Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 12th
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Botany Class 12th HSC Science Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Topics and Syllabus

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Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus For Class 12th Botany: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 12th. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Botany syllabus for the academic year 2022-2023 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 12th Botany Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Botany Syllabus pdf 2022-2023. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 12th Botany in addition to this.

Academic year:

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Botany Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Botany and their Unit wise marks distribution

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Botany Course Structure 2022-2023 With Marking Scheme

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1 Asexual and Sexual Reproduction in Plants
3 Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
4 Principles and Processes of Biotechnology
  • Development of Biotechnology 
  • Historical Perspective 
  • Traditional Biotechnology 
    • Fermentation
    • Single Cell Protein (SCP)
  • Advancements in Modern Biotechnology 
    • Genetic Engineering
    • Steps involved in Recombinant DNA Technology 
  • Tools for Genetic Engineering 
    • Restriction Enzymes
    • DNA Ligase
    • Alkaline Phosphatase
    • Vectors
    • Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA)
  • Methods of Gene Transfer 
    • Direct or Vectorless Gene Transfer
    • Indirect or Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer
  • Screening for Recombinants 
    • Insertional Inactivation - Blue-White Colony Selection Method
    • Antibiotic resistant markers
    • Replica plating technique
    • Molecular Techniques - Isolation of Genetic Material and Gel Electrophoresis
    • Nucleic Acid Hybridization - Blotting Techniques
    • Bioassay for Target Gene Effect
    • Genome Sequencing and Plant Genome Projects
    • Evolutionary pattern assessed using DNA
    • Genome editing and CRISPR - Cas9
    • RNA Interference (RNAi)
  • Transgenic Plants / Genetically Modified Crops (Gm Crops) 
    • Herbicide Tolerant – Glyphosate
    • Herbicide Tolerant - Basta
    • Insect resistance - Bt Crops
    • Virus Resistance
    • FlavrSavr Tomato
    • Golden rice - Biofortification
    • Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
    • Polylactic acid (PLA)
    • Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)
    • Biopharming
    • Bioremediation
    • Biofuel: Algal Biofuel
    • Bioprospecting
  • Commercial Applications of Biotechnology 
    1. Crop Biotechnology
      a) Hybrid Seeds
      b) Genetically Modified Crops - Bt Cotton, Bt Brinjal, Golden Rice, Herbicide tolerant plants
      c) Biofertilizers
    2. Animal Husbandry
    3. Human Health
      a) Vaccines and Vaccination - Edible Vaccines
      b) Treatment
      c) Interferon
      d) Gene therapy
      e) Cloning - Reproductive cloning, Therapeutic cloning
    4. Industrial Products / White Biotechnology
    5. Environment and Biotechnology
    6. Food Biotechnology
    7. DNA fingerprinting
5 Plant Tissue Culture
6 Principles of Ecology
  • Ecology 
    • Definitions of ecology
    • Ecological hierarchy
    • Branches of Ecology
    • Habitat and Niche
    • Ecological equivalents
  • Ecological Factors 
    • Climatic Factors
    • Edaphic factors
    • Topographic factors
    • Biotic factors
  • Ecological Adaptations 
  • Dispersal of Fruits and Seeds 
    • Dispersal by Wind (Anemochory)
    • Dispersal by Water (Hydrochory)
    • Dispersal by Animals (Zoochory)
    • Dispersal by Explosive Mechanism (Autochory)
7 Ecosystem
  • Ecosystem - Structure and Function 
    • Ecosystems
    • Components of the environment - Abiotic and biotic, Productivity, Decomposition, Energy flow, Nutrient cycling
    • The function of the Ecosystem:
    1. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), Definition of PAR, 10% Law, standing crop and standing state.
    2. Productivity of an ecosystem
    3. Concept of trophic level in an ecosystem
    4. Energy flow
    5. Food chain
    6. Food Web
    7. Ecological pyramids
    8. Decomposition
    9. Biogeochemical cycle (Nutrient cycle)
    10. Types of ecosystem
    11. Ecosystem services ( Benefits)
    12. Ecosystem Management
  • Plant Succession 
    • Causes of Succession
    • Characteristics of ecological succession
    • Types of succession
    • Process of succession
    • Classification of plant succession
    • Significance of Plant Succession
  • Vegetation 
    • Vegetation types of India andTamil Nadu
    1. Forest Vegetation
    2. Grassland vegetation
    3. Riparian vegetation
    4. Aquatic And Semi-Aquatic Vegetation
8 Environmental Issues
9 Plant Breeding
  • Relationship Between Humans and Plants 
  • Domestication of Plants 
  • Origin of Agriculture 
  • History of Agriculture 
  • Organic Agriculture 
    • Biofertilizers
  • Plant Breeding 
    • Plant breeding
    1. Hybridization and its technique
      - Steps of Hybridization technique
      - Indian Hybrid Crops 
    2. Mutation Breeding
    • Main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop
      (i) Collection of variability
      (ii) Evaluation and selection of parents
      (iii) Cross hybridisation among the selected parents
      (iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants
      (v) Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars
    • Gross Revolution: Wheat and Rice, Sugar cane, Millets
    • Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance
      ⇒ Methods of breeding for disease resistance
      ⇒ Mutation
    • Plant Breeding for Developing a Resistance to Insect Pest
    • Heterosis and inbreeding depression
    • Plant Breeding for improved food quality - Biofortification
  • Conventional Plant Breeding Methods 
    • Plant Introduction
    • Selection
    • Hybridization
    • Heterosis
    • Mutation Breeding
    • Polyploid Breeding
    • Green Revolution
    • Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to diseases
    • Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests
  • Modern Plant Breeding 
    • New Plant Engineering Techniques / New Breeding Techniques (NBT)
  • Seed Protection 
    • Traditional methods of Seed Protection
    • Modern Methods of Seed Protection
  • Seed Storage 
    • Classification of seeds based on storage
    • Methods of Seed Storage
    • Seed Certification
10 Economically Useful Plants and Entrepreneurial Botany

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