Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 11

Biology (Botany and Zoology) HSC Science Class 11 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24

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Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Biology (Botany and Zoology) Syllabus - Free PDF Download

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24 Class 11: The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Biology (Botany and Zoology) Syllabus for the examination year 2023-24 has been released by the , Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2023-24 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Biology (Botany and Zoology) Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Biology (Botany and Zoology) Syllabus for 2023-24 is below.

Academic year:

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Biology (Botany and Zoology) Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Biology (Botany and Zoology) and their Unit wise marks distribution

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Biology (Botany and Zoology) Course Structure 2023-24 With Marking Scheme

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Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Biology (Botany and Zoology) Syllabus for Chapter 1: Biology Botany

1.01 Living World
  • Attributes of Living Organisms  
    • Growth
    • Cellular structure
    • Reproduction
    • Response to stimuli
    • Homeostasis
    • Metabolism
  • Viruses  
    • Viruses
    • Virology
    • Milestones in Virology
    • Size and Shape
    • Characteristic Features of Viruses
  • Classification of Living World  
    • Need of Classification
  • Bacteria  
    • Bacteria Friends or Foes?
    • Milestones in Bacteriology 
    • General characteristic features of Bacteria
    • Ultrastructure of a Bacterial cell
    • Gram staining procedure
    • Life processes in Bacteria
    • Reproduction in Bacteria
    • Economic importance of Bacteria
    • Archaebacteria
    • Cyanobacteria (Blue Green Algae)
    • Mycoplasma or Mollicutes
    • Actinomycetes (Actinobacteria)
  • Fungi  
    • Fungi - World War II and Penicillin History speaks on fungi
    • Mycology - Milestones in Mycology
    • General characteristic features 
    1. Habitat
    2. Size and Shape
    3. Cellular Structure
    4. Nutrition
    5. Locomotion
    6. Life Cycle
    7. Reproduction
1.02 Plant Kingdom
  • Classification of Plants  
  • Kingdom Plantae  
    • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants  
      • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants
      1. Alternation of Generation
      2. Haplontic Life Cycle
      3. Diplontic Life Cycle
      4. Haplodiplontic Life Cycle
  • Algae  
    • General Characteristic features
    • Classification
    • Economic Importance
  • Bryophytes  
    • Amphibians of Plant Kingdom
    • General characteristic features
    • Economic importance
  • Pteridophytes  
    • Seedless Vascular Cryptogams
    • General characteristic features of Pteridophytes
    • Economic Importance
    • Types of Stele
  • Gymnosperms: Naked Seed Producing Plants  
    • Gymnosperms: Naked seed-producing Plants
    • Characteristic of Gymnosperms
  • Angiosperms  
    • Angiosperms
    • Characteristics of Angiosperms
    • Classification of Angiosperms - Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons
1.03 Vegetative Morphology
  • Habit  
    • Herbs
    • Shrubs
    • Climbers (Vine)
    • Trees
  • Plant Habitat  
    • Terrestrial
    • Aquatic
  • Life Span  
    • Annuals
    • Biennials
    • Perennials
  • Parts of a Flowering Plant  
  • Root System  
    • Root system
    • Characteristic of the root system
    • Type of Root:
      1) Primary root
      2) Secondary root
    • Regions of root
      1) Meristematic Zone
      2) Zone of Elongation
      3) Zone of Maturation
    • Types of the root system
      1) Tap root system
      2) Fibrous root system
      3) Adventitious root system
    • Functions of root
      1) Primary function
      2) Secondary function
    • Modifications of root
  • Shoot System  
    • The steam
    • Characteristic features of the stem
    • Functions of the stem
      (i) Primary functions
      (ii) Secondary functions
    • Buds
    • Types of Stem - Excurrent, Decurrent, Caudex, and Culm
    • Modification of Stem
      1) Aerial modification of stem
      2) Subaerial stem modifications
      3) Underground stem modifications
      4) Stem Branching
  • The Leaf  
    • The Leaf
    • Characteristics of leaf
    • Functions of the leaf -
      1) Primary functions
      2) Secondary functions
    • Parts of the leaf -
      1) Leaf base (hypopodium)
      2) Petiole (stipe or mesopodium)
      3) Lamina (Leaf blade)
    • Venation -
      1) Reticulate venation
      2) Parallel venation
    • Phyllotaxy -
      1) Alternate Phyllotaxy
      2) Opposite Phyllotaxy
      3) Ternate phyllotaxy
      4) Whorled (verticillate) type of phyllotaxy
    • Leaf mosaic
    • Types of Leaves -
      1) Simple leaf
      2) Compound leaf - Pinnately and palmately compound leaf
    • Modifications of Leaves
      1) Leaf tendrils
      2) Leaf hooks
      3) Leaf Spines and Prickles
      4) Storage Leaves
      5) Phyllode
      6) Pitcher
      7) Bladder
      8) Floral leaves
    • Leaf duration - Caducuous (Fagacious), Deciduous, Evergreen and Marcescent
1.04 Reproductive Morphology
  • The Inflorescence  
    • Inflorescence
    • Types of Inflorescence
      1) Based On Position - Terminal, Auxillary, and Cauliflorous
      2) Based on branching pattern and other characters -Indeterminate (Racemose), Determinate (Cymose), Mixed inflorescence and Special inflorescence
    • Racemose Inflorescence
      1) Main axis elongated - Simple raceme, Spike, Spikelet, Catkin, Spadix and Pancile
      2) Main axis shortened - Corymb, Umbel
      3) Main axis flattened - Head, 
    • Cymose inflorescence - 
      1) Simple cyme (solitary)
      2) Monochasial Cyme (uniparous) - Helicoid and Scorpioid
      3) Simple dichasium (Biparous)
      4) Compound dichasium:
      5) Polychasial Cyme (multiparous)
    • Mixed Inflorescence
      1) Thyrsus
      2) Verticillaster
    • Special Inflorescence
      1) Cyathium
      2) Hypanthodium
      3) Coenanthium
  • The Flower  
    • Flower
    • Whorls of flower - Complete and Incomplete
    • Flower sex 
      1) Perfect or bisexual
      2) Imperfect or unisexual: Staminate and Pistillate flowers
    • Plant sex
      1) Hermaphroditic
      2) Monoecious
      3) Dioecious
      4) Polygamous
    • Flower symmetry
      1) Actinomorphic (or) radial or polysymmetric
      2) Zygomorphic (bilateral symmetry) or monosymmetric
      3) Asymmetric (amorphic)
    • Types of Flower
      1) Types of flower depending upon the number of floral appendages
      i) Trimerous
      ii) Tetramerous
      iii) Pentamerous
      2) Types of flowers depending on presence of bracts
      i) Bracteate
      ii) Ebracteate
      3) Types of flower based on the position of calyx, corolla and androecium in respect of the ovary on thalamus
      i) Hypogynous
      ii) Perigynous
      iii) Epigynous
  • Parts of Flower  
    • Accessory Organs  
      • Accessory organs
      1. Arrangement of whorls
      2. Calyx
      3. Corolla
      4. Perianth
      5. Aestivation
  • Androecium  
    • Fusion of stamens
    • Arrangement of stamens relate to length of stamens
    • Anther types
    • Anther attachment
  • Gynoecium  
    • Number of carpel
    • Fusion of carpels
    • Number of locules
    • Extension of the condensed internode of the receptacle
    • Ovary position
    • Perianth / Androecial position on thalamus
  • Construction of Floral Diagram and Floral Formula  
  • Fruits  
    • Structure of Fruit
    • Types of Fruit
    1. Simple Fruits
    2. Aggregate Fruits
    3. Multiple or Composite Fruit
    • Functions of Fruit
  • The Seed  
    • The seed
    • Types of seed
      A) Based on the number of cotyledons two types of seeds are recognized.
      (i) Dicotyledonous seed
      (ii) Monocotyledonous seed
      B) Based on the presence or absence of the endosperm the seed is of two types. 
      (i) Albuminous or Endospermous seed
      (ii) Ex-albuminous or non- endospermous seed
    • Significance of Seeds
1.05 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany
  • Taxonomy and Systematics  
    • Taxonomy
    • Systematics
    • Classification of Taxonomy
    1. Plant Taxonomy
    2. Animal Taxonomy
  • Taxonomic Hierarchy  
    • Taxon
  • Concept of Species-morphological, Biological and Phylogenetic  
    • Types of Species
    1. Morphological Species (Taxonomic species)
    2. Biological Species (Isolation Species)
    3. Phylogenetic Species
  • International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)  
    • ICN Principles 
    • Codes of Nomenclature
    • Vernacular names (Common names)
    • Scientific Names / Botanical Names
  • Taxonomic Aids  
  • Taxonomical Aids  
    • Taxonomical Aids
    • Usage of Taxonomical Aids
    1. Herbarium
    2. Botanical Gardens
    3. Biological museums
    4. Zoological Parks
    5. Key
    6. Molecular taxonomy
    7. Automated species identification tools
  • Herbarium – Preparation and Uses  
    • Preparation of herbarium Specimen
    • Uses of Herbarium
  • Classification of Plants  
  • Need for Classification  
  • Types of Classification  
    • Artificial system of classification
    • Natural system
    • Phylogenetic system of classification 
    • Angiosperm phylogeny group (APG) classification
  • Modern Trends in Taxonomy  
    • Chemotaxonomy 
    • Biosystematics
    • Karyotaxonomy
    • Serotaxonomy (Immunotaxonomy)
    • Molecular taxonomy (molecular systematics / molecular phylogenetics)
    • DNA Barcoding
    • Differences between classical and modern taxonomy
  • Cladistics  
  • Selected Families of Angiosperms  
    • Family: Fabaceae (Pea family)
    • Family: Solanaceae (Potato Family / Night shade family)
    • Family: Liliaceae (Lily Family)
1.06 Cell: the Unit of Life
  • Discovery  
  • Microscopy  
    • Bright field Microscope
    • Electron Microscope
  • Cell Theory  
    • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life
    • Exception to Cell Theory 
    • Protoplasm Theory
    • Cell sizes and shapes
  • Types of Cells  
    • Prokaryotic cells
    • Eukaryotic Cells 
    • Mesokaryotes Cells
  • Plant and Animal Cell  
    • Ultra Structure of an Eukaryotic Cell
    • Protoplasm
    • Difference between plant and animal cells 
    • Cell Wall
    • Cell Membrane
  • Cell Organelles  
    • Endomembrane System
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Golgi Body (Dictyosomes)
    • Mitochondria
    • Plastids
    • Ribosome
    • Lysosomes (Suicidal Bags of Cell)
    • Microbodies
    • Peroxisomes
    • Glyoxysomes
    • Sphaerosomes
    • Centrioles 
    • Vacuoles
  • Eukaryotic Cells  
    • Nucleus  
      • Chromosomes
  • Flagella  
    • Prokaryotic Flagellum
    • Eukaryotic Flagellum– Cell Motility
1.07 Cell Cycle
  • Nuclear Divisions  
  • Cell Cycle  
  • Introduction of Cell Division  
    • Amitosis (Direct Cell Division)
    • Mitosis
    • Closed and Open Mitosis
    • Cytokinesis
    • Significance of Mitosis
    • Meiosis
    • Meiosis I-Reduction Division
    • Significance of Meiosis
  • Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis  
1.08 Biomolecules
  • Water  
    • Chemistry of Water
    • Properties of Water
  • Primary and Secondary Metabolites  
  • Biomolecules in the Cell  
    • Carbohydrates  
      • Types of Carbohydrates based on sugar unit
      1. Monosaccharides
      2. Oligosaccharides
        a. Disaccharides
        b. Trisaccharides
        c. Tetrasaccharides
      3. Polysaccharides 
      • Biological significance of Carbohydrates
      • Nomenclature of monosaccharides
      • Glucose
      • Structure and properties of glucose
      • Optical isomerism in glucose
      • Ring structure of glucose
      • Reducing nature of glucose
      • Representation of Fructose structure
    • Lipids  
      • Lipids
      1. Saturated fatty acids
      2. Unsaturated Fatty Acids 
      • Simple Lipids
      • Compound lipids
      • Sterols
      • Biological importance of lipids
    • Enzymes  
      • Enzymes
      • Properties of Enzymes
    • Nucleic Acids  
      • Nucleotides
      • Structure of DNA
      • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
      • DNA double helix
      • Types of RNA molecules
      • Biological functions of nucleic acids
  • Proteins  
    • Proteins
    • Based on our nutritional requirements, amino acids are classified as:
      1) Non-essential amino acids 
      2) Essential amino acids
    • Functions of proteins
    • Bonding and protein structure
      1) Peptide bond of proteins or polypeptides
    • Classification of proteins
      1) Primary (Basic) structures
      2) Secondary structure
      3) Tertiary structure
      4) Quaternary structure
    • Amino acids
1.09 Tissue and Tissue System
  • Plant Tissues  
    • Meristems or Meristematic Tissues  
      • Classification of Meristem
      1. Primordial meristem or promeristem 
      2. Apical meristems
      3. Intercalary meristematic
      4. Lateral meristem
      • Function of Meristem
    • Permanent Tissue  
  • Tissue System  
    1. Epidermal tissue system
    2. Ground tissue system
    3. Vascular tissue system
    • Introduction to Tissue System, Types and Characteristics of tissue System
    • Epidermal Tissue System  
      • Introduction
      • Leaf Epidermis
      • Subsidiary Cells
      • Epidermal Outgrowths
      • Prickles
    • Vascular Tissue System  
  • Comparison of Primary Structure – Dicot and Monocot Root, Stem and Leaf  
    • Primary Structure of Dicot Root – Bean Root
    • Piliferous Layer or Epiblema
    • Cortex
    • Stele
    • Pericycle
    • Vascular System
    • Primary Structure of Monocot 
    • Root-maize Root
    • Primary Structure of Monocot 
  • Fundamental Tissue System  
    • Extrastelar Ground Tissue
    • Intrastelar Ground Tissue
    • Different Components of Ground Tissue Systems
    • Endodermis
    • Pericycle
    • Pith or Medulla
1.1 Secondary Growth
  • Secondary Growth in Dicot Stem  
    • Vascular Cambium
    • Origin and Formation of Vascular 
    • Organization of Vascular Cambium
    • Storied (Stratified cambium) and Non-Storied (Non-stratified cambium)
    • Activity of Vascular Cambium
    • Dendroclimatology
    • Tyloses
    • Secondary Phloem
    • Periderm
    • Bark
    • Lenticel
  • Secondary Growth in Dicot Root  
    • Differences Between Secondary Growth in Dicot Stem and Root
1.11 Transport in Plants
  • Types of Transport  
    • Surface Transport
    1. Pack Animals
    2. Bullock Carts
    3. Road Transport
    4. Motor Lorries and Buses
    5. Tramways
    6. Railway Transport
    • Water Transport
    1. Inland Waterways
    2. Ocean Waterways
    • Air Transport
  • Cell to Cell Transport  
    • Passive Transport
    • Characteristics of diffusion
    • Significance of diffusion in Plants
    1. Channel Protein
    2. Carrier Protein
    • Active Transport
  • Plant Water Relation  
  • Absorption of Water  
    • Absorption of Water
    • Path of Water Across Root Cells
    • Mechanism of Water Absorption
  • Translocation of Water (Ascent of Sap)  
    1. Root Pressure Theory (Vital Theory)
    2. Capillarity theory (physical force theory)
    3. Cohesion-tension theory (Transpiration pull theory)
    4. Adhesion
  • Transpiration  
    • Transpiration
    • Demonstration of Transpiration
    • Exchange of Gases
  • Translocation of Organic Solutes  
    • Path of Translocation
    • Ringing or girdling experiment
    • Direction of Translocation
    • Source and Sink
    • Phloem Loading
    • Phloem Unloading
    • Mechanism of Translocation
  • Mineral Absorption  
    • Passive Absorption
    • Active Absorption
    • Donnan equilibrium
1.12 Mineral Nutrition
  • Classification of Minerals  
    • Classification of minerals based on their quantity requirements
    • Classification of minerals based on mobility
    • Classification of minerals based on their functions
  • Functions, Mode of Absorption and Deficiency Symptoms of Macronutrients  
  • Functions, Mode of Absorption and Deficiency Symptoms of Micronutrients  
  • Deficiency Diseases and Symptoms  
  • Critical Concentration and Toxicity of Minerals  
    • Critical Concentration 
    • Mineral Toxicity
  • Hydroponics and Aeroponics  
  • Nitrogen Fixation  
    • Non – Biological nitrogen fixation
    • Biological nitrogen fixation
  • Nitrogen Cycle and Nitrogen Metabolism  
    • Nitrogen cycle
    1. Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen
    2. Nitrification
    3. Nitrate Assimilation
    4. Ammonification
    5. Denitrification
    • Nitrogen Metabolism Ammonium Assimilation (Fate of Ammonia)
    1. Reductive amination
    2. Transamination
    3. Catalytic Amination: (GS/GOGAT Pathway)
  • Special Modes of Nutrition  
    • Saprophytic mode of nutrition in angiosperms
    • Parasitic mode of nutrition in angiosperms
    •  Symbiotic mode of Nutrition
    •  Insectivorous mode of nutrition
1.13 Photosynthesis
  • Definition, Significance and Site of Photosynthesis  
    • Definition of Photosynthesis
    • Significance of Photosynthesis
    • Site of Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthetic Pigments  
    • Chlorophyll
    • Phycobilins
  • Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation  
  • Photosynthetic Unit (Quantasome)  
  • Absorption Spectrum and Action Spectrum  
    • Absorption Spectrum
    • Action Spectrum
  • Emerson’s Experiments and Hill’s Reaction  
    • Red Drop or Emerson’s First Effect
    • Emerson’s Enhancement Effect
    • Hill’s Reaction
  • Modern Concept of Photosynthesis  
  • Photo-oxidation Phase of Light Reaction  
    • Photosystem and Reaction Centre
  • Photo Chemical Phase of Light Reaction  
    • Photolysis of Water
    • Electron Transport Chain of Chloroplast
  • Role of Sunlight in Photosynthesis  
    • Photophosphorylation  
      • Photophosphorylation
      • Forms of Photophosphorylation 
      1. Cyclic photophosphorylation
      2. Non-cyclic photophosphorylation
  • Dark Reaction or C3 Cycle or Biosynthetic Phase or Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction (PCR)Cycle  
    • Phase 1- Carboxylation (Fixation)
    • Phase 2 – Glycolytic Reversal / Reduction
    • Phase 3 – Regeneration
  • Hatch and Slack Pathway or C4 Cycle or Dicarboxylic Acid Pathway or Dicarboxylation Pathway  
    • Stage: I Mesophyll Cells
    • Stage: II Bundle Sheath Cells
    • Significance of C4 cycle
  • Crassulacean Acid Metabolism or CAM Cycle  
  • Photorespiration or C2 Cycle or Photosynthetic Carbon Oxidation (PCO) Cycle  
    • Significance of photorespiration
    • Carbon Dioxide Compensation Point
  • Factors Affecting Photosynthesis  
    • Blackman - Law of limiting factors
    • Factors affecting photosynthesis
    1. External Factors:
      1) Availability of sunlight
      2) Temperature
      3) Water
      4) Humidity
      5) CO2 Concentration [atmospheric]
      6) O2 availability
    2. Internal Factors:
      1) Number of leaves
      2) Size of leaves
      3) Leaf age
      4) Orientation of leaves
      5) Mesophyll cells and chloroplasts
      6) Internal CO2 concentration
      7) Anatomy of leaf
  • Photosynthesis in Bacteria  
1.14 Respiration
  • Gaseous Exchange  
    • Respiration
    • Compensation point
  • Structure of ATP  
  • Redox Reactions  
    • Classical ideas of redox reactions
    • Redox reaction in terms of electron transfer
  • Stages of Respiration  
    • Glycolysis
    • Pyruvate Oxidation (Link reaction)
    • Krebs cycle or Citric acid cycle or TCA cycle
    • Electron Transport Chain (ETC)(Terminal oxidation)
  • Respiratory Quotient (R.Q.)  
  • Types of Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration  
    • Cellular respiration
    • Types of cellular respiration
    1. Aerobic Respiration
    2. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Aerobic respiration in plant/animal
    • Anaerobic respiration in plant/animal
    • Differences in anaerobic respiration in plants and animals
  • Factors Affecting Respiration  
  • Pentose Phosphate Pathway (Phospho Gluconate Pathway)  
1.15 Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Growth Regulators  
    • Auxins
    • Gibberellins
    • Cytokinins (Cytos – cell, Kinesis – division)
    • Ethylene (Gaseous Phytohormone)
    • Abscisic Acid (ABA) (Stress Phyto hormone)
  • Photoperiodism  
    • Photoperiodism
    1. Short Day Plants (SDP)
    2. Long Day Plants (LDP)
    3. Day Neutral Plants (DNP)
    • Phytochrome
  • Vernalization (Vernal – Spring Like)  
  • Seed Germination and Dormancy  
  • Senescence  

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Biology (Botany and Zoology) Syllabus for Chapter 2: Biology Zoology

2.01 The Living World
  • Diversity in the Living World  
    • Diversity in the Living World
    • Biodiversity
    • Types of Biodiversity
    1. Genetic Biodiversity
    2. Species Biodiversity
    3. Ecological Biodiversity
  • Need for Classification  
  • Taxonomy and Systematics  
    • Taxonomy
    • Systematics
    • Classification of Taxonomy
    1. Plant Taxonomy
    2. Animal Taxonomy
  • Three Domains of Life  
    • Three Domains of life
    • Domain Archaea
    • Domain Bacteria
    • Domain Eukarya (Eukaryotes)
  • Taxonomic Hierarchy  
    • Taxon
  • Nomenclature  
  • Concept of Species  
  • Tools for Study of Taxonomy  
    • The classical taxonomical tools
    • Molecular taxonomical tools
    • Automated species identification tools
2.02 Kingdom Animalia
  • New Criteria for Basis of Classification  
    • Levels of organisation
    • Cellular level of organisation
    • Tissue level of organisation
    • Organ system level of organisation
    • Diploblastic and Triploblastic organisation
    • Patterns of symmetry
    • Coelom
    • Segmentation and Notochord
  • Classification of Kingdom Animalia  
    • Parazoa
    • Eumetazoa
    1. Radiata
    2. Bilateria
    • Division 1: Protostomia
    • Division 2: Deuterostomia 
  • Invertebrata and Vertebrata  
    • Non Chordates (Invertebrata)  
    • Phylum: Chordata  
      • Chordata
      • Sub phylum - Urochordata
      • Sub phylum - Cephalochordata
      • Subphylum Prochordata
      • Subphylum Vertebrata
2.03 Tissue Level of Organisation
  • Animal Tissues  
    • Epithelial Tissue  
      • Epithelial Tissue
      • Location and Structure
      • Types of Epithelial Tissue
      1. Simple epithelium Tissue
        1. Squamous epithelial tissue
        2. Cuboidal epithelial tissue
        3. Columnar epithelium
        4. Ciliated epithelium
        5. Glandular epithelium
        6. Sensory epithelial tissue
        7. Germinal epithelial tissue
      2. Compound epithelial tissue
        a. Stratified epithelium
        b. Transitional epithelium
      • Cell junctions 
        Types of Cell junction
        - Tight junctions (TJs)
        - Hemidesmosomes (HDs)
        - Gap Junctions (GJs)
        - Adherens Junctions (AJs)
        - Desmosomes (Ds)
    • Connective Tissue  
      • Connective Tissue
      • Types of connective tissue
      1. Loose connective tissue
        1) Areolar tissue
        2) Adipose tissue
      2. Dense connective tissue
        1) Dense regular connective tissues
        2) Dense irregular connective tissues
      3. Specialised (supporting) connective tissue
        1) Cartilage
        a) Hyaline cartilage
        b) Elastic cartilage
        c) Fibrocartilage
        d) Calcified cartilage
        2) Bone
        3) Blood
      4. Fluid Connective tissue (Vascular)
    • Muscular Tissue  
      • Muscle Tissue 
      • Types of muscles
        1) Skeletal muscles
        2) Smooth or Non-striated muscles,
        3) Cardiac Muscles
  • Neural Tissue  
    • Neural tissue
    • Types of Neural tissue
    1. Neurons/Nerve cells 
    2. Neuroglial cells
2.04 Organ and Organ Systems in Animals
  • Earthworm - Lampito Mauritii  
    • Earthworms
    • Classification of earthworm
    • Economic importance of earthworm
  • Cockroach - Periplaneta Americana  
    • Cockroach - Periplaneta americana
    • Biological classification of cockroach
    • Various kinds of cockroaches
  • Frog - Rana Hexadactyla  
    • Frog - Rana hexadactyla
    • Biological classification of frog
    • Differences between a Frog and Toad
    • Economic importance of frog
2.05 Digestion and Absorption
  • Digestive System  
    • Structure of the alimentary canal
    • Histology of the Gut
    • Digestive glands
  • Digestion of Food and Role of Digestive Enzymes  
    • Digestion in the buccal cavity
    • Digestion in the stomach
    • Digestion in the small intestine
  • Peristalsis, Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation of Proteins, Carbohydrates and Fats  
    • Absorption
    • It is carried out by various processes:
    1. Passive Absorption
      ⇒ Process
      a) Simple diffusion
      b) Osmosis
      c) Facilitated transport
    2. Active absorption
    • Absorption of fatty acids and glycerol
    • Absorption in different parts of the alimentary canal
    • Assimilation
  • Egestion of Food  
  • Caloric Value of Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats  
  • Nutritional and Digestive Disorders  
2.06 Respiration
  • Respiratory Functions  
  • Respiratory Organs in Various Organisms  
    • Human Respiratory System
  • Breathing – Respiratory Cycle  
    • Inspiration (Inhalation)
    • Expiration (Exhalation)
    • Exchange of gases in the Alveoli
    • Difference between inhalation and exhalation
    • Differences between breathing and respiration
    • Model to show mechanism of breathing
    • Control of breathing movements
  • Exchange of Gases  
    • Exchange of Gases - in Humans
  • Transport of Gases  
    • Transport of oxygen
    • Transport of Carbon–dioxide
  • Regulation of Respiration  
    • Neural control
      1) Respiratory rhythm centre
      2) Pneumotaxic centre
    • Chemical Control
      1) Chemosensitive Area
      2) Chemoreceptors
  • Problems in Oxygen Transport  
  • Disorders of Respiratory System  
    • Disorders of the respiratory system
      1) Asthma
      2) Emphysema
      3) Occupational respiratory disorders
  • Effects of Smoking  
2.07 Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Body Fluids  
    • Plasma
    • Formed elements
    • Red blood cells
    • Blood groups
    • ABO blood grouping
    • Coagulation of blood
    • Composition of lymph and its functions
  • Blood Vessels – Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries  
  • Circulatory Pathways  
    • Human Circulatory System  
      • Circulatory System in Animals, Humans and Structure of Human Heart and Blood Vessels
      • Origin and conduction of heart beat 
      • Cardiac Cycle
      • Cardiac output
      • Blood Pressure
      • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
      • P Wave (Atrial depolarisation)
      • PQ Interval (AV node delay)
      • QRS Complex (Ventricular depolarisation)
      • ST Segment 
      • T wave (Ventricular repolarisation)
  • Double Circulation  
    • Pulmonary Circulation
    • Systematic Circulation
    • Hepatic Portal System
    • Coronary System
  • Regulation of Cardiac Activity  
  • Disorders of Circulatory System  
    • Disorders of the Circulatory System:
    1. Hypertension/ High blood pressure: Normal blood pressure
    2. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) or Atherosclerosis
    3. Angina / Angina pectoris
    4. Heart Failure: Myocardial infarction (Heart failure), Cardiac arrest, Heart attack, Stroke
    5. Rheumatoid Heart Disease
  • Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)  
2.08 Excretion
  • Modes of Excretion: Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, and Uricotelism  
    • Modes of Excretion
    1. Ammonotelism
    2. Ureotelism 
    3. Uricotelism 
    • Nephridiopores
    • Types of nephridia
    1. Protonephridia
    2. Metanephridia
  • Human Excretory System  
    • Kidneys
    • Sweat glands
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
    • Lungs
    • Kidneys
      ⇒ V.S. of kidney shows that there are two distinct regions:
      1) Renal Cortex
      2) Renal Medulla
    • Nephron
      ⇒ Structure of nephron: Glomerulus, Renal Tubule
      1) Bowman's capsule (Glomerular capsule)
      2) Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
      3) Loop of Henle
      4) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
      5) Collecting tubule (CT)
  • Function of the Kidney - “Production of Urine”  
    • Ultrafiltration
    • Reabsorption
    • Tubular secretion (Renal Secretion)
    • Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
    • Collecting duct
  • Regulation of Kidney Function  
    • Osmoregulation
    • Regulation of Kidney Function
    1. Renin-Angiotensin,
    2. Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)
    3. ADH and Diabetes Inspidus
  • Micturition  
    • Urine
  • Accessory Excretory Organs  
    • Excretory role of skin
    • Excretory role of lungs
    • Excretory role of liver
  • Common Disorders of the Urinary System  
    • Kidney stones
    • Uremia
    • Nephritis
    • Renal Failure
    • Diabetes
    • Urinary tract infection
    • Haemodialysis
    • Peritoneal dialysis 
    • Kidney transplant
    • Renal Calculi
    • Glomerulonephritis
  • Haemodialysis  
2.09 Locomotion and Movement
  • Types of Movement  
    • Types of movement
      1) Amoeboid movement
      2) Ciliary movement
      3) Muscular movement
  • Different Types of Muscles and Their Functions  
  • Skeletal Muscle (Voluntary Muscle)  
    • Structure of a skeletal muscle fibre
  • Structure of Contractile Proteins  
    • Structure of Contractile Proteins
    1. Actin filament
    2. Myosin filament
  • Mechanism of Muscle Contraction  
    • Mechanism of muscle contraction
    • Steps of muscle contraction
  • Types of Skeletal Muscle Contraction  
    • Isotonic contraction
    • Isometric contraction
  • Skeletal System and Its Function  
  • The Axial Skeleton  
    • The Skull 
    • The Vertebral Column
    • The Sternum (Chest bone)
    • The Rib cage
  • The Appendicular Skeleton  
    • The Upper limb
    • The Lower limb
    • Structure of a typical long bone
  • Types of Joints  
    • Synarthroses
    • Sutures
    • Syndesmoses
    • Gomphoses
      A. Cartilagenous or slightly movable joints - Synchondroses, Symphysis
      B. Synovial joints or freely movable joints - Pivot joint, Ball and socket joint, Hinge joint, Condyloid joint, Gliding joint, Saddle joint.
  • Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System  
    • Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System -
    1. Myasthenia gravis
    2. Tetany
    3. Muscular dystrophy
    4. Arthritis
    5. Osteoporosis
    6. Gout
  • Benefits of Regular Exercise  
    1. Health Benefits
      (a) Reduces risk of Cardiovascular Disease
      (b) Weight Management
      (c) Strengthens Bones and Muscles
      (d) Reduces risk of some Cancers
      (e) Reduces risk of Falls
    2. Provides Stress Relief
    3. Increases Happiness
    4. Promotes Self-Efficacy
    5. Promotes Social Cohesion
    6. Enhances Value Orientation
    7. Cognitive Benefits
      (a) Attention Control
      (b) Improves Memory
    8. Mental Health Benefits
      (a) Exercise as therapy for emotional disorder
      (b) Fitness as moderator of life stress
      (c) Runners High

    9. Psychological Well-being
    10. Personality Enhancement
    11. Develops Leadership Qualities
    12. Special Population
      (a) Clinical Population
      (b) Elderly Population
2.1 Neural Control and Coordination
  • Human Neural System  
  • Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types  
    • Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System  
      • Neuron consists of three parts: Cell body, axon and dendrites
      • Structure of the neuron
        1) Cell body (Cyton)
        2) Axon - Neuron-muscular junction, synaptic knob, neurotransmitters
        ⇒ Types of axons:
        a) Myelinated nerve fibres: Schwann cells, Nodes of Ranvier
        b) Non-myelinated nerve fibres
        3) Dendrites
      • Types based on the number of axons and dendrites
        (i) Unipolar
        (ii) Bipolar
        (iii) Multipolar
  • Concept of Central Neural System (CNS)  
    • Brain
    1. Forebrain
    2. Midbrain
    3. Hindbrain
    •  Spinal cord
  • Reflex and Reflex Action  
    • Reflexes
    • Types of actions
    1. Voluntary actions 
    2. Involuntary actions
  • Sensory Reception and Processing  
    • Photoreceptor - Eye
    • Phonoreceptor
    • Olfactory receptors
2.11 Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Human Endocrine System  
    • Human Endocrine System
    • The hormones at a glance
  • Hypo and Hyper Activity of Endocrine Glands and Related Disorders  
  • Mechanism of Hormone Action  
    • Mechanism of Hormone Action
    • Hormones and their types
    • Target cells have specific receptors
2.12 Trends in Economic Zoology
  • Scope of Zoology  
  • Vermiculture  
    • Vermicomposting
    • Advantages of Using Vermicompost
  • Sericulture  
    •  Sericulture 
    • The life cycle of silk moth (Mulberry silkworm)
    • Uses of Sericulture
  • Animal Husbandry (Livestock)  
    • Apiculture (Bee Farming)  
      • Apiculture
      • Types of Honey Bee
      • Useful product of Honey Bees
  • Lac Culture  
    • Lac culture
    • Life Cycle of Lac Insect
  • Aquaponics  
    • Advantages of Aquaponic gardening
  • Aquaculture  
    • Fish culture
    • Prawn Culture 
    • Pearl Culture
  • Animal Husbandry and Management  
    • Poultry Farming
    • Duck Farming

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