Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationSSLC (English Medium) (5 to 8) Class 8

Science SSLC (English Medium) (5 to 8) Class 8 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24 Class 8: The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 8 Science Syllabus for the examination year 2023-24 has been released by the , Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2023-24 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 8 Science Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 8 Science Syllabus for 2023-24 is below.

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 8 Science Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 8 Science and their Unit wise marks distribution

Syllabus

1 Measurement
• Measurements
• Measurement
• The need for measurement in daily life
• Physical Quantities
• Physical Quantities
• Types of Physical Quantities
1. Fundamental Quantities
2. Derived quantities
3. Scalar quantities
4. Vector Quantities
• Unit and Its Types
• Units
• Types of units : Fundamental and Derived units
• Unit Systems
1. FPS: Foot Pound Second system
2. CGS: Centimetre Gram Second system
3. MKS: Metre Kilogram Second system
4. SI: System International
• International System of Units (SI System)
• SI System of unit
• Why do we need SI Units?
• Multiples and Sub-multiples of SI Units
• Base Quantities and Units
• Clocks
• Accuracy in Measurements
• Approximation
• Rounding off
2 Force and Pressure
• Force
• Effect of Force
• A Force can change the State of motion
• Force can change the shape of an object
• Stops or tries to stop a moving body
• Changes or tries to change the direction of motion of a moving body
• Like parallel forces effect
• Unbalanced forces effect
• Unlike parallel forces effect
• Thrust and Pressure
• Thrust
• Unit of thrust
• Example of thrust
• Pressure
• Unit of Pressure
• Examples of Pressure in our daily life
• Factors Affecting Pressure
• Atmospheric Pressure
• Atmospheric Pressure
• Demonstration of Atmospheric Pressure
• Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure
• Mercury Barometer (Simple Barometer)
• Buoyancy Force (Upthrust Force)
• Buoyancy and upthrust
• Condition for a body to float or sink:
a) Volume of object
b) Density of liquid
• Unit of upthrust
• Cartesian diver
• Liquid Pressure
• Liquid Pressure
• Experiment of pressure on fluid
• Pascal’s Law
• Application of Pascal’s Law
• Applications of Pascal's law
1. Hydraulic press
2. Hydraulic lift
3. Hydraulic brakes
• Surface Tension
• Surface Tension
• Force due to surface tension
• Factors affecting surface tension
1) Nature of liquid
2) Impurities
3) Temperature
4) Electrification
• Applications of surface tension
• Viscous Force or Viscosity
• Viscosity
• Newton's law of viscosity
• Coefficient of viscosity
• Applications of coefficient of viscosity
• Force of Friction
• Kinds of Friction
• Increasing and Reducing Friction
3 Light
• Light
• Mirrors and Its Types
• Spherical Mirrors
• Spherical Mirrors
• Terms related to Spherical Mirrors
1. Center of Curvature (C)
2. Pole (P)
4. Principal Axis
5. Focus (F)
6. Focal length (f)
7. Principal section
8. Aperture
• Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors
• Concave Mirror
• Concave Mirror
• Application of Concave Mirror
• Convex Mirror
• Convex Mirror
• Uses of convex mirrors
• Law of Reflection of Light
• Types of Reflection
• Types of Reflection
1. Regular reflection
2. Irregular reflection
• Multiple Reflections
• Refraction of Light
• Partial reflection and refraction at the boundary of two different media
• Cause of refraction
• Some consequences of refraction of light
• Refractive Index
• Law of Refraction of Light
• Law of Refraction of Light
• Refractive index
• Effect on speed (V), frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) due to refraction of light
• Prism
• Dispersion of Light Through Prism and Formation of Spectrum
• Dispersion Of Light through Prism
• Newton's Experiment
• Formation of Rainbow
• Newton Disc
• Spectrum
• Cause of dispersion of white light and formation of spectrum
• Angular dispersion (Δ)
• Dispersive power (ω)
• Dispersion without deviation
• Deviation without dispersion
4 Heat
• Heat and Its Unit
• Heat
• Unit of Heat
• Effects of Heat
• Transfer of Heat
• Conduction
• Convection
• Some important applications of black and white surfaces in daily life.
• Calorimetry and Calorimeter
• Calorimetry
• Calorimeter
• Principle of calorimetry
• Temperatures
• Temperature
• Unit of Temperature
• Scales of Thermometers
1. Fahrenheit scale
2. Celsius temperature scale
3. Kelvin scale (Absolute scale)
• Relationship between the three scales of temperature
• Conversion of Temperature from celsius scale to kelvin scale and vice-versa
• Thermal Capacity (Heat Capacity)
• Heat capacity or Thermal capacity
• Units of heat capacity
• Specific Heat Capacity
• Specific Heat Capacity
• Units of specific heat capacity
• Measurement of specific heat: (mixing method) and calorimeter
• Thermostat
5 Electricity
• Electricity
• Structure of an Atom
• Electric Charges
• Charge
• Unit of charge
• Electric charges
• What is the origin of an electric charge?
• Measuring electric charge
• Electric Force
• Electric Field
• Transfer of Charges
• Direction of the Electric Current - Conventional and Electronic Flow
• Flow of Charges (Electrons) Between Conductor
• Electroscope
• Lightning and Lightning Safety
• Electric Circuit
• Electric circuit
• Circuit Diagram
• The flow of electricity in a circuit
• Arrangement of Circuits: Open Circuit and Closed
• Types of Circuits: Simple Circuit
• Types of Circuits: Series Circuit
• Types of Circuits: Parallel Circuit
• Effects of Electric Current
• Effects of Electric Current
1. Heating effect of Electric Current
2. Magnetic effect (Magnetism) of Electric Current
3. Chemical effect of Electric Current
• Heating Effect of Electric Current
• Heating effect of electric current
• Factors affecting Heating Effect of current
• Applications of Heating Effect of electric current
• Electric Heating Device
1. Fuse Wire
2. Filament in bulbs
3. Electric kettles
4. Electric cookers
5. Electric irons
• Chemical Effects of Electric Current
• Chemical effect of electric current
• Application of Chemical effect of electric current
1. Electroplating
6 Sound
• Sound
• Sound
• Types of Sound
1. Longitudinal wave
2. Transverse wave
• Categories of sound waves based on their frequencies
1. Audible waves
2. Infrasonic waves
3. Ultrasonic waves
• Production of Sound
• Experiment: A vibrating string produces sound.
• Experiment: A vibrating tuning fork produces sound.
• Propagation of Sound
• Characteristics of a Sound Wave
• Frequency
• Amplitude (A)
• Time period (T)
• Wavelength (λ)
• Wave velocity
• Pitch
• Properties of Sounds
• Loudness and Intensity
• Loudness and Intensity
• Subjective nature of loudness and objective nature of intensity
• Factors affecting the loudness of sound
• Relationship between loudness and intensity
• Noise pollution
• Pitch (or shrillness) and frequency
• Pitch (or shrillness)
• Examples of change in pitch
• Subjective nature of pitch and objective nature of frequency
• Quality (Or Timbre) and Wave Form
• Recognition of the sources of two sounds by their quality
• Audibility and Range
• Audibility and Range
1. Audible sound
2. Infrasonic sound
3. Ultrasonic sound
• Musical Instruments
• Sound Produced by Humans
• Human Ear
• Structure of Human Ear
• Mechanism of Human ear
• Noise Pollution
• Noise Pollution
• Health hazards due to noise pollution
• Hearing Loss
7 Magnetism
• Discovery of Magnets
• Magnet and Its Characteristics
• Magnet
• Properties of a magnet
1) Attractive Property
2) Directive Property
3) Laws of magnetic poles
4) Poles exist in pairs
5) Sure test of polarity
6) Magnetic induction
• Classification of Magnets
• Classification of Magnets
1) Natural Magnet
2) Artificial Magnet
• Magnetic Properties
• Magnetic Field
• Magnetic Materials
• Artificial Magnets
• Earth’s Magnetism
• Earth’s Magnetism
• Earth’s Magnetic Field
• Uses of Magnets
8 Universe and Space Science
• Sky Watching
• Universe
• Galaxy and Its Types
• The Solar System
• Rockets and Its Structure
• Propellants and Its Types
• Launching of Satellite
• Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
• Space Missions
• Need and importance of space missions
• India’s Space Programmes: Chandrayaan – 1
• India’s Space Programmes: Mangalyaan (Mars vehicle)
• India’s Space Programmes: Chandrayaan – 2
• Indian Scientist
• National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
• NASA Space Mission: Apollo Mission
• NASA’s work with ISRO
• Work of Indians at NASA
9 Matter Around Us
10 Changes Around Us
• Classification of Change: Chemical Changes
• Chemical Change
• Properties of Chemical Change
• Importance of Chemical Change
• Factors Determining Chemical Changes
• Effects of Chemical Changes: Biological Effects
• Effects of Chemical Changes: Environmental Effects
• Effects of Chemical Changes: Production of Heat, Light, Sound and Pressure
11 Air
• Air Around Us
• Air Around us
• Properties of air
• Experiments with an empty bottle
• Air is a Mixture
• Composition and Components of Air
• Components of Air: Oxygen
• Occurrence of Oxygen
• Properties of Oxygen
• Importance of Oxygen
• Components of Air: Nitrogen
• Occurrence of Nitrogen
• Properties of Nitrogen
• Importance of Nitrogen
• Nitrogen Fixation
• Components of Air: Carbon Dioxide
• Carbon Dioxide
• Properties of Carbon Dioxide
• Importance of Carbon Dioxide
• Green House Effect
• Green House Effect
• Green House gases
• Preventive Measures of Green House Effect
• Global Warming
• Global Warming
• Causes of Global warming
• Effect of Global Warming
• Preventive Measures of Global Warming
• Acid Rain
• Acid rain
• Effects of Acid rain
• Preventive Measures of Acid Rain
12 Atomic Structure
• Introduction of Atoms
• Atoms: Building Blocks of Matter
• Atoms: Building Blocks of Matter
• How big are atoms?
• How do atoms exist?
• Dalton’s atomic theory
• Advantages and Limitations of Dalton’s Atomic Theory
• Discovery of Charged Particles in Matter
• Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) experiment
• Electrons (e)
• Electrons
• Discovery of Electrons
• Properties of Cathode rays
• Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron
• Charge on the Electron
• Protons (p)
• Protons
• Discovery of Protons
• Properties of Anode rays
• Neutrons (n)
• Neutrons
• Discovery of Neutrons
• Properties of Neutrons
• J. J. Thomson’s Atomic Model
• Advantage and Limitations of Thomson’s Atomic Model
• Valency
• Different Ways to Determine Valency
• Variable Valency
• Ions (Radicals) and Its Types
• Different Valent Ions
• Chemical Formula or Molecular Formula
• Chemical formulae of compounds : A recapitulation
• Naming Chemical Compounds
• Chemical Equation
• Chemical Equation
• Need for Chemical equation
• Limitation of Chemical equation
• Balancing Chemical Equation
• Steps in writing the skeleton equation
• Balancing chemical equation
• Information conveyed by a balanced chemical equation
• Laws of Chemical Combination
• Law of Conservation of Mass
• Law of Constant Proportions (Law of Definite Proportions)
13 Water
• Water, Our Lifeline
• Introduction
• Water: A Compound
• Occurrence of water
• Composition of Water
• Electrolysis of Water
• Preparation of Water
• Physical Properties of Water
• Physical Properties of Water:
1. Nature
2. Boiling point
3. The freezing point of water or melting point of ice
4. Density
5. Anomalous expansion of water
6. Latent heat of fusion of ice
7. Latent heat of vaporization of water
8. Specific heat capacity
• Chemical Properties of Water
• Chemical properties
1. Dissociation of water
2. Amphoteric nature
3. Oxidising and reducing nature
4. Hydrolytic reactions
5. Formation of hydrates with metal salts
• Water - a Universal Solvent
• Universal Solvent
• Experiment: To show that ordinary tap water contains dissolved solids.
• Importance of dissolved salts in water.
• Air dissolved in water.
• Experiment: To show that tap water contains dissolved gases (air).
• Importance of air dissolved in water.
• Potable Water
• Purification of Water
• Classification of water: Soft and Hard Water
• Soft and Hard water
• Types of Hard water
1. Temporary Hardness
2. Permanent Hardness
• Removal of Hardness of Water
• Softening of water
1. Removal of temporary hardness
a) By boiling
b) Clark's method
2. Removal of permanent hardness
a) By washing soda method
b) lon-exchange/Permutit method
c) Calgon method
d) Synthetic resins method
⇒ Ion exchange resins are of two types
i) Cation exchange resins
ii) Anion exchange resins
• Degree of hardness of water
• Water Pollution and Its Causes
• Water Pollution
• Causes of Water Pollution
• Sources of Water Pollution
• Prevention of Water Pollution
14 Acids and Bases
• Acids
• Acids
• Examples of acids
• Properties of Acids
• Properties of Acids
• Physical properties of Acids
1. Taste
2. Physical state
3. Effect on skin
4. Colours of indicators
• Chemical properties of Acids
1. Reaction with active metals
2. Reaction with bases - Neutralisation
3. Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates and carbonates
4. Decomposition of sulphites and bisulphites
5. Decomposition of sulphides
6. Reaction with chlorides and nitrates
7. Reaction with metal oxide
• Uses of Acids
• Bases (Alkalis)
• Bases (Alkalis)
• Basic oxide
• Basic hydroxide
• Properties of Bases (Alkalis)
• Properties of Bases (Alkalis)
• Physical properties of Bases (Alkalis)
• Chemical properties of Bases (Alkalis)
1. Reaction with metals
2. Reaction with non-metal oxides
3. Reaction with ammonium salts
• Uses of Bases
• Types of Double Displacement: Neutralization Reaction
• Neutralization Reactions in Our Daily Life
• Indicators
• Similarities and Differences Between Acids and Bases
• Similarities and differences between acids and bases
• Acid solution in water conducts electricity
• What Happens to an Acid or a Base in a Water Solution?
15 Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrocarbons
• Characteristics of Hydrocarbons
• Classification of Hydrocarbon
• Sources of Hydrocarbons
• Natural Gas
• Other Gases
• Non-crystalline/Amorphous Forms: Coal
• Extraction of Coal
• Non-crystalline/Amorphous Forms: Cock
• Petroleum
• Refining of Crude Petroleum
• Fuel
• Types of Fuel
• Fuel Efficiency
• Bio-energy
• Biogas plant
• Biomass
• Gobar gas
• Wind Energy
• Wind Energy
• Windmill
• Production of electricity from wind
• Uses of Wind Energy
• Solar Energy
• Solar Energy
• Production of electricity from solar energy
• Solar photovoltaic cell
• Application of solar energy
• Solar Thermal power plant
16 Microorganisms
• Microorganisms (Microbes) and Microbiology
• Viruses
• Viruses
• Virology
• Milestones in Virology
• Size and Shape
• Characteristic Features of Viruses
• Bacteria
• Bacteria Friends or Foes?
• Milestones in Bacteriology
• General characteristic features of Bacteria
• Ultrastructure of a Bacterial cell
• Gram staining procedure
• Life processes in Bacteria
• Reproduction in Bacteria
• Economic importance of Bacteria
• Archaebacteria
• Cyanobacteria (Blue Green Algae)
• Mycoplasma or Mollicutes
• Actinomycetes (Actinobacteria)
• Fungi
• Fungi - World War II and Penicillin History speaks on fungi
• Mycology - Milestones in Mycology
• General characteristic features
1. Habitat
2. Size and Shape
3. Cellular Structure
4. Nutrition
5. Locomotion
6. Life Cycle
7. Reproduction
• Algae
• Algae
• Algology - Milestones in algology (Phycology)
• Characteristics of algae
• Classification of algae
(i) Chlorophyceae
(ii) Phaeophyceae
(iii) Rhodophyceae
• Protozoa
• Protozoa
• Protozoology - Milestones in Protozoology
• Characteristics of Protozoa
1. Habitat
2. Size and Shape
3. Cellular Structure
4. Nutrition
5. Locomotion
6. Life Cycle
7. Reproduction
• Prions
• Virions
• Uses of Microorganisms (Microbes)
• Dairy Products
• Yoghurt Products
• Butter
• Cheese production
• Probiotics
• Vinegar Production
• Production of beverages
• Microbial Enzymes
• Organic acids used in various commercial products and microbes useful for the same
• Substances obtained by microbial processing and their roles
• Antibiotics
• Microbes and Fuels
• Bio-fuel
• Microbial Pollution Control
• Land-filling site
• Sewage Management
• Clean Technology
• Microbes and Farming
• Microbial Inoculants
• Bioinsecticides
• Harmful Effects of Microorganisms (Microbes)
• Fungi, Clostridium and others
• Relationship Between Man and Microbes Balances, Imbalances and Uses
17 Plant Kingdom
• Biodiversity
• Biodiversity
• Type of biodiversity
(i) Genetic diversity
(ii) Species diversity
(iii) Ecosystem diversity
• Global biodiversity and a proportionate number of species of major taxa of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates
• Kingdom Plantae
• Kingdom Plantae: Thallophyta (Algae)
• Kingdom Plantae: Thallophyta (Fungi)
• Kingdom Plantae: Bryophytes (Mosses)
• Kingdom Plantae: Pteridophytes (Ferns)
• Kingdom Plantae: Gymnosperms
• Kingdom Plantae: Angiosperms
• Taxonomy and Systematics
• Taxonomy
• Systematics
• Classification of Taxonomy
1. Plant Taxonomy
2. Animal Taxonomy
• Nomenclature
• Medicinal Plant
18 Organisation of Life
• Biological Organisation in Organisms
• Cell: the Fundamental Unit of Life
• Cell
• Totipotency
• Experiment: Microscopic examination of onion peel.
• Organisms Show Variety in Cell Number, Shape and Size
• Cell Numbers
• Cell Size
• Smallness of cells: A Greater Efficiency
• Cell Shapes: To suit Functional Requirement
• Tissues - “The Teams of Workers”
• Human Organ System
• Human Eye: Structure of the Eye
• The eyes - Photoreceptor: Rod cell and cone cell
• External structure of an Eye
1. Sclera
2. Conjunctiva
3. Cornea
4. Iris
5. Pupil
• The internal structure of an Eye
1. Lens
2. Retina
3. Optic nerve
4. Aqueous Humour
5. Vitreous Humour
• Human Respiratory System
• Conducting Part:
1. Nose
2. Nasal cavity
3. Pharynx
4. Larynx
5. Trachea
6. Bronchi
7. Bronchioles
8. Terminal bronchioles
• Respiratory Part
1. External Nostrils
2. Nasal Chamber
3. Pharynx
4. Larynx
5. Trachea
6. Lungs: Bronchi and Alveoli
• Stages of respiration in human being involve
• Breathing – Respiratory Cycle
• Inspiration (Inhalation)
• Expiration (Exhalation)
• Exchange of gases in the Alveoli
• Difference between inhalation and exhalation
• Differences between breathing and respiration
• Model to show mechanism of breathing
• Control of breathing movements
• Physiological Processes in Organisms
• Homeostasis
• Means of Transport in Plants
• Simple Diffusion
• Concept of Osmosis
• Endosmosis
• Exosmosis
• Osmotic Pressure
• Isotonic solution
• Hypotonic solution
• Hypertonic solution
• Osmoregulation
• Types of Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
• Cellular respiration
• Types of cellular respiration
1. Aerobic Respiration
2. Anaerobic Respiration
• Aerobic respiration in plant/animal
• Anaerobic respiration in plant/animal
• Differences in anaerobic respiration in plants and animals
• Metabolism
19 Movements in Animals
• Biodiversity
• Biodiversity
• Type of biodiversity
(i) Genetic diversity
(ii) Species diversity
(iii) Ecosystem diversity
• Global biodiversity and a proportionate number of species of major taxa of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates
• Movement and Locomotion
• Movement in Different Animals
• Human Body and Its Movements
• Types of Movements
• Joints and Its Classification
• Joints
• Classification of joints
1. Fibrous Joint
2. Cartilaginous Joint
3. Synovial Joint
⇒ Types of synovial joints
a) Ball and Socket Joint
b) Hinge Joint
c) Pivot Joint
d) Gliding Joint
• Human Skeleton System
• The Human skeleton: Exoskeleton and Endoskeleton
• Function of Human skeleton
• Constituents of Skeleton
• The Human Skeleton: Axial Skeleton
• Axial skeleton
1. Skull (22 bones): Cranial (8 bones), Facial (14 bones), Hyoid bone (1 bone), ear ossicles (6 bones)
2. Vertebral Column (26 bones): Atlas, cervical region (7), thoracic region (12), lumbar region (5), sacral region (1-fused) and coccygeal region (1-fused)
3. Sternum and Ribs: Sternum, Ribs, Bicephalic, Seven pairs, True ribs, False ribs, Veretebra-chondral ribs, Floating ribs.
• The Human Skeleton: Appendicular Skeleton
• Appendicular Skeleton
1. Forelimb (30 bones)
2. Hind limb (30 bones)
• Girdles
1. Each half of the pectoral girdle consists of:
⇒ Clavicle
⇒ Acromion
⇒ Glenoid cavity
2. Each half of the pelvie girdle consists of:
⇒ Acetabulum
• Muscles and Its Types
1. Voluntary Muscles or Skeletal Muscles
2. Involuntary Muscles or Smooth muscle
3. Cardiac Muscles
• Muscular System
• Structure of muscles
• How do muscles work?
• Coordination of Muscles
• Antagonistic Muscles
20 Reaching the Age of Adolescence
• Changes at Puberty
• Secondary Sex Characteristics
• Role of Hormones in Initiating Reproductive Function
• Reproductive Phase of Life in Humans
• Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)
• Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)
• Phases menstrual cycle
1. Menstrual phase
2. Follicular or proliferative phase
3. Ovulatory phase
4. Luteal or secretory phase
• Reproductive Health
• Family Welfare Programme
• Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) Programme
- Goals of RCH Programmes
21 Crop Production and Management
• Crop and Its Types
• Basic Practices of Crop Production
• Soil Formation and Preparation for Agriculture
• Agricultural Implements
• Sowing and Selection of Seed
• Methods of Sowing
• Manuring (Biomanuring)
• Fertilizers
• Methods to Replenish Nutrients in Your Soil
• Irrigation
• Method of Irrigation
• Types of Irrigation
• Weeding
• Harvesting of Crops
• Storage of Food Grains
• Rotation of Crops
• Seed Bank
• Bio-indicators
• Agriculture Research Institutions
• Foliar Sprays
• Bio-control Methods
22 Conservation of Plants and Animals
• Deforestation and Its Causes
• Deforestation
• Causes of deforestation: Jhum cultivation
• Consequences of Deforestation
• Afforestation
• Reforestation
• Endangered Species
• Hotspots of Biodiversity
• Endangered Species
• Determination of Endangerment
• Causes for Endangerment
• Saving Endangered Species
• Saving Endangered Species
• Government Initiatives to protect Endangered Species
• Red Data Book
• Conservation of Forest
• Conservation of Wildlife
• PBR (People’s Bio-diversity Register)
• Biomagnification
• Animal Welfare Organisations
23 Libre Office Calc
• Libre Office Calc