    • Mesolithic Culture
    • Neolithic Culture and the Beginning of Agriculture
  • Prehistoric Tamilagam  
    • Lower Paleolithic Culture in Tamil Nadu
    • Middle Paleolithic Culture in Tamil Nadu
    • Mesolithic Culture in Tamil Nadu
    • Neolithic Culture in Tamil Nadu
    • Iron Age/Megalithic period
    • Megalithic Burial Types
    1. Agriculture and Pastoralism
    2. Iron Age Society and Polity
    3. Pottery
    4. Iron Technology and Metal Tools
1.02 Ancient Civilisations
  • Introduction of Ancient Civilisations  
  • Ancient Civilisations  
  • The Egyptian Civilisation  
    • Geography of Egyptian Civilisation
    • Pharaohs, Society and Administration
    • Agriculture and Trade
    • Art and Architecture
    • Religion
    • Philosophy, Science and Literature
    • Writing System
    • Characteristics and Contributions of the Egyptian Civilisation
  • The Mesopotamian Civilisations  
    • Geography
    • The Sumerians
    • The Akkadians
    • The Babylonians
    • The Assyrians
    • Society, State and Administration 
    • Food and Agriculture
    • Trade and Exchange
    • Cities and Town Planning
    • Religion
    • The Hammurabi’s Law Code
    • Cuneiform: The Sumerian Writing System
    • Art
    • Science
    • Contributions of the Mesopotamian Civilisation
  • The Chinese Civilisation  
    • Polity and Emperors
    • The Han Empire (206–220 AD (CE))
    • Philosophy and Literature
    • Chinese Script
    • Contribution of the Chinese Civilisation
  • Indus Civilisation  
    • Planned Towns
    • Agriculture and Animal Domestication
    • Pottery
    • Metal Tools and Weapons
    • Textiles and Ornaments
    • Trade and Exchange
    • Weights and Measures
    • Seals, Sealings and Scripts
    • Arts and Amusement
    • Religion
    • Original Inhabitants and their Culture
    • Decline of Indus Culture
1.03 Early Tamil Society and Culture
  • Introduction of Early Tamil Society and Culture  
  • Sources for the Study of Early Tamil Society  
    • The Classical Sangam Tamil Literature
    • Tholkappiyam
    • Epigraphy 
    • Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions
    • Hero Stones
    • Inscriptions on Pottery
    •  Archaeological Sites 
    • Material Culture
    • Coins
    • Non-Tamil Sources (Foreign Accounts)
    • Arthasastra
    • Mahavamsa
    • Periplus of Erythrean Sea
    • Pliny’s Natural History
    • Ptolemy’s Geography
    • Peutingerian table
    • Vienna Papyrus
  • The Sangam Age  
    • Sources of Sangam Age
  • Sangam Age Polity: Political Powers of Tamilagam  
    • The Muvendhar
    • The Cheras
    • The Cholas
    • The Pandyas
    • Velirs / Chieftains
  • Society in Sangam Age  
    • Composition of the Society
    • Women
  • Economy  
    • Agricultural Production
    • Industries and Crafts of the Sangam Age
    • Pottery
    • Iron Smelting Industry
    • Stone Ornaments
    • Gold jewellery
    • Glass Beads
    • Pearl Fishery and Shell Bangle
    • Textiles
    • Exchange, Trade, Merchants, and Trade Routes
    • Traders
    • Means of Transport
    • Barter and Coins
    • Tamilagam and Overseas Interactions
    • Tamil Nadu to Red Sea Coast
  • Emergence of Towns and Ports  
  • Faith and Belief System  
  • Fine Arts  
1.04 Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes
  • Introduction of Intellectual Awakening and Socio-political Changes  
  • Religion in the Sixth Century BC (BCE)  
  • Confucianism and Taoism  
    • Confucius (551–478 BC (BCE))
    • Five Cardinal Principles of Confucius’ Ethics
    • Taoism
    • Teachings of Lao-Tse (Taoism)
  • Zoroastrianism  
    • Teachings
  • Impact of Iron Technology in India  
  • Religion: Post-Rig Vedic  
  • Jainism and Buddhism - Doctrines  

    1. Jainism

    • Mahavira: Birth and Life
    • Teachings of Mahavira
    • Spread of Jainism
    • Split in Jainism
    • Decline of Jainism

    2. Buddhism

    • Gautama Buddha: Birth and Life
    • Teachings of Buddhism
    • Spread of Buddhism
    • The Split in Buddhism
    • Decline of Buddhism
  • Other Heterodox Sect  
    • Ajivika
    • Gana-sanghas
  • Rise of Kingdoms  
    • Growth of Royal Power
    • The Rise of Magadha Kingdom
  • Mauryan Empire – India’s First Empire  
    • Mauryan Empire
    • Mauryan Kings: Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, Ashoka.
1.05 The Classical World
  • Introduction of the Classical World  
  • Greece: The Hellenic World  
    • Greek's Victory over Persians
    • “Democracy” in Hellenic Greece
    • Athenian Democracy
    • Pericles (461–429 BC (BCE)
  • Rome: The Hellenistic World  
    • Beginnings of Hellenistic Civilisation
    • Roman Republic
    • Class War between Patricians and Plebeians
    • Transfer of Power from Consuls to Emperor
    • Establishment of Principate
    • Society under Principate
    • External Invasions and the Decline of Roman Empire
  • Empire Building in East Asia: China  
    • Fall of Chin Dynasty
    • Han Dynasty and Expansion of Chinese Territories
  • Rise of Christianity  
  • Byzantium  
1.06 The Middle Ages
  • Introduction of The Middle Ages  
    • East Asia In The Middle Ages
  • China: Tang Dynasty (618–907 A.D. (C.E.))  
    • Sung Dynasty (960–1279 A.D. (C.E.))
    • Fall of Sung Dynasty
    • Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368 A.D. (C.E.))
    • Ming Empire (1368–1644 A.D. (C.E.))
  • Japan  
  • Islam and the Rise of Islamic Empires  
    1. Arabian
      1. Rule of Ommiad or Umayyad dynasty
      2. Rule of Abbasids
    2. Disintegration of Arab Empire and Rise of Seljuq Turks
    3. Crusades and Fall of Seljuq Turk
    4. Impact of Crusades
  • Ottoman Empire  
  • Feudalism  
    1. State
    2. Church
1.07 State and Society in Medieval India
  • Introduction of State and Society in Medieval India From the Cholas to the Mughals  
    • Major Political Changes
  • Political Changes (1000–1700)  
    1. North India: The Advent of Islam
    2. The Chola Empire in the South
    3. Vijayanagar and South India after the Cholas
    4. The Mughals (1526–1707 A.D. (C.E.))
    5. The Arrival of the Europeans
  • Impact on Polity  
  • Society  
    1. Caste
    2. Religion
  • Culture  
    • Literature, Art and Architecture
  • Economy of Medieval India  
    1. Agriculture
    2. Non Agricultural Production
    3. Textiles
    4. Commerce
  • Urbanization of Medieval India  
    • Conclusion
1.08 The Beginning of the Modern Age
  • Introduction of The Beginning of the Modern Age  
  • Causative Factors  
    1. Growth of Trade and Rise of Towns
    2. Invention of the Printing Press
    3. Fall of Constantinople
  • Renaissance  
    1. Why Italy became the birth place of Renaissance?
    2. Humanism in Literature
    3. Impact on Art
    4. Science during Renaissance
    5. Effects of Renaissance
  • Reformation  
    1. Martin Luther (1483–1556 A.D. (C.E.))
    2. Other Protestant Reforms
  • Counter Reformation  
  • Geographical Discoveries  
    1. Causes
    2. Portuguese Explorations
    3. Spain and Discovery of the New World
    4. Portuguese–Spanish Rivalry
  • Impact of Geographical Discoveries  
1.09 The Age of Revolutions
  • The American War of Independence  
    • Introduction of American War of Independence
    • Colonies of European Powers
    • Plantations and the Slave Labour
    • Increasing incidence of Taxation
    • Townshend Acts
    • Boston Tea Party
    • American War of Independence
    1. First Continental Congress, September 5, 1774
    2. Second Continental Congress, May - 10, 1775
    3. Battle of Bunker Hill
    • Declaration of Independence
    • War
    1. French Alliance
    2. Victory at Yorktown
    • Results
  • The French Revolution  
    • Introduction of French Revolution
    • Causes of the Outbreak
    1. Political
    2. Economic
    3. Social
    4. Inspiration from French Philosophers
    5. American War of Independence
    • Course of the French Revolution
    1. The Fall of Bastille
    2. National Assembly
    3. March to Versailles
    4. Flight to Varennes
    5. Girondins and Jacobins 
    6. Constitution of 1791 
    7. Emigres and the Revolutionary War
    8. National Convention and the Reign of Terror, June 1793-July 1794
    • Impact of French Revolution
    • The post-revolution period
    • Napoleon Bonaparte
1.1 Industrial Revolution
  • Introduction of Industrial Revolution  
  • Attributes of Industrial Revolution  
    • Beginnings
    • Invention of Steam Power
    • Development in Textiles
    • Iron and Steel
    • Mining
    • Transportation and Communication
  • Effects of Industrial Revolution in England  
    • Impact on Environment and Living Conditions
    • Urbanisation
    • Socio-economic Consequences
    • Labour Movement
  • Spread of Industrial Revolution  
    • Industrial Revolution in France
    • Industrial Revolution in Germany
  • Second Industrial Revolution in United States of America  
  • Working Class Strikes  
    • Haymarket Massacre
  • Important Inventions of the Industrial Revolution Era  
  • Impact of Industrial Revolution in India  
1.11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Introduction of Colonialism in Asia and Africa  
  • Colonialism of Asia (South East Asia)  
    • South East Asia
    • Malaya Peninsula
    • Anglo-Dutch Rivalry
    • Indonesia
    • Burma
    • Indo-China
    • The Philippines
    • Siam (Thailand)
  • Colonisation of Africa  
    • South Africa
    • Rhodesia
    • West Africa
    • East Africa 
    • Portuguese Angola and Mozambique
    • African Rule in Liberia and Ethiopia
  • Colonisation of India  
    • The Colonialisation of Indian
      Economy
    1. Colonialisation of Indian Economy: Mercantilist Phase (Outright Plunder; 18th Century).
    2. Industrial Capitalist Phase: 1st half of the Nineteenth Century
    • Financial Capitalist Phase: 2nd half of the Nineteenth Century
  • Economic Impact of British Rule  
    • Agrarian Conditions
    • Land Revenue and the Pauperisation of Peasantry
    • Irrigation
    • Famines
    • Indentured Labour

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 9 Social Science Syllabus for Chapter 2: Geography

2.01 Lithosphere – 1 Endogenetic Processes
  • Endogenetic Processes (Internal Movements)  
  • Spheres of the Earth  
  • Earth’s Structure  
    1. Crust
    2. Mantle
    3. Core
  • Geomorphic Processes  
    1. Internal Processes
    • Plate Tectonics
    • Types of Plate Boundaries
    1. Convergent Boundary
    2. Divergent Boundary
    3. Conservative/Transform Boundary
    • Movements of Continental Plates
    • Earthquake
    • Seismic Waves
    • Tsunami
    • Volcanoes
    1. Active Volcano
    2. Dormant Volcano (or) Sleeping Volcano
    3. Extinct or Dead Volcano
    4. Composite Volcano
    5. Volcanic Dome
    6. Shield Volcano
    • Distribution of Earthquakes and Volcanoes
    • Effect Of Volcanoes
    1. Constructive Effects
    2. Destructive Effects 
  • Rock and it's Types  
    • Igneous Rocks  
      • Igneous Rocks
      • Characteristics of Igneous Rocks
      • Types of Igneous Rocks
      1. Extrusive Igneous Rocks
      2. Intrusive Igneous Rocks
    • Sedimentary Rocks  
      • Sedimentary Rocks
      • Characteristics of Sedimentary rocks
      • Types of Sedimentary Rocks
      1. Organic Sedimentary Rocks
      2. Mechanical Sedimentary Rocks
      3. Chemical Sedimentary rocks
    • Metamorphic Rocks  
      • Metamorphic Rocks
      • Types of Metamorphic Rocks
      1. Thermal Metamorphism
      2. Dynamic Metamorphism
      • Formation of Metamorphic Rocks from Igneous rocks
      • Formation of Metamorphic Rocks from Sedimentary rocks
      • Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocks
  • Rock Cycle  
2.02 Lithosphere – 2 Exogenetic Processes
  • Introduction of Lithosphere – II Exogenetic Processes  
  • Weathering  
    • Weathering
    • Types of Weathering
      1) Chemical Weathering
      2) Physical Weathering
      3) Biological Weathering
    • Special Effects of Weathering
    • Significance of Weathering
    • Physical Weathering  
      1. Exfoliation
      2. Granular Disintegration
      3. Block Disintegration
  • Chemical Weathering  
    • Chemical weathering
    • Reasons for chemical weathering
      1. Carbonation
      2. Solution
      3. Oxidation
  • Biological Weathering  
    • Biological weathering
    • Reasons for Biological weathering
  • Gradation  
    • Agents of Gradation 
    1. Running water (River)-(Fluvial Land forms)
    2. Courses of River
    • The Upper Course
    • The Middle Course
    • The Lower course
    • Erosional Landforms of River
    1. Gorges and Canyons
    2. Waterfall 
    3. V-shaped valley
    4. Pot hole
    5. Meander
    6. Ox bow lake
    • Depositional Landforms of River
    1. Alluvial Fan 
    2. Flood Plain
    3. Estuary
    4. Delta
    5. Karst Topography
    • Erosional Landforms of Underground Water
    1. Terra Rossa (Italian term for Red soil)
    2. Lappies
    3. Sinkhole
    4. Caves and Caverns
    • Depositional Landforms of Underground Water
    1. Stalactite, Stalagmite and Column
    2. Glaciers
    • Erosional Landforms of Glacier
    1. Cirque
    2. Arete
    3. Pyramidal Peak
    4. U-Shaped Valley 
    5. Hanging Valley
    6. Fjord
    • Depositional Landforms of glacier
    1. Moraine
    2. Drumlin(Basket of Egg Topography)
    3. Esker
    4. Outwash Plain 
    5. Wind
    • Erosional Landforms of wind
    1. Mushroom Rock
    2. Inselberg
    3. Yardang
    • Depositional Landforms of wind
    1. Sand Dune
    2. Barchan
    3. Transverse Dunes
    4. Longitudinal Dunes(Seif dunes)
    5. Loess
    6. Wave
    • Erosional Land Forms of Waves 
    1. Sea Cliffs
    2. Sea Cave 
    3. Sea Arch
    4. Sea Stack
    5. Wave Cut Platforms
    • Depositional Landforms of Waves
    1. Beach
    2. Bar
    3. Spit

     

2.03 Atmosphere
  • Introduction of Atmosphere  
  • Composition of the Atmosphere  
    • Gases
    • Water Vapour
    • Dust Particles
  • Structure of the Atmosphere  
    • Troposphere
    • Stratosphere (ozone layer)
    • Mesosphere
    • Thermosphere
    • Exosphere
  • Weather  
  • Weather and Climate  
  • Wind  
    • Planetary Winds  
      1. Trade Winds
      2. Westerlies
      3. Polar Easterlies
    • Periodic Winds  

      Periodic winds - Land and Sea breezes, Monsoons.

    • Variable Winds  

      Variable winds - Cyclones and Anticyclones.

    • Local Winds  
      • Local winds - Loo, Chinook, Foehn, and Mistral.
  • Cyclones  
  • Clouds  
    • High Clouds
    1. Cirrus
    2. Cirro-cumulus
    3. Cirro-stratus
    • Medium Clouds
    1. Alto-stratus
    2. Alto-cumulus
    3. Nimbo stratus
    • Low Clouds
    1. Strato-cumulus
    2. Stratus
    3. Cumulus
    4. Cumulo-nimbus
    • Precipitation
    1. Drizzle
    2. Rain
    3. Sleet 
    4. Snow
    5. Hails
  • Rainfall and It's Types  
    • Rainfall
    • Types of Rainfall
      1. Convectional Rainfall
      2. Orographic Rainfall
      3. Cyclonic Rainfall
  • Humidity  
2.04 Hydrosphere
  • Introduction of Hydrosphere  
  • Hydrologic Cycle Or Water Cycle  
  • Fresh Water  
  • Oceans  
    • Relief Of The Ocean Floor
    1. Continental Shelf
    2. Continental Slope
    3. Continental Rise
    4. Deep Sea Plains or Abyssal Plains 
    5.  Oceanic Deeps
    6. Oceanic Ridge
    • Movement of the Ocean Water
    1. Waves
    2. Tides 
    3. Ocean Currents
  • Marine Resources  
    • Conservation Of Marine Resources
2.05 Biosphere
  • Introduction of Biosphere  
  • Ecosystem  
  • Biodiversity  
    • Biodiversity
    • Type of biodiversity
      (i) Genetic diversity
      (ii) Species diversity
      (iii) Ecosystem diversity
    • Global biodiversity and a proportionate number of species of major taxa of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates
  • Biomes  
    • Terrestrial Biomes
    1. Tropical Forest Biomes
    2. Tropical Savanna (Grasslands) Biomes
    3. Desert Biomes 
    4. Temperate Grassland Biomes 
    5. Tundra Biomes
    • Aquatic Biomes
    1. Fresh water Biomes
    2. Marine Biomes
    • Conservation
2.06 Man and Environment
  • Introduction of Man and Environment  
    • Classification of Environment
    1. Natural Environment
    2. Human Environment
    3. Man Made Environment
  • Population  
    • Population
    • What is Demography?
    • Census
  • Human Settlements  
    • Classification of Settlements

          A) Rural Settlements

    • Patterns of Rural Settlements
    1. Rectangular pattern
    2. Linear pattern
    3. Circular or semicircular pattern
    4. Star like pattern
    5. Triangular pattern
    6. T-Shaped, Y-Shaped, Cross-Shaped or Cruciform settlements
    7. Nebular pattern

         B)  Urban Settlements

    • Classification of Urban Settlements
    1. Town
    2. City
    3. Metropolitan cities
    4. Megacities
    5. Conurbation
  • Economic Activity  
    • Basics of Economic Activities
    1. Primary Economic Activity
    2. Secondary Economic Activity
    3. Tertiary Economic Activity
    4. Quaternary Economic Activity
    5. Quinary Economic Activity
  • Environmental Issues  
  • Sustainable Development  
    • Social Sustainability
    • Economic Sustainability
    • Environmental Sustainability
    • Why is sustainability important?
2.07 Mapping Skills
  • Introduction of Mapping Skills  
  • Map as a Tool  
    • Maps
    • Cartography
  • Remote Sensing as a Source of Map Data  
    • Aerial photography
    • Satellite Remote Sensing
    • Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
    1. Global Positioning System (GPS)
    2. Geographic Information System (GIS)
  • Bhuvan  
2.08 Disaster Management: Responding to Disasters
  • Introduction of Disaster Management: Responding to Disasters  
  • Disaster Response  
    • Who are the first responders?
    • Earthquake
    • What to do during an earthquake?
    • If indoors
    • If outdoors
    • If in a moving vehicle
    • Tsunami
    • How to respond to Tsunami?
    • What to do after a Tsunami?
    • Riot
    • Surviving a Riot
    • At Travel Destination: What to Do
    • If caught in a riot
    • Fire
    • Fire Safety Do’s and Don’ts
    • What you should do during a fire

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 9 Social Science Syllabus for Chapter 3: Civics

3.01 Forms of Government and Democracy
  • Introduction of Forms of Government and Democracy  
  • Forms of Government  
    • Aristocracy
    • Monarchy
    • Autocracy
    • Oligarchy
    • Theocracy
    • Democracy
    • Republic
  • What is Democracy?  
    • Meaning of Democracy
    • Definition
    • Salient Features of Democracy
    • Evolution of Democracy
    • Forms of Democratic government
    • Types of Democracy
    1. Direct Democracy
    2. Indirect Democracy / Representative Democracy
    • Merits and Demerits of Democracy
    • Democracy in India
    • Elections in India
    • The First Elections in Democratic India
    • Major challenges to Indian Democracy
    • Conditions for the Success of Democracy in India
3.02 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups
  • Introduction of Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups  
  • Electoral System in India  
    • Election Process
    • Introduction of the NOTA Option
    • Types of Elections in India
    • Direct Elections
    • Indirect Elections
  • Political Parties  
    • Characteristics of Political Parties:
    1. To be in power
    2. To pursue an ideology
    3. To have a Party Agenda
    4. To Establish a Government
    5. To act as a link between the Government and the people
  • Pressure Groups  
    • Pressure Groups in India
    • Functions of Pressure Groups in India
    • Political Participation
    • Education
    • Policy Formulation 
  • Mobilisation and People’s Participation  
    • Mobilisation
    • Democratic Participation
3.03 Human Rights
  • Introduction of Human Rights  
  • What Are Human Rights?  
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)  
    • Social, Economic and Cultural Rights
    • Civil and Political Rights
  • Fundamental Rights in India  
    • Right to Equality
    • Right to Freedom
    • Right against Exploitation
    • Right to Freedom of Conscience and Religion
    • Cultural and Educational Rights
    • Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Fundamental Duties  
    • List of Fundamental Duties
  • National Human Rights Commission  
  • State Human Rights Commission(SHRC)  
    • Child Rights
    • Women Rights
    • Right to Information Act (RTI)
    • Labour Rights
3.04 Forms of Government
  • Introduction of Forms of Government and Democracy  
  • Meaning of Government  
  • Types of Constitution  
    • Unitary Form of Government
    • Merits of unitary form of government
    • De-merits of unitary form of government
    • Unitary features of the indian constitution 
    • Federal form of government
    • Merits of federal form of government
    • De-merits of federal form of government
    • Federal features of the Indian constitution
    • Difference between Unitary form and Federal form of Government
    • Parliamentary form of government
    • Features of parliamentary form of government
    • Merits of the parliamentary form of government
    • Demerits of the parliamentary form of government
    • The presidential form of government
    • Features of presidential form of government
    • Merits of the presidential system of government
    • Demerits of the presidential system of government
    • Difference between the Parliamentary Form of Government and Presidential Form of Government
3.05 Local Self Government
  • Meaning of Local Self Government  
  • Historical Background  
  • Local Self Governments since Independence  
    • Salient Features of the 73rd and 74th Constitution Amendment Acts (1992)
    • Salient Features of the Tamil Nadu Panchayat Raj Act, 1994
  • Village Panchayat  
    • Functions of the Village Panchayat
    • Voluntary Functions
    • Revenue
    • Taxes
    • Meeting of Gram Sabha
    • Meetings of the Grama Sabha are conducted four times a year
    • Panchayat Union
    • Functions of the Panchayat Union
    • District Panchayat
    • Functions of District Panchayat
    • Urban Local Government
    • Town Panchayat
    • Municipality
    • Corporation
    • Important functions of the Mayor
    • Types of other Urban Panchayats
    • Elections to the local government in Tamil Nadu
    • Problems and Challenges facing the Local Self Governments
3.06 Road Safety
  • Introduction of Road Safety  
  • Major Reasons of Road Accidents  
  • Different Factors to Road Accidents  
    • Drivers
    • Pedestrians
    • Passengers
    • Vehicles
    • Road Conditions
    • Weather Conditions
  • Rules to Ensure Road Safety for Children  
  • Road Safety Games and Activities  

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 9 Social Science Syllabus for Chapter 4: Economics

4.01 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability
  • Introduction of Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability  
  • Different Perspectives About Development  
  • Indicators of Economic Development  
    • Net National Product
    • Per Capita Income
    • Purchasing Power Parity
    • Human Development
  • Sustainability of Development  
  • Policies for Sustainable Development  
    • Use of Non-conventional Sources of Energy
    • Solar Power in India
  • Environmental Policies in India  
4.02 Employment in India and Tamil Nadu
  • Introduction of Employment in India and Tamil Nadu  
  • Employment Structure in India  
  • Types of Employment: Organised and Unorganised Sectors  
    • Organised Sector 
    • Unorganised Sector
    • Public Sector vs Private Sector
  • Employment Pattern  
    • Employment Trends in Tamil Nadu
4.03 Money and Credit
  • Introduction of Money and Credit  
  • Barter System  
  • Coins  
  • Natural Money  
  • Paper Money  
    • History of Money
  • Electronic Transactions  
  • Role of the Reserve Bank of India  
  • Relationship Between Money and Prices  
  • Functions of Money  
    • Medium of Exchange
    • Unit of Account 
    • A Store of Value
  • Credit  
4.04 Agriculture in Tamil Nadu
  • Introduction of Agriculture in Tamil Nadu  
  • Sectors of People Involved in Agricultural Activities  
  • Types of Land Usage  
  • Water Resource for Agriculture  
  • Irrigation and Crop Types  
    • Crops in Tamil Nadu
    • Different Water Sources for Irrigation
  • Decadal Growth in Agricultural Production  
  • The Yield of Productive Crops  
4.05 Migration
  • Introduction of Migration  
    • Concept of Migration
  • Extent of Migration in India and Tamil Nadu  
  • Factors Underlying Migration  
  • Migration Policies  

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