Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 12

Chemistry HSC Science Class 12 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2024-25

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Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus - Free PDF Download

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2024-25 Class 12: The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus for the examination year 2024-25 has been released by the , Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2024-25 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Chemistry Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus for 2024-25 is below.

Academic year:

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Chemistry Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Chemistry and their Unit wise marks distribution

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Chemistry Course Structure 2024-25 With Marking Scheme

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Syllabus

1 Metallurgy
  • Occurrence of Metals  
    • Occurrence of metals
    • Minerals and ores
  • Concentration of Ores  
    • Gravity separation or Hydraulic wash
    • Froth flotation
    • Leaching
    1. Cyanide leaching
    2. Ammonia leaching
    3. Alkali leaching 
    4. Acid leaching
    •  Magnetic separation
  • Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore  
    • Conversion to oxide
    1. Calcination
    2. Roasting
    • Reduction of oxide to the metal
    1. Pyrometallurgy
    2. Hydrometallurgy
    3. Electrometallurgy
  • Thermodynamic Principle of Metallurgy  
    • Ellingham diagram
    • Applications of the Ellingham diagram
  • Electrochemical Principle of Metallurgy  
    • Electrochemial extraction of aluminium - Hall-Heroult process
  • Refining Process  
    • Distillation
    • Liquation
    • Electrolytic refining
    • Zone Refining
    • Vapour phase method 
  • Applications of Metals  
    • Applications of Al
    • Applications of Zn
    • Applications of Fe 
    • Applications of Cu 
    • Applications of Au
2 p-block Elements-I
  • General Trends in Properties of p-block Elements  
    • Electronic configuration and oxidation state
    • Metallic nature
    • Ionisation Enthalpy
    • Electronegativity
    • Anomalous properties o f the first elements:
    • Inert pair effect
    • Allotropism in p-block elements
  • Group 13 (Boron Group) Elements  
    • Occurrence
    • Physical properties
    • Chemical properties of boron
    • Borax [Na2B4O7.10H2O]
    • Boric acid [H3BO3 or B(OH)3]
    • Diborane
    • Boron trifluoride
    • Aluminium chloride
    • Alums
  • Group 14 (Carbon Group) Elements  
    • Occurrence
    • Physical properties
    • Tendency for catenation
    • Allotropes of carbon
    • Carbon monoxide [CO]
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Silicon tetrachloride
    • Silicones
    • Silicates
    • Zeolites
3 p-block Elements - II
  • Group 15 (Nitrogen Group) Elements  
    • Occurrence
    • Physical properties
    • Nitrogen
    • Ammonia (NH3)
    • Nitric acid
    • Oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen
    • Allotropic forms of phosphorus
    • Properties of phosphorus
    • Phosphine (PH3
    • Phosphorous trichloride and pentachloride
    • Structure of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus
  • Group 16 (Oxygen Group) Elements  
  • Oxygen  
    • Allotrophic forms of sulphur
    • Sulphur dioxide
    • Sulphuric acid: (H2SO4
  • Group 17 (Halogen Group) Elements  
    • Chlorine
    • Manufacture of chlorine
    • Hydrochloric acid
    • Trends in physical and chemical properties of hydrogen halides
    • Inter halogen compounds
    • Oxides of halogen
    • Oxoacids of halogens
  • Group 18 (Inert Gases) Elements  
    • Occurrence
4 Transition and Inner Transition Elements
  • Position of d- Block Elements in the Periodic Table  
  • Electronic Configuration  
  • General Trend in Properties  
    • Metallic behavior
    • Variation of atomic and ionic size
    • Ionization enthalpy
    • Oxidation state
    • Standard electrode potentials of transition metals
    • Magnetic properties
    • Catalytic properties
    • Alloy formation
    • Formation of interstitial compounds
    • Formation of complexes
  • D-block Elements  
    • Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements  
      • Oxides and Oxoanions of Metals 
      • Potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7
      • Chemical properties
      • Potassium permanganate - KMnO4
  • Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements  
    • The f-Block Elements (Inner-transition Elements)  
      • Electronic configuration of Lanthanoids
      • Oxidation state of lanthanoids
      • Cause of lanthanoid contraction
      • Oxidation state of actinoids
      • Differences between lanthanoids and actinoids
5 Coordination Chemistry
  • Coordination Compounds and Double Salts  
  • Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds  
    • Limitations of Werner’s theory
  • Definition of Important Terms Pertaining to Co-ordination Compounds  
    • Coordination entity
    • Central atom/ion
    • Ligands
  • Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds  
  • Isomerism in Coordination Compounds  
    • Stereoisomers
    • Structural isomers (Constitutional isomers)
    • Optical Isomerism
  • Theories of Coordination Compound  
    • Valence Bond Theory
    • Crystal Field Theory
    1. Crystal field splitting in octahedral complexes
    2. Crystal field splitting in tetrahedral complexes
    3. Crystal filed splitting Energy and nature of ligands
    4. Colour of the complex and crystal field splitting energy
  • Stability of Metal Complexes  
    • Stepwise formation constants and overall formation constants
  • Importance and Applications of Coordination Complexes  
6 Solid State
  • General Characteristics of Solids  
  • Classification of Solids  
    • Classification of solids
    • Crystalline solids
    • Amorphous solids
    • Differences between crystalline and amorphous solids
    • Isomorphous solids and polymorphous solids
  • Classification of Crystalline Solids  
    • Classification of crystalline solids
    1. Molecular solids:
      a) Polar molecular solids
      b) Non-polar molecular solids
      c) Hydrogen-bonded molecular solids
    2. Ionic Solids
    3. Metallic solids
    4. Covalent or Network Solids
    • Structure and properties of diamond, graphite, and fullerene
  • Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells  
    • Unit cell
    • Crystal lattice or space lattice
    • Two-dimensional lattice and unit cell
    • Three-dimensional lattice and unit cell
  • Primitive and Non-primitive Unit Cell  
    • Primitive (or) simple cubic unit cell (SC)
    • Body centered cubic unit cell (BCC)
    • Face centered cubic unit cell (FCC)
    • Calculations involving unit cell dimensions
    • Calculation of density
  • Packing in Crystals  
    • Linear arrangement of spheres in one direction
    • Two dimensional close packing
    • Simple cubic arrangement
    • Body centered cubic arrangement
    • The hexagonal and face centered cubic arrangement
  • Imperfection in Solids  
    • Schottky defect
    • Frenkel defect
    • Metal excess defect
    • Metal deficiency defect
    • Impurity defect
7 Chemical Kinetics
  • Rate of a Chemical Reaction  
    • Average rate of a reaction
    • Units of rate of a reaction
    • Instantaneous rate
    • Stoichiometry and rate of a reaction
    • Rate law and rate constant
    • Differences between rate and rate constant of a reaction
  • Molecularity  
    • Differences between order and molecularity
  • Integrated Rate Equations  
  • First Order Reactions  
    • Integrated rate law for first order reactions
    • Units of rate constant for the first order reaction
    • Graphical representation of first order reaction
    • Examples of first order reactions
    • Various forms of the integrated rate law for the first order reactions
  • Pseudo First Order Reaction  
  • Zero Order Reactions  
    • Integrated rate law for zero order reactions
    • Units of rate constant of zero order reactions
    • Graphical representation of zero order reaction
    • Examples of zero order reactions
  • Half Life Period of a Reaction  
    • Half life of the first order reactions (`t _(1/2)`)
    • Half life and rate constant of the first order reaction
    • Graphical representation of Half life period of first order reaction
    • Half life of zero order reactions
  • Collision Theory  
  • Arrhenius Equation – the Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate  
  • Factors Affecting the Reaction Rate  
    • Nature and state of the reactant
    • Concentration of the reactants
    • Effect of surface area of the reactant
    • Effect of presence of catalyst
8 Ionic Equilibrium
  • Acids and Bases  
    • Arrhenius theory of acids and bases
    • Bronsted - Lowry theory 
    • Lewis theory
  • Strength of Acids and Bases  
  • Ionisation of Water  
  • The pH Scale  
    • pH of a solution
    • pH scale
    • Relationship between pH and pOH
    • Approximate pH values of some substances
    • Acidity, basicity, and neutrality of aqueous solutions
    • pK value
    • Measurement of pH of a solution
    • Indicators
    • Titration curves
  • Ionisation of Weak Acids  
    • Ostwald’s dilution law
  • Common Ion Effect  

    Common ion effect and solubility

  • Buffer Solutions  
    • Types of buffer solutions
    • Buffer action
    • Buffer capacity and buffer index
    • Henderson - Hasselbalch equation
    • Properties of buffer solution
    • Applications of buffer solution
    1. In biochemical system
    2. Agriculture
    3. Industry
    4. Medicine
    5. Analytical chemistry
  • Ionic Equilibria  
    • Salt Hydrolysis  
      • Salts of strong acid and a strong base
      • Hydrolysis of Salt of strong base and weak acid (Anionic Hydrolysis)
      • Hydrolysis of salt of strong acid and weak base (Cationic Hydrolysis)
      • Hydrolysis of Salt of weak acid and weak base (Anionic & Cationic Hydrolysis)
  • Solubility Product  
    • Solubility product  
      • Solubility equilibria
      • Relationship between solubility and solubility product
      • Condition of precipitation
      • Determination of solubility product from molar solubility 
9 Electro Chemistry
  • Conductivity of Electrolytic Solution  
    • Molar conductivity (Λm)
    • Equivalent conductance (Λ)
    • Factors affecting electrolytic conductance
    • Measurement of conductivity of ionic solutions 
  • Variation of Molar Conductivity with Concentration  
    • Debye - Huckel and Onsager equation
    • Kohlraush's law
  • Electrochemical Cells  
    • Electrochemical reactions
    • Electrodes
    • Types of electrochemical cells
    1. Galvanic cell
    2. Electrolytic cells
  • Thermodynamics of Cell Reactions  
    • Nernst equation
    • Electrolytic cell and electrolysis
    • Cell reactions
    • Faraday’s Laws of electrolysis
    • Electrochemical equivalent and molar mass
    • Batteries
    1. Leclanche cell
    2. Mercury button cell
    3. Secondary batteries
    4. Recharge of the cell
    5. The lithium-ion Battery
    6. Fuel cell
    • Corrosion
    1. Electrochemical mechanism of corrosion
    • Electrochemical series
10 Surface Chemistry
  • Adsorption and Absorption  
    • Characteristics of adsorption
    • Types of adsorption
    • Factors affecting adsorption
    1. Surface area of adsorbent
    2. Nature of adsorbate
    3. Pressure
    4. Concentration at a given temperature
    • Adsorption isotherms and isobars
  • Catalysis  
    • Catalyst
    • Catalysis and Theories of Catalysis
    • Homogeneous Catalysis
    • Heterogeneous Catalysis
    • Inhibitors
    • Enzyme Catalysis  
      • Enzymes
      • Characteristics of enzymes
      • Mechanism of enzyme catalysis
      • Examples of enzyme catalysed reactions
  • Zeolite Catalysis  
  • Colloid, Dispersion Phase and Dispersion Medium  
    • Classifications of Colloidal solution
    • Preparation of Colloids
    • Purification of colloids
    • Properties of Colloids
  • Emulsions  
    • Emulsion
    • Types of emulsions
      1) Oil-in-water emulsion (O/W type)
      2) Water-in-oil emulsion (W/O type)
    • Properties of emulsions
    • Deemulsification
  • Various Application of Colloids  
11 Hydroxy Compounds and Ethers
  • Classification of Alcohols  
    • Classification of alcohols
    • On the basis of number of -OH groups
    1. Monohydric alcohol
    2. Dihydric alcohol
    3. Trihydric alcohol
    4. Polyhydric alcohol
    • On the basis of nature of C-OH bond
    1. Csp3 - OH bond: Alkyl, Allylic, Benzylic alcohols
    2. Csp2 - OH bond
  • IUPAC Nomenclature  
    • Structure of the functional group of alcohol
    • Preparation of alcohols
    • Preparation of glycol
    • Preparation of glycerol
    • Methods to differentiate primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols
    • Properties of alcohols
    1. Physical properties
    2. Chemical properties
    • Saytzeff’s rule
    • Oxidation of alcohols
    • Oxidation of glycol
    • Preparation of Phenols
  • Reactions of Benzene Ring  
    • Electrophilic aromatic substitution
    • Test to differentiate alcohol and phenols
    • Structure of functional group
    • IUPAC System
  • Preparation of Ethers from Dehydration of Alcohols and Williamson Systhesis  
    • Preparation of ethers
    1. Inter molecular dehydration of alcohol
    2. Williamson's synthesis
    • Methylation of alcohol
    • Physical Properties of ethers
    • Chemical Properties of ethers
    • Uses of ethers
12 Carbonyl Compounds and Carboxylic Acids
  • Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones  
  • Structure of Carbonyl Group  
  • General Methods of Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones  
    • Preparation of aldehydes and ketones
    • Preparation of aldehydes
    • Preparation of benzaldehyde
    • Preparation of ketones
  • Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones  
  • Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones  
    • Laboratory tests for aldehydes and ketones
    • Chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones with nucleophile
    • Oxidation and reduction reactions of aldehydes and ketones
    • Electrophilic substitution reactions
  • Test for Aldehydes  
    • Tollen's Reagent Test
    • Fehling's solution Test
    • Benedict's solution Test
    • Schiff's reagent Test
  • Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones  
  • IUPAC Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids  
  • Acids  
    • Structure of the Carboxyl group  
    • Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids  
      • Oxidation of primary alcohols and aldehydes
      • Oxidation of alkyl benzene
      • From nitriles and amides (hydrolysis)
      • From aryl amines and alkyl halides
      • Carboxylation of Grignard reagent
      • Hydrolysis of acyl chloride and acid anhydride
      • Hydrolysis of esters
  • Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids  
  • Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids  
    • Acidic character of carboxylic acids
    • Laboratory tests for carboxyl (-COOH) group
    • Formation of acyl chloride
    • Reaction with ammonia
    • Formation of acid anhydride
    • Decarboxylation of carboxylic acids
    • Reduction of carboxylic acids
  • Acidity of Carboxylic Acids  
  • Functional Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids  
    • Relative reactivity of Acid derivatives
    • Nomenclature
    • Acid Halides
    • Acid anhydride
    • Esters
  • Uses of Carboxylic Acids and Its Derivatives  
    • Formic acid
    • Acetic acid
    • Benzoic acid
    • Acetyl Chloride
    • Acetic anhydride
    • Ethyl acetate
13 Organic Nitrogen Compounds
  • Nitro Compounds  
    • Classification of nitrocompounds
    • Nomenclature of nitroalkanes
    • ISOMERISM
    • Acidic nature of nitro alkanes
    • Preparation of nitroalkanes
    • Preparation of Nitroarenes
    • Physical properties of nitro alkane 
    • Chemical properties of nitroalkanes 
  • Classification of Amines  
    • Classification of amines
    1. Aliphatic amines
    2. Aromatic amines
  • Introduction of Diazonium Salts  
    • Introduction
    • Resonance structure 
    • Method of preparation of Diazonium salts
    • Physical properties 
    • Chemical reactions
    1. Replacement reactions involving loss of nitrogen 
    2. Reactions involving retention of diazo group
  • Cyanides and Isocyanides  
    • Introduction 
    • alkyl cyanides and alkyl isocyanides
    1. Alkyl cyanides - Preparation, Properties, and reactions
    2. Alkyl isocyanides: Preparation, Properties, and reactions
14 Biomolecules
  • Biomolecules in the Cell  
    • Carbohydrates  
      • Types of Carbohydrates based on sugar unit
      1. Monosaccharides
      2. Oligosaccharides
        a. Disaccharides
        b. Trisaccharides
        c. Tetrasaccharides
      3. Polysaccharides 
      • Biological significance of Carbohydrates
      • Nomenclature of monosaccharides
      • Glucose
      • Structure and properties of glucose
      • Optical isomerism in glucose
      • Ring structure of glucose
      • Reducing nature of glucose
      • Representation of Fructose structure
    • Proteins  
      • Functions of proteins
    • Lipids  
      • Lipids
      1. Saturated fatty acids
      2. Unsaturated Fatty Acids 
      • Simple Lipids
      • Compound lipids
      • Sterols
      • Biological importance of lipids
    • Nucleic Acids  
      • Nucleotides
      • Structure of DNA
      • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
      • DNA double helix
      • Types of RNA molecules
      • Biological functions of nucleic acids
  • Introduction of Vitamins  
    • Classification and functions of vitamins 
  • Hormones  
    • Properties of Hormones
    • Functions of hormones
    • Mechanism of hormone action
    1. Mode of hormone action through membrane receptors
    2.  Mode of action through intracellular receptors
15 Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Drug  
    • Classification of drugs
    • Drug–target Interaction
  • Food Additives  
    • Important categories of food additives
    • Preservatives
    • Antioxidants
    • Sugar Substituents
    • Artificial sweetening agents
  • Cleansing Agents  
    • Types of cleansing agents
      a) Soaps
      b) Synthetic detergents
    • Mechanism of cleansing action
    • Differences between soaps and detergents
  • Introduction of Polymers  

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