Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 12

Botany HSC Science Class 12 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24

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Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Botany Syllabus - Free PDF Download

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24 Class 12: The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Botany Syllabus for the examination year 2023-24 has been released by the , Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2023-24 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Botany Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Botany Syllabus for 2023-24 is below.

Academic year:

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Botany Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Botany and their Unit wise marks distribution

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Botany Course Structure 2023-24 With Marking Scheme

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Syllabus

1 Asexual and Sexual Reproduction in Plants
  • Types of Reproduction  
    • Asexual Reproduction  
    • Sexual Reproduction  
      • Definition and meaning of sexual reproduction
      • Basic characteristics of asexual reproduction
      • Examples of asexual reproduction
  • Asexual Reproduction in Plant  
    • Vegetative Reproduction  
  • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Structure and Events  
  • Fertilization in Plant  
    • Fertilisation
    • Events of fertilisation
    • Pollen- pistil interaction
    1. Pollen on the stigma
    2. Pollen tube in the style
    3. Entry of pollen tube into the ovule
    4. Entry of pollen tube into embryo sac
  • Post Fertilisation in Plant: Structures and Events  
  • Apomixis  
    • Apomixis
    • Classification of apomixis
    1. Recurrent apomixis
      a) Vegetative reproduction
      b) Agamospermy - Adventive embryony, Diplospory, Apospory
    2. Non-recurrent apomixis
  • Polyembryony  
  • Parthenocarpy  
2 Classical Genetics
3 Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
  • Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance  
  • Proteins  
    • Linkage  
      • Coupling and Repulsion theory
      • Kinds of Linkage
      • Linkage Groups
  • Crossing Over  
    • Mechanism of Crossing Over
    • Types of Crossing Over
    • Importance of Crossing Over
    • Recombination
    • Genetic Mapping
  • Extensions of Mendelian Genetics (Deviation from Mendelism)  
    • Multiple Alleles  
  • Sex Determination in Plants  
    • Sex determination in papaya
    • Sex Determination in Sphaerocarpos
    • Sex determination in maize
  • Concept of Mutation  
    • Types of mutation
    • Mutagenic agents
    • Chromosomal mutations
  • DNA Metabolism in Plants  
    • Eukaryotic DNA replication
    • Experimental evidence of DNA replication: Taylors Experiment
  • Protein Synthesis in Plants  
    • Transcription
    • RNA Splicing in plants
    • Translation
    • Alternative Splicing in plants
    • RNA Editing – Post Transcriptional RNA Processing in plants
4 Principles and Processes of Biotechnology
  • Development of Biotechnology  
  • Historical Perspective  
  • Traditional Biotechnology  
    • Fermentation
    • Single Cell Protein (SCP)
  • Advancements in Modern Biotechnology  
    • Genetic Engineering
    • Steps involved in Recombinant DNA Technology 
  • Tools for Genetic Engineering  
    • Restriction Enzymes
    • DNA Ligase
    • Alkaline Phosphatase
    • Vectors
    • Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA)
  • Methods of Gene Transfer  
    • Direct or Vectorless Gene Transfer
    • Indirect or Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer
  • Screening for Recombinants  
    • Insertional Inactivation - Blue-White Colony Selection Method
    • Antibiotic resistant markers
    • Replica plating technique
    • Molecular Techniques - Isolation of Genetic Material and Gel Electrophoresis
    • Nucleic Acid Hybridization - Blotting Techniques
    • Bioassay for Target Gene Effect
    • Genome Sequencing and Plant Genome Projects
    • Evolutionary pattern assessed using DNA
    • Genome editing and CRISPR - Cas9
    • RNA Interference (RNAi)
  • Transgenic Plants / Genetically Modified Crops (Gm Crops)  
    • Herbicide Tolerant – Glyphosate
    • Herbicide Tolerant - Basta
    • Insect resistance - Bt Crops
    • Virus Resistance
    • FlavrSavr Tomato
    • Golden rice - Biofortification
    • Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
    • Polylactic acid (PLA)
    • Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)
    • Biopharming
    • Bioremediation
    • Biofuel: Algal Biofuel
    • Bioprospecting
  • Commercial Applications of Biotechnology  
    1. Crop Biotechnology
      a) Hybrid Seeds
      b) Genetically Modified Crops - Bt Cotton, Bt Brinjal, Golden Rice, Herbicide tolerant plants
      c) Biofertilizers
    2. Animal Husbandry
    3. Human Health
      a) Vaccines and Vaccination - Edible Vaccines
      b) Treatment
      c) Interferon
      d) Gene therapy
      e) Cloning - Reproductive cloning, Therapeutic cloning
    4. Industrial Products / White Biotechnology
    5. Environment and Biotechnology
    6. Food Biotechnology
    7. DNA fingerprinting
5 Plant Tissue Culture
  • Milestones in Plant Tissue Culture  
  • Basic Concepts of Tissue Culture  
  • Plant Tissue Culture (PTC)  
    • Laboratory Facilities for PTC 
    • Technique Involved in PTC
    • Types of Plant tissue cultures
  • Plant Regeneration Pathway  
    • Somatic Embryogenesis 
    • Organogenesis
  • Applications of Plant Tissue Culture  
    • Micropropagation of Banana
    • Artificial Seed
    • Virus-free plants
  • Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources  
    • Germplasm Conservation
    • Cryopreservation (–195.C)
  • Intellectual Property Right (IPR)  
    • Patents
    • Biosafety and Bioethics
  • Future of Biotechnology  
6 Principles of Ecology
  • Ecology  
    • Definitions of ecology
    • Ecological hierarchy
    • Branches of Ecology
    • Habitat and Niche
    • Ecological equivalents
  • Ecological Factors  
    • Climatic Factors
    • Edaphic factors
    • Topographic factors
    • Biotic factors
  • Ecological Adaptations  
  • Dispersal of Fruits and Seeds  
    • Dispersal by Wind (Anemochory)
    • Dispersal by Water (Hydrochory)
    • Dispersal by Animals (Zoochory)
    • Dispersal by Explosive Mechanism (Autochory)
7 Ecosystem
  • Ecosystem - Structure and Function  
    • Ecosystems
    • Components of the environment - Abiotic and biotic, Productivity, Decomposition, Energy flow, Nutrient cycling
    • The function of the Ecosystem:
    1. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), Definition of PAR, 10% Law, standing crop and standing state.
    2. Productivity of an ecosystem
    3. Concept of trophic level in an ecosystem
    4. Energy flow
    5. Food chain
    6. Food Web
    7. Ecological pyramids
    8. Decomposition
    9. Biogeochemical cycle (Nutrient cycle)
    10. Types of ecosystem
    11. Ecosystem services ( Benefits)
    12. Ecosystem Management
  • Plant Succession  
    • Causes of Succession
    • Characteristics of ecological succession
    • Types of succession
    • Process of succession
    • Classification of plant succession
    • Significance of Plant Succession
  • Vegetation  
    • Vegetation types of India andTamil Nadu
    1. Forest Vegetation
    2. Grassland vegetation
    3. Riparian vegetation
    4. Aquatic And Semi-Aquatic Vegetation
8 Environmental Issues
  • Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  
    • Effects of Global Warming
    • Sources of Green House Gases Emission (Natural and Anthropogenic)
    • Strategies to deal with Global Warming
    • Ozone depletion
    • Effects of Ozone depletion
  • Forestry  
    • Agro forestry
    • Social forestry
    • Major activities of forestry extension centres
  • Deforestation and Its Causes  
    • Deforestation
    • Causes of deforestation: Jhum cultivation
  • Afforestation  
  • Agrochemicals and Their Effects  
    • Agrochemicals
    • Effects of Agrochemicals
    • Biomagnification
    • Eutrophication
    • Case Study of Organic Farming
  • Alien Invasive Species  
  • Conservation  
    • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
    • Endemic Centres and Endemic Plants
  • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)  
  • Rain Water Harvesting – RWH (Solution to Water Crisis – a Ecological Problem)  
    • Environmental benefits of Rain Water Harvesting
    • Importance of Lakes
  • Sewage Disposal  
    • Liquid Waste Management
  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)  
    • Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA)
  • Geographic Information System  
9 Plant Breeding
  • Relationship Between Humans and Plants  
  • Domestication of Plants  
  • Origin of Agriculture  
  • History of Agriculture  
  • Organic Agriculture  
    • Biofertilizers
  • Plant Breeding  
    • Plant breeding
    1. Hybridization and its technique
      - Steps of Hybridization technique
      - Indian Hybrid Crops 
    2. Mutation Breeding
    • Main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop
      (i) Collection of variability
      (ii) Evaluation and selection of parents
      (iii) Cross hybridisation among the selected parents
      (iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants
      (v) Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars
    • Gross Revolution: Wheat and Rice, Sugar cane, Millets
    • Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance
      ⇒ Methods of breeding for disease resistance
      ⇒ Mutation
    • Plant Breeding for Developing a Resistance to Insect Pest
    • Heterosis and inbreeding depression
    • Plant Breeding for improved food quality - Biofortification
  • Conventional Plant Breeding Methods  
    • Plant Introduction
    • Selection
    • Hybridization
    • Heterosis
    • Mutation Breeding
    • Polyploid Breeding
    • Green Revolution
    • Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to diseases
    • Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests
  • Modern Plant Breeding  
    • New Plant Engineering Techniques / New Breeding Techniques (NBT)
  • Seed Protection  
    • Traditional methods of Seed Protection
    • Modern Methods of Seed Protection
  • Seed Storage  
    • Classification of seeds based on storage
    • Methods of Seed Storage
    • Seed Certification
10 Economically Useful Plants and Entrepreneurial Botany
  • Food Plants  
    • Cereals
    • Major Cereals
    • Millets (Siru Thaniyangal)
    • Minor Millets
    • Pulses
    • Vegetables
    • Fruits 
    • Nuts
    • Sugars
    • Oil Seeds
    • Beverages
  • Spices and Condiments  
    • Spices
    • Condiment
  • Fibres  
  • Timber  
    • Seasoning of wood
    • Grain, Texture, and Figure of wood
  • Latex  
  • Pulp Wood  
  • Dyes  
  • Cosmetics  
    • Perfumes
  • Traditional Systems of Medicines  
    • Siddha system of medicine
    • Ayurveda system of medicine
  • Medicinal Plants  
  • Entrepreneurial Botany  
    • Mushroom cultivation
    • Single Cell Protein (SCP) Production
    • Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer
    • Organic farming
    • Terrarium
    • Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Textbook SolutionsVIEW ALL [1]

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