Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationSSLC (English Medium) Class 10

Science SSLC (English Medium) Class 10 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24

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Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 10 Science Syllabus - Free PDF Download

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24 Class 10: The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 10 Science Syllabus for the examination year 2023-24 has been released by the , Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2023-24 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 10 Science Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 10 Science Syllabus for 2023-24 is below.

Academic year:

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 10 Science Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 10 Science and their Unit wise marks distribution

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 10 Science Course Structure 2023-24 With Marking Scheme

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Syllabus

1 Laws of Motion
  • Motion and Rest  
    • What is rest?
    • What is motion?
    • Rest and motion are relative
  • Force  
  • Inertia and Mass  
  • Types of Inertia  
    • Inertia of rest
    • Inertia of motion
  • Linear Momentum  
  • Newton’s Laws of Motion  
    • Newton's First Law of Motion  
    • Newton's Second Law of Motion  
    • Newton's Third Law of Motion  
  • Translational and Rotational Motions  
    • Linear or translational motion
    • Rotational motion
  • Moment (Turning Effect) of a Force Or Torque  
    • Moment of a force
    • Turning effect of a force
    • Factors affecting the turning of a body
    • Unit of moment of force
    • Clockwise and anticlockwise moments 
    • Common examples of moment of force
  • Moment of Force Or Torque  
    • Moment of Force Or Torque
    • Unit of moment of force
    • Application of Torque
  • Principle of Moments  
    • Principle of moments
    • Verification of principle of moments
  • Couple  
    • Couple
    • Moment of couple
  • Impulse  
  • Conservation of Linear Momentum and Its Principle  
  • Rocket Propulsion  
  • Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation  
    • Newton’s universal law of gravitation
    • Importance of the Universal Law of Gravitation
    • Application of Newton’s law of gravitation
    • Principle of superposition of gravitation
  • Acceleration Due to Gravity (Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration)  
    • Acceleration due to gravity
    • Relationship between g and G
    • Mass of the Earth (M)
    • Value of g on the surface of the earth
    • Variation of acceleration due to gravity (g)
  • Mass and Weight of an Object  
    • Mass
    • Weight
    • Weight of an object on the moon
  • Apparent Weight  
2 Optics
  • Light  
  • Refraction of Light  
    • Partial reflection and refraction at the boundary of two different media
    • Cause of refraction
    • Some consequences of refraction of light
  • Law of Reflection of Light  
  • Dispersion of Light and Its Causes  
  • Prism  
  • Dispersion of Light Through Prism and Formation of Spectrum  
    • Dispersion Of Light through Prism
    • Newton's Experiment
    • Formation of Rainbow
    • Newton Disc
    • Spectrum
    • Cause of dispersion of white light and formation of spectrum
    • Angular dispersion (Δ)
    • Dispersive power (ω)
    • Dispersion without deviation
    • Deviation without dispersion
  • Scattering of Light and Its Types  
    • Scattering of Light
    • Types of Scattering of Light
    1. Elastic scattering
    2. Inelastic scattering
      (a) Rayleigh scattering
      (b) Rayleigh’s scattering law
      (c) Mie scattering
      (d) Tyndall scattering
      (e) Raman scattering
  • Lens  
    • Lens
    • Types of lens
    1. Convex Lens
    2. Concave Lens
    3. Plano-convex lens
    4. Plano-concave lens
    • Applications of Lens
  • Spherical Lens  
    • Spherical lens
    • Terms related to spherical lens
    1. Pole (P)
    2. Principal Axis
    3. Paraxial Ray
    4. Centre of curvature (C)
    5. Focus (F)
    6. Focal length - First focal length, Second focal length
    7. Radius of curvature
    8. Optical centre
    9. Principal foci - First focal point, Second focal point
    10. Focal plane - First focal plane, Second focal plane
  • Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors  
  • Guideline for Image Formation Due to Refraction Through a Convex and Concave Lens  
  • Convex Lens  
    • Convex lens
    • Uses of Convex lens
  • Images Formed Due to Refraction Through a Convex Lens  
  • Concave Lens  
    • Concave Lens
    • Uses of Concave Lens
  • Images Formed Due to Refraction Through a Concave Lens  
  • Lens Formula  
  • Sign Convention for Spherical Lenses  
  • Magnification Due to Spherical Lenses  
  • Lens Maker's Formula  
  • Power of a Lens  
  • Human Eye: Structure of the Eye  
    • The eyes - Photoreceptor: Rod cell and cone cell
    • External structure of an Eye
    1. Sclera
    2. Conjunctiva
    3. Cornea
    4. Iris
    5. Pupil
    • The internal structure of an Eye
    1. Lens
    2. Retina
    3. Optic nerve
    4. Aqueous Humour
    5. Vitreous Humour
  • Working of the Human Eye  
    • Working of the eye
    • Power of Accommodation
    • Persistence of vision
    • Apparent size of an object
    • The far point and near point of the human eye
    • Light and dark adaptation
    • Colour Vision
  • Eye Defect and Its Correction: Myopia Or Near-sightedness  
    • The myopic eye
    • Correction for myopia with a concave lens
  • Eye Defect and its correction: Hypermetropia or far-sightedness  
    • Hypermetropia Eye
    • Correction for Hypermetropia
  • Eye Defect and Its Correction: Presbyopia  
    • Presbyopia
    • Correction for Presbyopia
  • Eye Defect and Its Correction: Astigmatism  
    • Astigmatism
    • Correction for Astigmatism
  • Microscope and it’s types  
    • Visual angle
    • Microscopes
    • Basic types of microscopes
      1) Simple Microscope
      2) Compound Microscope
  • Telescope  
    • Telescope
    • Types of Telescope
      1) Optical Telescope
      2) Radio Telescope
  • Types of Telescope: Optical Telescope  
    • Types of optical telescope
    1. Refracting telescope: Refracting-type telescopes, Magnifying power of a refracting telescope (M)
    2. Reflecting telescope: Reflecting type telescope, Magnifying power of reflecting telescope
    3. Astronomical Telescope
    4. Terrestrial Telescope
    • Benefits of reflecting telescope over refractive
  • Types of Telescope: Radio Telescope  
  • Types of Telescope: Telescopes Used in Space  
3 Thermal Physics
  • Heat and Its Unit  
    • Heat
    • Unit of Heat
  • Temperatures  
    • Temperature
    • Unit of Temperature
  • Scales of Thermometers  
    1. Fahrenheit scale
    2. Celsius temperature scale
    3. Kelvin scale (Absolute scale)
    • Relationship between the three scales of temperature
    • Conversion of Temperature from celsius scale to kelvin scale and vice-versa
  • Flow of Heat  
  • Heat Energy (Thermal Energy)  
  • Transfer of Heat  
  • Effect of Heat Energy  
  • Expansion of Substances (Thermal Expansion)  
    • Thermal Expansion
    • Uses of Thermal Expansion
    • Thermal Expansion Examples
    • Expansion of Solids  
      • Linear Expansion
      • Superficial or areal expansion
      • Cubical Expansion or volumetric expansion
      • Some applications in daily life
    • Expansion of Liquids  
      • Expansion in liquids
      1. Real expansion
      2. Apparent expansion
      • Experiment to measure real and apparent expansion of liquid
    • Expansion of Gases  
  • Fundamental Laws of Gases  
    • Pressure and Volume Relationship or Bolye's Law  
      • Boyle's law
      • Mathematical expression of Boyle's law
      • Graphical verification of Boyle's law
      • Explanation of Boyle's law in terms of molecular motion (kinetic theory).
      • Significance of Boyle's Law
      • Experiment of Pressure and Volume relationship in gases
    • Temperature - Volume Relationship or Charles's Law  
      • Charle's Law
      • Mathematical expression of Charles's Law
      • Graphical representation of Charle's law
      • Significance of Charle's Law
    • Avogadro’s Law  
      • Avogadro’s law
      • Avogadro's Law explains Gay-Lussac's Law
      • Avogadro's Law predicts the atomicity of gases
      • Avogadro's law helps to determine the molecular formula of a gaseous compound
      • Examples based on Avogadro's Law
      • Avogadro Hypothesis
  • Gases and Its Characteristics  
    • Gases
    • Behaviour and characteristic properties of gases
    1. Composition of gases
    2. Gases have neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape
    3. Gases exert pressure in all directions
    4. Gases are highly compressible
    5. Gases are highly expansible
    6. Gases have low density
    7. Gases have a natural tendency to mix with one another (diffusion)
    8. Gases can be liquefied
  • Classification of Gases: Real Gases and Ideal Gases  
  • Gas Equation  
4 Electricity
  • Electricity  
  • Electric Current  
    • Electric Current
    • Unit of Electric Current
    • Measurement of electric current
    • Example of Electric Current
  • Electric Circuit  
    • Electric circuit
    • Circuit Diagram
    • The flow of electricity in a circuit
    • Arrangement of Circuits: Open Circuit and Closed
  • Symbols and Functions of Various Components of an Electric Circuits  
    • Inside view of torch
    • Components of Electric Circuits
    • Symbols of Electric Components
  • Potential and Potential Difference  
    • Potential and Potential Difference
    • Unit of electric potential and potential difference
    • Difference between Electric Potential and Potential Difference
    • Potential difference of a cell
    • Relation between electric intensity potential difference
  • Ohm's Law (V = IR)  
    • Statement of Ohm's law
    • Unit of resistance
    • Conductance
    • I-V graph
    • Slope of I-V graph
  • Resistance (R)  
    • Resistance (R)
    • Cause of resistance
    • Factors affecting the resistance of a conductor
  • Electrical Resistivity and Electrical Conductivity  
    • Electrical Resistivity
    • Unit of specific resistance
    • Factors affecting the specific resistance
    • Conductance and Conductivity
  • System of Resistors  
    • Resistors in Series  
      • Combination of resistors in series
      • Expression for the equivalent resistance
    • Resistances in Parallel  
      • Expression for the equivalent resistance
    • Series Connection of Parallel Resistors  
    • Parallel Connection of Series Resistors  
  • Effects of Electric Current  
    • Heating Effect of Electric Current  
      • Heating effect of electric current
      • Factors affecting Heating Effect of current
      • Applications of Heating Effect of electric current
      • Electric Heating Device
      1. Fuse Wire
      2. Filament in bulbs
      3. Electric kettles
      4. Electric cookers
      5. Electric irons
  • Joule’s Law of Heating  
  • Electrical Power  
    • Electric power
    • Power-voltage rating
    • Power of electrical appliances connected in parallel
    • Power of electrical appliances connected in series
    • Power in mixed combination of cells
    • Practical units of electric energy in terms of power
    • Units of electrical power
  • Household Electrical Circuits  
  • Earthing (Grounding)  
    • Local earthing
    • Safety by the local earthing
    • Earthing of an appliance
    • Safety by earthing of an appliance
  • Led Bulb  
  • Led Television  
5 Acoustics
  • Sound  
    • Sound
    • Types of Sound
    1. Longitudinal wave
    2. Transverse wave
    • Categories of sound waves based on their frequencies
    1. Audible waves
    2. Infrasonic waves
    3. Ultrasonic waves
  • Difference Between the Sound and Light Waves  
    • Difference between the sound and light waves
    • Comparison of speed of sound with speed of light
    • Consequences of the large difference in the speed of sound and that of light
  • Properties of Sounds  
    • Audibility and Range  
      • Audibility and Range
      1. Audible sound
      2. Infrasonic sound
      3. Ultrasonic sound
  • Speed of Sound (Velocity of Sound)  
    • Speed of Sound
    1. Particle velocity
    2. Wave velocity
  • Factors Affecting Speed of Sound in Gas  
    • Factors Affecting Speed of Sound in a Gas
    1. Effect of density
    2. Effect of temperature
    3. Effect of humidity
    4. Effect of direction of the wind
  • Speed of Sound in Different Media  
  • Law of Reflection of Light  
  • Reflection of Sound  
    • Reflection of Sound
    • Reflection of sound in a different medium
    1. Reflection at the boundary of a denser medium
    2. Reflection at the boundary of a rarer medium
    3. Reflection of sound in the plane and curved surfaces
  • Echoes  
    • Production (or generation) of an echo
    • Conditions necessary for hearing echo
  • Application of Reflection of Sound  
  • Doppler Effect  
  • Expression for Apparent Frequency Due to Doppler Effect  
  • Applications of Doppler Effect  
6 Nuclear Physics
  • Radioactivity  
    • Radioactivity: Radioactivity is a nuclear phenomenon
    • Discovery of radioactivity
    • Units of Radioactivity
    • Nature of radioactive radiation
    • Radio isotopes
  • Types of Radioactivity  
    • Types of Radioactivity
    1. Natural Radioactivity
    2. Artificial (or) Induced Radioactivity
  • Radioactivity as Emission of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiations  
    • Properties of Alpha Particles  
    • Properties of Beta Particles  
    • Properties of Gamma Radiations  
  • Changes Within the Nucleus in Alpha, Beta and Gamma Emission  
    • Alpha Decay (Alpha Emission)  
    • Beta Decay (Beta Emission)  
    • Gamma Decay (Gamma Emission)  
  • Nuclear Fission  
    • Nuclear fission
    • Fissionable materials
    • Chain Reaction
    1. Controlled chain reaction
    2. Uncontrolled chain reaction
    • Critical Mass
    • Atom bomb
  • Nuclear Fusion  
    • Nuclear Fusion
    • Conditions necessary for nuclear fusion
    • Stellar Energy
    • Hydrogen Bomb
  • Uses of Radioactive Isotopes  
  • Nuclear Reactor  
  • Safety Precautions While Using Nuclear Energy  
    • Safety Precautions While Using Nuclear Energy
    1. Safety measures. while establishing a nuclear power plant
    2. Safety measures while handling radioactive material
    3. Safety measures in the safe disposal of nuclear waste
  • Nuclear Energy  
    • Nuclear Energy
    • Production of electricity from Nuclear energy
    • Atomic power stations in India
7 Atoms and Molecules
  • Atoms: Building Blocks of Matter  
    • Atoms: Building Blocks of Matter
    • How big are atoms?
    • How do atoms exist?
  • Atomic Mass  
    • Atomic mass
    • Gram atomic mass
    • Average atomic mass
  • Molecules  
    • Molecule
    • Properties of molecule
  • Classification of Molecules  
  • Molecular Mass  
    • Molecular mass
    • Characteristics of molecular mass
    • Gram molecular mass
  • Difference Between Atoms and Molecules  
  • Mole Concept  
  • Percentage Composition, Empirical and Molecular Formula  
    • Percentage composition
    • Chemical formula
      1) Empirical formula
      2) Molecular formula
    • Steps involved in determining the empirical formula
    • Steps for determination of the molecular formula of a compound
  • Fundamental Laws of Gases  
    • Avogadro’s Law  
      • Avogadro’s law
      • Avogadro's Law explains Gay-Lussac's Law
      • Avogadro's Law predicts the atomicity of gases
      • Avogadro's law helps to determine the molecular formula of a gaseous compound
      • Examples based on Avogadro's Law
      • Avogadro Hypothesis
  • Relationship Between Vapour Density and Relative Molecular Mass  
    • Relative molecular mass (Hydrogen scale)
    • Vapour Density
8 Periodic Classification of Elements
  • History of Periodic Table: Early Attempts at the Classification of Elements  
    • Reasons for classification of elements
    • Early Attempts at the Classification of Elements
  • Modern Periodic Law  
    • Atomic number as the basis for modern periodic law
  • The Modern Periodic Table  
    • Modern Periodic Table
    • Salient features of the modern periodic table
    1. Features of Periods
    2. Features of Groups
    3. Position of hydrogen in the periodic table
    4. Position of Rare Gases
  • Periodic Properties  
    • Periodicity
    • Periodicity of elements
    • Cause of periodicity
    • Periodic Properties: Atomic Radius Or Atomic Size  
    • Periodic Properties: Ionic Radii  
    • Periodic Properties: Ionisation Potential (Ionisation Energy)  
    • Periodic Properties: Electron Affinity  
    • Periodic Properties: Electronegativity  
  • Metallurgy  
    • Metallurgy
      1) Pyrometallurgy
      2) Hydrometallurgy
      3) Electrometallurgy
    • Basic principles of metallurgy
    • Terminology in metallurgy
    • Metallurgical process involve three main steps
  • Types of Separation or Concentration of an Ore  
    • Pulverization
    • Concentration of an ore
    • Types of separation or concentration of an ore
    1. Hydraulic (gravity separation) method or Levigation method
    2. Magnetic separation method
    3. Froth floatation
    4. Chemical method or Leaching
    5. Wilfley table method
  • Occurrence of Ores in Tamil Nadu  
  • Types of Elements: Metals  
    • Metals
    • Occurrence of metal
    • Uses of Metals
  • Metallurgy of Aluminium  
    • Aluminium
    • Physical Properties of Aluminium
    • Chemical Properties of Aluminium
    • Uses of Aluminium
  • Extraction of Aluminium  
    • Concentration of bauxite ore (Bayer's process)
    • Electrolytic reduction of alumina (Hall-Heroult's process)
  • Metallurgy of Copper  
  • Extraction of Copper  
  • Metallurgy of Iron  
  • Extraction of Iron  
  • Alloys  
    • Alloys
    • Alloys as solid solutions
    • Amalgam
    • Dental amalgam
    • Types of Alloys
    • Advantages of alloys
  • Making Alloys  
    • Purpose of making alloys
    • Reasons for alloying
    • Method of making alloys
  • Corrosion of Metals and Its Prevention  
  • Pamban Bridge  
9 Solutions
  • Solutions  
  • Components of Solutions  
  • Different Types of Solutions  
    • Different Types of Solutions:
    1. Supersaturated solution
    2. Unsaturated solution
    3. Saturated solution
    4. Aqueous solution
    5. Non-aqueous solution
    6. Dilute solution
    7. Concentrated solution
  • Solubility  
    • Solubility
    • Factors affecting solubility
    1. Nature of the solute and solvent
    2. Effect of Temperature
    3. Effect of Pressure
    • Solubility curves can be used
    • Determination of the solubility of a solute at a particular temperature 
    • Effect of pressure and temperature on solubility of gases in water (liquids) 
  • Concentration of a Solution  
    • Reactions in solutions
    1. Mass percentage
    2. Mole fraction
    3. Molarity
    4. Molality
    5. Volume percentage
  • Hydrated and Anhydrous Substances  
  • Efflorescence, Hygroscopic, and Deliquescence Substances  
    • Efflorescence
    • Deliquescence
    • Hygroscopy
  • Problems Based on Solubility and Percentage by Mass and Volume  
10 Types of Chemical Reactions
  • Classification of Change: Chemical Changes  
    • Chemical Change
    • Properties of Chemical Change
    • Importance of Chemical Change
  • Effects of Chemical Changes: Biological Effects  
  • Effects of Chemical Changes: Environmental Effects  
  • Chemical Equation  
    • Chemical Equation
    • Need for Chemical equation
    • Limitation of Chemical equation
  • Balancing Chemical Equation  
    • Steps in writing the skeleton equation
    • Balancing chemical equation
    • Information conveyed by a balanced chemical equation
    • A chemical equation can be made more informative by writing the additional information. 
  • Types of Chemical Change or Chemical Reaction  
    • Direct Combination (or Synthesis) Reaction  
    • Decomposition Reactions  
    • Single Displacement Reactions  
    • Double Displacement Reaction  
    • Combustion Reactions  
  • Classification of Change: Reversible and Irreversible Changes  
  • Rate of Chemical Reaction  
  • State of Equilibrium  
  • Ionic Product of Water  
  • Strength of Acidic or Basic Solutions  
    • pH Scale
    • Importance of pH in Everyday Life
  • Indicators  
  • Ph Calculation  
  • Problems on Ph  
11 Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Carbon: a Versatile Element  
    • Carbon
    • Versatile nature of Carbon
    • Occurrence of carbon
  • Classification of Compounds of Carbon  
    • Organic Compounds of Carbon
    • Inorganic Compounds of Carbon
    • Comparison between organic and inorganic compounds
  • Organic Compounds  
    • Organic compound
    • Sources of organic compounds
    • Characteristics of Organic compound
    • Types of organic Compound
  • Classification of Organic Compounds Based on the Pattern of Carbon Chain  
    • Acyclic or Open chain compounds
    1. Saturated
    2. Unsaturated
    • Cyclic Compounds
    1. Alicyclic compounds
    2. Aromatic compounds
  • Classification of Organic Compound Based on the Kind of Atoms  
    • Hydrocarbons
    1. Alkanes
    2. Alkenes
    3. Alkynes
    • Chemical Tests to distinguish between Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes
  • Hydrocarbons  
    • Hydrocarbons
    • Characteristics of Hydrocarbons
    • Classification of Hydrocarbon
  • Functional Groups in Carbon Compounds  
    • Functional Groups in Carbon Compounds
    • Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups
  • Homologous Series of Carbon Compound  
    • Homologous series
    • Characteristics of homologous series
    • Significance of the homologous series
  • Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (IUPAC)  
    • Why do we need nomenclature?
    • Components of an IUPAC name
    • IUPAC rules for naming organic compounds
  • IUPAC Nomenclature of Hydrocarbons  
  • IUPAC Nomenclature of other classes  
  • Ethanol  
    • Ethanol
    • Manufacture of ethanol
    • Physical properties of ethanol
    • Chemical Properties of ethanol
    • Uses of ethyl alcohol
    • Important uses of Ethanol
  • Laboratory Preparation of Ethanol  
  • Ethanoic Acid  
    • Ethanoic Acid (Acetic acid)
    • Manufacture of ethanoic acid
    • Physical Properties of ethanoic acid
    • Chemical Properties of ethanoic acid
    • Uses of ethanoic acid
  • Organic Compounds in Daily Life  
  • Soap  
    • Soap
    • Types of soaps
    1. Hard soaps
    2. Soft soaps
    • Manufacture of soap
    • Effect of hard water on soap
  • Detergents  
    • Detergents
    • Types of Detergents
    • Preparation of detergents
  • Cleansing Action of Soap  
12 Plant Anatomy and Plant Physiology
  • Plant Anatomy and Plant Physiology  
  • Tissues - “The Teams of Workers”  
  • Tissue System  
    1. Epidermal tissue system
    2. Ground tissue system
    3. Vascular tissue system
    • Introduction to Tissue System, Types and Characteristics of tissue System
  • Internal Structure of Dicot Root (Bean)  
  • Internal Structure of Monocot Root (Maize)  
  • Internal Structure of Dicot Stem (Sunflower)  
  • Internal Structure of Monocot Stem (Maize)  
  • Internal Structure of Dicot Leaf (Dorsiventral Leaf) Ex. Mango Leaf  
  • Internal Structure of Monocot Leaf (Isobilateral Leaf) Ex.Grass Leaf  
  • Structure of a Cell  
    • Plastids  
      • Plastids
      • Leucoplasts
      • Chromoplasts
      • Chloroplast - “Food Producers”
    • Mitochondria - “Power House of the Cell”  
  • Photosynthesis: Food-Making Process in Plants  
    • Photosynthesis
    • Requirements for Photosynthesis
  • Process of Photosynthesis  
  • Chlorophyll: The Vital Plant Pigment  
    • Chlorophyll
    • Chloroplasts
    • Too much light destroys chlorophyll
  • Role of Sunlight in Photosynthesis  
    • Light Dependent Reaction (Hill Reaction \ Light Reaction)  
      • Reaction centre
      • Photosystems I and II
    • Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reaction \ Biosynthetic Phase)  
      • Dark reactions
      • Steps in the dark reactions
      1. Carboxylation
      2. Glycolytic Reversal
      3. Regeneration of RuBP
  • Factors Affecting Photosynthesis  
    • Blackman - Law of limiting factors
    • Factors affecting photosynthesis
    1. External Factors:
      1) Availability of sunlight
      2) Temperature
      3) Water
      4) Humidity
      5) CO2 Concentration [atmospheric]
      6) O2 availability
    2. Internal Factors:
      1) Number of leaves
      2) Size of leaves
      3) Leaf age
      4) Orientation of leaves
      5) Mesophyll cells and chloroplasts
      6) Internal CO2 concentration
      7) Anatomy of leaf
  • Types of Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration  
    • Cellular respiration
    • Types of cellular respiration
    1. Aerobic Respiration
    2. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Aerobic respiration in plant/animal
    • Anaerobic respiration in plant/animal
    • Differences in anaerobic respiration in plants and animals
  • Phases of Respiration: Glycolysis  
    • Glycolysis
    • Glycolysis Pathway
  • Phases of Respiration: Electron Transport System (Ets) and Oxidative Phosphorylation  
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation Steps
  • Phases of Respiration: Pyruvate Oxidation (Link Reaction)  
  • Phases of Respiration: Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle Or Kreb’s Cycle)  
    • TCA Cycle (Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle)
    • Steps of TCA Cycle
  • Phases of Respiration: Fermentation  
    • Fermentation
    • Process of Fermentation
    • Types of Fermentation
    1. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    2. Alcohol Fermentation
    3. Acetic acid Fermentation
    4. Butyric acid Fermentation
    • Advantages of Fermentation
  • Phases of Respiration: Electron Transport Chain (Electron Transfer System)  
  • Respiratory Quotient (R.Q.)  
13 Structural Organisation of Animals
  • The Indian Cattle Leech (Hirudinaria Granulosa)  
    • External Morphology of Leech  
    • Digestive System of Leech  
    • Respiratory System of Leech  
    • Circulatory System of Leech  
    • Nervous System of Leech  
    • Excretory System of Leech  
    • Reproductive System of Leech  
    • Parasitic Adaptations of Leech  
  • Rabbit (Oryctolagus Cuniculus)  
    • External Morphology of Rabbit  
    • Coelom (Body Cavity) of Rabbit  
    • Digestive System of Rabbit  
    • Respiratory System of Rabbit  
    • Circulatory System of Rabbit  
    • Nervous System of Rabbit  
    • Urinogenital System of Rabbit  
14 Transportation in Plants and Circulation in Animals
15 Nervous System
  • Human Nervous System  
    • Human Nervous system
    • Need of Nervous System
    • Components of Nervous System
  • Neural Tissue  
    • Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types  
      • Neuron
      • Types of neurons
      1. Unipolar neurons
      2. Bipolar neurons
      3. Multipolar neurons
      4. Sensory or afferent neurons
      5. Motor or efferent neurons
      6. Association (connecting) neurons
      • Nerve
      • Types of Nerve
      1. Sensory nerves
      2. Motor nerves
      3. Mixed nerves
      • Difference between Neuron and Nerve
    • Neuroglial Cells (Or Glial Cells)  
      • Neuroglial cells
      • Neuroglia Functions 
      • Types of  Glial cells and Their Functions
      1. Microglia
      2. Macroglia
      3. Astrocytes
      4. Oligodendrocytes
      5. Ependymal Cells
      6. Radial Glial Cells
      7. Schwann Cells
      8. Satellite Cells
      9. Enteric Glia Cells
  • Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types  
    • Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System  
      • Neuron consists of three parts: Cell body, axon and dendrites
      • Structure of the neuron
        1) Cell body (Cyton)
        2) Axon - Neuron-muscular junction, synaptic knob, neurotransmitters
        ⇒ Types of axons:
        a) Myelinated nerve fibres: Schwann cells, Nodes of Ranvier
        b) Non-myelinated nerve fibres
        3) Dendrites
      • Types based on the number of axons and dendrites
        (i) Unipolar
        (ii) Bipolar
        (iii) Multipolar
    • Nerve Fibres  
      • Nerve Fibres
      • Properties of nerve fibres
      • Types of Nerve Fibres
      1. Myelinated nerve fibre
      2. Non-myelinated nerve fibre
    • Transmission of Nerve Impulse  
      • Transmission of Nerve Impulse
      • Generation of nerve impulse
      1. Depolarization
      2. Re-polarization
      • Neurotransmitters
  • Major Division of the Nervous System  
    • The major division of The Nervous System
    1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • Somatic Nervous System
    • Autonomic Nervous System
    • Components of the nervous system at a glance
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)  
    • Central nervous system (CNS)
    • CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
  • The Human Brain  
    • Brain
    • How are these Tissues protected?
    • How does the Nervous Tissue cause Action?
  • Central Nervous System (CNS): Structure of Human Brain  
    • Three main parts:
    1. Cerebrum (cerebrum: brain)
    2. Cerebellum ("little brain")
    3. Medulla Oblongata
    • Three Primary Regions of the Brain:
    1. Forebrain
    2. Midbrain
    3. Hindbrain
  • The Spinal Cord  
    • Spinal Cord 
    • Functions of the spinal cord
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid  
  • Reflex and Reflex Action  
    • Reflexes
    • Types of actions
    1. Voluntary actions 
    2. Involuntary actions
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • Types of Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    1. Somatic Nervous System
    2. Autonomic Nervous System
    3. Emotions and autonomic nervous system
16 Plant and Animal Hormones
  • Hormones  
    • Properties of Hormones
    • Functions of hormones
    • Mechanism of hormone action
    1. Mode of hormone action through membrane receptors
    2.  Mode of action through intracellular receptors
  • Plant Hormones  
    • Plant Hormones
    • Types of Plant Hormones
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Auxins  
    • Auxins
    • Physiological effects and applications of auxin
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Cytokinins  
    • Cytokinin
    • Physiological effects and applications of cytokinin
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Gibberellins  
    • Gibberellins
    • Physiological effects and application of Gibberellins
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Abscisic Acid (ABA)  
    • Abscisic Acid
    • Physiological effects and application of ABA
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Ethylene  
    • Ethylene
    • Physiological effects and application of ethylene
  • Hormones in Animals  
  • Human Endocrine System  
    • Human Endocrine System
    • The hormones at a glance
  • Human Endocrine Glands  
    • Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis Gland  
      • Pituitary gland
      • Division of pituitary gland
        (i) Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary): Pars distalis, pars tuberalis
        (ii) Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary): Pars nervosa, infundibulum, MSH (Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone)
      • Hormones of adenohypophysis/ hormones of pars distalis:
        (i) Growth Hormone (GH)
        (ii) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
        (iii) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
        (iv) Prolactin
        (v) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
        (vi) Luteinizing hormone (LH)
      • Hormones of neurohypophysis
    • Thyroid Gland  
      • Thyroid gland: Isthmus, Follicles and stromal tissues, tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyrocalcitonin (TCT), Iodine
      • Functions of thyroid hormones
    • Parathyroid Gland  
      • Parathyroid gland
      • Functions of parathyroid hormone
    • Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)  
      • Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans): α-cells and β-cells
        (i) Insulin
        (ii) Glucagon
      • Other hormone secreting cells of islets of Langerhans
        (i) Delta or D cells
        (ii) F cells
    • Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal Gland)  
      • Adrenal Gland
      • Hormones and functions of adrenal gland
        (i) Adrenal cortex: Zona reticularis, Zona Fasciculata
        (ii) Adrenal medulla: Adrenaline, Nor-adrenaline, Catecholamines, emergency hormones or hormones of fight or flight
    • Reproductive Glands (Gonads)  
    • Thymus Gland  
      • Thymus gland
      • Function of thymosins
17 Reproduction in Plants and Animals
  • Reproduction in Plant  
  • Mode of Reproduction in Plant  
    • Mode of Reproduction in Plant:
    1. Sexual reproduction
      - Why the Sexual Mode of Reproduction?
    2. Asexual reproduction
  • Asexual Reproduction  
    • Asexual Reproduction in Plant  
      • Asexual reproduction in plant
      • Types of asexual reproduction in plant
  • Asexual Reproduction in Plant  
    • Natural Vegetative Reproduction  
      • Method of natural vegetative reproduction:
      1. Reproduction by Stem
      2. Reproduction by Leaf
      3. Reproduction by Root
      • Advantages of natural vegetative reproduction
      • Disadvantages of natural vegetative reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants  
    • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
    • Stages of Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
      (i) Pre-fertilisation events
      (ii) Double fertilisation
      (iii) Post-fertilisation events
  • Pollination  
  • Kinds of Pollination  
    • Self Pollination (Autogamy)  
    • Cross Pollination  
  • Agents of Pollination  
  • Double Fertilization and Triple Fusion in Plant  
  • Human Reproductive System  
    • The Male Reproductive System  
      • The male reproductive system
      1. Testes
      2. Accessory ducts
      3. Accessory glands
      4. External genitalia
      • Histology of seminiferous tubules
    • The Female Reproductive System  
      • Female Reproductive System
      1. Ovaries
      2. Accessory ducts
      3. External genitalia
      4. Accessory glands
      5. Mammary glands
  • Gametogenesis  
    • Gametogenesis
    1. Spermatogenesis
    2. Structure of human spermatozoan
    3. Oogenesis
    4. Structure of ovum
  • Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)  
    • Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)
    • Phases menstrual cycle
    1. Menstrual phase
    2. Follicular or proliferative phase
    3. Ovulatory phase
    4. Luteal or secretory phase
  • Fertilization to Foetal Development  
  • Reproductive Health  
    • Family Welfare Programme
    • Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) Programme
      - Goals of RCH Programmes
  • Family Planning  
    • Family Planning and welfare
    • Aspects of Family welfare
    • Methods of contraception
    1. Hormonal Methods (Pills)
    2. Barrier Methods
      (a) Condom
      (b) Diaphragms
      (c) Sperm-killing (spermicidal) agents
    3. Intra-Uterine Devices (IUDs)
    4. Surgical methods
      (a) Tubectomy (for female)
      (b) Vasectomy (in male) 
    5. Induced Abortion or Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)
  • Types of Hygiene: Personal Hygiene  
    • Personal Hygiene
    • Major aspect of personal hygiene
    1. Cleanliness
    2. Physical exercise
    3. Rest and sleep
    4. Healthy habits
18 Genetics
  • Genes and Genetic  
    • Genes
    • Genetic
    • Genetic Terminology
    1. Character
    2. Trait
    3. Factor
    4. Gene
    5. Alleles or Allelomorphs
    6. Dominant
    7. Recessive
    8. Phenotype
    9. Genotype
    10. Homozygous (pure)
    11. Heterozygous
    12. Pure line 
    13. Monohybrid
    14. F1 generation
    15. F2 generation
    16. Punnett square/ Checkerboard
    17. Homologous Chromosomes 
    18. Back cross
    19. Test cross
    20. Phenotypic ratio
    21. Genotypic ratio
    22. Monohybrid cross
    23. Dihybrid cross
  • Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Genetics  
  • Inheritance of One Gene (Monohybrid Cross)  
    • Inheritance of one gene
    • Representation of a gene
  • Inheritance of Two Genes (Dihybrid Cross)  
    • Inheritance of two genes
    • Dihybrid cross
  • Mendelian Inheritance - Mendel’s Laws of Heredity  
    1. Law of Dominance
    2. Law of segregation (Law of purity of gametes)
    3. Law of Independent Assortment
  • Chromosomes - The Carriers of Heredity  
    • Chromosomes
    • Discovery of Chromosomes
    • Function of Chromosomes
    • Number of Chromosomes
    • Structure of a Chromosome
    • Chromosomes in Homologous Pair
  • Types of Chromosomes  
    • Types of Chromosomes based on the position of Centromere
    1. Telocentric
    2. Acrocentric
    3. Submetacentric
    4. Metacentric
    • Types of Chromosomes based on function
    1. Autosomes
    2. Allosomes
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Its Structure  
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    • The Discovery of DNA
    • Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  • DNA Replication  
    • Functions of DNA:
    1. Heterocatalytic function
    2. Autocatalytic function
    • Process of semi-conservative replication:
    1. Activation of Nucleotides
    2. Point of Origin or Initiation point
    3. Unwinding of DNA molecule
    4. Replicating fork
    5. Synthesis of new strands
    6. Leading and Lagging strand
    7. Formation of daughter DNA molecules
  • Sex Determination  
  • Mutation  
    • Mutation
    • Classification of mutation
    1. Chromosomal mutation
    2. Gene or point mutation
19 Origin and Evolution of Life
  • Universe  
  • Theories of Origin of Life  
    • Origin of life
    • Theories of origin of life
    1. Big Bang Theory
    2. Theory of Panspermia
    3. Theory of Spontaneous Generation or Abiogenesis
    4. Theory of Biogenesis
    5. Theory of Chemical Origin
    6. Urey and Miller's experiment
  • Chemical Evolution of Life (Self-assembly Theory of the Origin of Life)  
    • Chemical Evolution of Life (Self-assembly Theory of the Origin of Life)
    1. Origin of Earth and Primitive atmosphere
    2. Formation of ammonia, water, and methane
    3. Formation of simple organic molecules
    4. Formation of complex organic molecules
    5. Formation of Nucleic acids
    6. Formation of Protobionts or Procells
    7. Formation of first cell
      - Urey and Miller’s Experiment
      - RNA World Hypothesis
  • Evidences for Biological Evolution  
    • Evidence for Biological evolution:
    1. Paleontological evidence
    2. Evidence from Morphological and anatomical evidence
    3. Embryological evidence
    4. Molecular evidence
    5. Evolution by natural selection (Industrial melanism)
    6. Evolution by anthropogenic
  • Theories of Biological Evolution  
    • Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution  
    • Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection  
      • Darwinism or Theory of Natural Selection
      • Objections to Darwinism
      • Neo Darwinism
  • Variation  
    • Variation
    • Types of Variation
    1. Somatic variation
    2. Germinal variation: Continuous and Discontinuous variation
    • Relationship between Mutation and Variation
  • Paleobotany  
  • Ethnobotany  
  • Astrobiology/Exobiology  
20 Breeding and Biotechnology
  • Breeding and Biotechnology  
  • Modern Agricultural Practices and Crop Improvement  
  • Green Revolution  
  • Methods of Plant Breeding for Crop Improvement  
  • Animal Breeding  
  • Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).  
  • Biotechnology in Medicine  
  • Stem Cells  
    • Stem Cell Preservation
    • Stem cell research
    • Embryonic stem cells
    • Adult stem cells
    • Uses of Stem Cells
      1) Regenerative Therapy
      2) Organ Transplantation
  • DNA Fingerprinting Technique  
  • Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)  
21 Health and Diseases
  • Abuse and Types of Abuse  
  • Approaches for Protection of an Abused Child  
  • Drug Abuse  
    • Drugs
    • Addiction and Dependence
    • Effects of Drug
    • Prevention and Control of Drug abuse
  • Tobacco Abuse  
  • Alcohol Abuse  
    • Alcohol Abuse
    • Effect of Alcohol Abuse
    • Prevention and Control of Alcohol Abuse
  • Diseases and Disorders Due to Lifestyle Modifications  
  • Diabetes Mellitus  
  • Obesity and Its Prevention  
  • Heart Disease  
  • Cancer  
    • Cancer
    • Causes of cancer
    • Cancer detection and diagnosis
    • Treatment of cancer
    • Scope of Immunology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)  
22 Environmental Management
  • Environmental Management  
  • Conservation and Judicious Use of Resources  
    • Management of Natural Resources
    • Need to manage natural resources
  • Forests: Our Lifeline  
    • Forest Biology
    • Forest Biodiversity
    1. Crown
    2. Canopy
    3. Understorey
    • Forest Ecosystem
    • Spatial pattern: Stratification and zonation
  • Deforestation and Its Causes  
    • Deforestation
    • Causes of deforestation: Jhum cultivation
  • Consequences of Deforestation  
  • Conservation of Forest  
  • Wildlife  
  • Conservation of Wildlife  
  • Soil Erosion  
  • Soil Conservation  
  • Conventional Sources of Energy and Non-conventional Sources of Energy  
    • Conventional Sources of Energy (Inexhaustible Natural Resources)
    • Non-Conventional Sources of Energy (Exhaustible Natural Resources)
    • Difference between Conventional Sources of Energy and Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
  • Fossil Fuels  
  • Conservation of Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Resources  
    • Coal
    • Petroleum
    • Natural Gas
  • Solar Energy  
    • Solar Energy
    • Production of electricity from solar energy
    • Solar photovoltaic cell
    • Application of solar energy
    • Solar Thermal power plant
  • Solar Energy Devices  
    • Solar Cells
    • Uses of Solar cells
    • Solar Panel
    • Solar Cooker
    • Solar thermal power plant
    • Advantages of Solar Energy
  • Bio-energy  
    • Biogas plant
    • Biomass
    • Gobar gas
  • Shale Gas  
  • Wind Energy  
    • Wind Energy
    • Windmill
    • Production of electricity from wind
    • Uses of Wind Energy
  • Hydroelectric Energy  
    • Hydro-electric power
    • Production of electricity from water
    • Structure of Hydro-electric power plant
  • Energy from the Sea  
    • Tidal Energy
    • Wave Energy
    • Ocean Thermal Energy
  • Water Management (Conservation of Water)  
    • Fresh Water Management  
    • Waste Water Management  
  • Conservation of Electrical Energy  
  • E-wastes and Its Management  
  • Sewage and Its Management  
  • Solid Waste Management  
  • Five R’s of Waste Management  
23 Visual Communication
  • Visual Communication Devices  
  • File and Folder  
  • Scratch  
    • Scratch
    • Scratch Interface
    • sprite

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