Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 11

Botany HSC Science Class 11 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24

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Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Botany Syllabus - Free PDF Download

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus 2023-24 Class 11: The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Botany Syllabus for the examination year 2023-24 has been released by the , Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2023-24 Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Botany Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Botany Syllabus for 2023-24 is below.

Academic year:

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Botany Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Botany and their Unit wise marks distribution

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 11 Botany Course Structure 2023-24 With Marking Scheme

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Syllabus

1 Living World
  • Attributes of Living Organisms  
    • Growth
    • Cellular structure
    • Reproduction
    • Response to stimuli
    • Homeostasis
    • Metabolism
  • Viruses  
    • Viruses
    • Virology
    • Milestones in Virology
    • Size and Shape
    • Characteristic Features of Viruses
  • Classification of Living World  
    • Need of Classification
  • Bacteria  
    • Bacteria Friends or Foes?
    • Milestones in Bacteriology 
    • General characteristic features of Bacteria
    • Ultrastructure of a Bacterial cell
    • Gram staining procedure
    • Life processes in Bacteria
    • Reproduction in Bacteria
    • Economic importance of Bacteria
    • Archaebacteria
    • Cyanobacteria (Blue Green Algae)
    • Mycoplasma or Mollicutes
    • Actinomycetes (Actinobacteria)
  • Fungi  
    • Fungi - World War II and Penicillin History speaks on fungi
    • Mycology - Milestones in Mycology
    • General characteristic features 
    1. Habitat
    2. Size and Shape
    3. Cellular Structure
    4. Nutrition
    5. Locomotion
    6. Life Cycle
    7. Reproduction
2 Plant Kingdom
  • Classification of Plants  
  • Kingdom Plantae  
    • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants  
      • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants
      1. Alternation of Generation
      2. Haplontic Life Cycle
      3. Diplontic Life Cycle
      4. Haplodiplontic Life Cycle
  • Algae  
    • General Characteristic features
    • Classification
    • Economic Importance
  • Bryophytes  
    • Amphibians of Plant Kingdom
    • General characteristic features
    • Economic importance
  • Pteridophytes  
    • Seedless Vascular Cryptogams
    • General characteristic features of Pteridophytes
    • Economic Importance
    • Types of Stele
  • Gymnosperms: Naked Seed Producing Plants  
    • Gymnosperms: Naked seed-producing Plants
    • Characteristic of Gymnosperms
  • Angiosperms  
    • Angiosperms
    • Characteristics of Angiosperms
    • Classification of Angiosperms - Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons
3 Vegetative Morphology
  • Habit  
    • Herbs
    • Shrubs
    • Climbers (Vine)
    • Trees
  • Plant Habitat  
    • Terrestrial
    • Aquatic
  • Life Span  
    • Annuals
    • Biennials
    • Perennials
  • Parts of a Flowering Plant  
  • Root System  
    • Root system
    • Characteristic of the root system
    • Type of Root:
      1) Primary root
      2) Secondary root
    • Regions of root
      1) Meristematic Zone
      2) Zone of Elongation
      3) Zone of Maturation
    • Types of the root system
      1) Tap root system
      2) Fibrous root system
      3) Adventitious root system
    • Functions of root
      1) Primary function
      2) Secondary function
    • Modifications of root
  • Shoot System  
    • The steam
    • Characteristic features of the stem
    • Functions of the stem
      (i) Primary functions
      (ii) Secondary functions
    • Buds
    • Types of Stem - Excurrent, Decurrent, Caudex, and Culm
    • Modification of Stem
      1) Aerial modification of stem
      2) Subaerial stem modifications
      3) Underground stem modifications
      4) Stem Branching
  • The Leaf  
    • The Leaf
    • Characteristics of leaf
    • Functions of the leaf -
      1) Primary functions
      2) Secondary functions
    • Parts of the leaf -
      1) Leaf base (hypopodium)
      2) Petiole (stipe or mesopodium)
      3) Lamina (Leaf blade)
    • Venation -
      1) Reticulate venation
      2) Parallel venation
    • Phyllotaxy -
      1) Alternate Phyllotaxy
      2) Opposite Phyllotaxy
      3) Ternate phyllotaxy
      4) Whorled (verticillate) type of phyllotaxy
    • Leaf mosaic
    • Types of Leaves -
      1) Simple leaf
      2) Compound leaf - Pinnately and palmately compound leaf
    • Modifications of Leaves
      1) Leaf tendrils
      2) Leaf hooks
      3) Leaf Spines and Prickles
      4) Storage Leaves
      5) Phyllode
      6) Pitcher
      7) Bladder
      8) Floral leaves
    • Leaf duration - Caducuous (Fagacious), Deciduous, Evergreen and Marcescent
4 Reproductive Morphology
  • The Inflorescence  
    • Inflorescence
    • Types of Inflorescence
      1) Based On Position - Terminal, Auxillary, and Cauliflorous
      2) Based on branching pattern and other characters -Indeterminate (Racemose), Determinate (Cymose), Mixed inflorescence and Special inflorescence
    • Racemose Inflorescence
      1) Main axis elongated - Simple raceme, Spike, Spikelet, Catkin, Spadix and Pancile
      2) Main axis shortened - Corymb, Umbel
      3) Main axis flattened - Head, 
    • Cymose inflorescence - 
      1) Simple cyme (solitary)
      2) Monochasial Cyme (uniparous) - Helicoid and Scorpioid
      3) Simple dichasium (Biparous)
      4) Compound dichasium:
      5) Polychasial Cyme (multiparous)
    • Mixed Inflorescence
      1) Thyrsus
      2) Verticillaster
    • Special Inflorescence
      1) Cyathium
      2) Hypanthodium
      3) Coenanthium
  • The Flower  
    • Flower
    • Whorls of flower - Complete and Incomplete
    • Flower sex 
      1) Perfect or bisexual
      2) Imperfect or unisexual: Staminate and Pistillate flowers
    • Plant sex
      1) Hermaphroditic
      2) Monoecious
      3) Dioecious
      4) Polygamous
    • Flower symmetry
      1) Actinomorphic (or) radial or polysymmetric
      2) Zygomorphic (bilateral symmetry) or monosymmetric
      3) Asymmetric (amorphic)
    • Types of Flower
      1) Types of flower depending upon the number of floral appendages
      i) Trimerous
      ii) Tetramerous
      iii) Pentamerous
      2) Types of flowers depending on presence of bracts
      i) Bracteate
      ii) Ebracteate
      3) Types of flower based on the position of calyx, corolla and androecium in respect of the ovary on thalamus
      i) Hypogynous
      ii) Perigynous
      iii) Epigynous
  • Parts of Flower  
    • Accessory Organs  
      • Accessory organs
      1. Arrangement of whorls
      2. Calyx
      3. Corolla
      4. Perianth
      5. Aestivation
  • Androecium  
    • Fusion of stamens
    • Arrangement of stamens relate to length of stamens
    • Anther types
    • Anther attachment
  • Gynoecium  
    • Number of carpel
    • Fusion of carpels
    • Number of locules
    • Extension of the condensed internode of the receptacle
    • Ovary position
    • Perianth / Androecial position on thalamus
  • Construction of Floral Diagram and Floral Formula  
  • Fruits  
    • Structure of Fruit
    • Types of Fruit
    1. Simple Fruits
    2. Aggregate Fruits
    3. Multiple or Composite Fruit
    • Functions of Fruit
  • The Seed  
    • The seed
    • Types of seed
      A) Based on the number of cotyledons two types of seeds are recognized.
      (i) Dicotyledonous seed
      (ii) Monocotyledonous seed
      B) Based on the presence or absence of the endosperm the seed is of two types. 
      (i) Albuminous or Endospermous seed
      (ii) Ex-albuminous or non- endospermous seed
    • Significance of Seeds
5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany
  • Taxonomy and Systematics  
    • Taxonomy
    • Systematics
    • Classification of Taxonomy
    1. Plant Taxonomy
    2. Animal Taxonomy
  • Taxonomic Hierarchy  
    • Taxon
  • Concept of Species-morphological, Biological and Phylogenetic  
    • Types of Species
    1. Morphological Species (Taxonomic species)
    2. Biological Species (Isolation Species)
    3. Phylogenetic Species
  • International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)  
    • ICN Principles 
    • Codes of Nomenclature
    • Vernacular names (Common names)
    • Scientific Names / Botanical Names
  • Type Concept  
  • Taxonomic Aids  
  • Taxonomical Aids  
    • Taxonomical Aids
    • Usage of Taxonomical Aids
    1. Herbarium
    2. Botanical Gardens
    3. Biological museums
    4. Zoological Parks
    5. Key
    6. Molecular taxonomy
    7. Automated species identification tools
  • Herbarium – Preparation and Uses  
    • Preparation of herbarium Specimen
    • Uses of Herbarium
  • Classification of Plants  
  • Need for Classification  
  • Types of Classification  
    • Artificial system of classification
    • Natural system
    • Phylogenetic system of classification 
    • Angiosperm phylogeny group (APG) classification
  • Modern Trends in Taxonomy  
    • Chemotaxonomy 
    • Biosystematics
    • Karyotaxonomy
    • Serotaxonomy (Immunotaxonomy)
    • Molecular taxonomy (molecular systematics / molecular phylogenetics)
    • DNA Barcoding
    • Differences between classical and modern taxonomy
  • Cladistics  
  • Selected Families of Angiosperms  
    • Family: Fabaceae (Pea family)
    • Family: Solanaceae (Potato Family / Night shade family)
    • Family: Liliaceae (Lily Family)
6 Cell: the Unit of Life
  • Discovery  
  • Microscopy  
    • Bright field Microscope
    • Electron Microscope
  • Cell Theory  
    • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life
    • Exception to Cell Theory 
    • Protoplasm Theory
    • Cell sizes and shapes
  • Types of Cells  
    • Prokaryotic cells
    • Eukaryotic Cells 
    • Mesokaryotes Cells
  • Plant Cell and Animal Cell  
  • Cell Organelles  
    • Endomembrane System
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Golgi Body (Dictyosomes)
    • Mitochondria
    • Plastids
    • Ribosome
    • Lysosomes (Suicidal Bags of Cell)
    • Microbodies
    • Peroxisomes
    • Glyoxysomes
    • Sphaerosomes
    • Centrioles 
    • Vacuoles
  • Eukaryotic Cells  
    • Nucleus  
      • Chromosomes
  • Flagella  
    • Prokaryotic Flagellum
    • Eukaryotic Flagellum– Cell Motility
  • Cytological Techniques  
    • Preparation of Slides
    • Recording the Observations
    • Staining Techniques
7 Cell Cycle
  • History of a Cell  
    • The Role of the Nucleus
    • Chromosomes
    • Nuclear Divisions
  • Cell Cycle  
  • Introduction of Cell Division  
    • Amitosis (Direct Cell Division)
    • Mitosis
    • Closed and Open Mitosis
    • Cytokinesis
    • Significance of Mitosis
    • Meiosis
    • Meiosis I-Reduction Division
    • Significance of Meiosis
  • Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis  
  • Mitogens  
    • Mitotic Poisons (Mitotic Inhibitors)
    • Endomitosis
    • Anastral
    • Amphiastral
8 Biomolecules
  • Water  
    • Chemistry of Water
    • Properties of Water
  • Primary and Secondary Metabolites  
  • Biomolecules in the Cell  
    • Carbohydrates  
      • Types of Carbohydrates based on sugar unit
      1. Monosaccharides
      2. Oligosaccharides
        a. Disaccharides
        b. Trisaccharides
        c. Tetrasaccharides
      3. Polysaccharides 
      • Biological significance of Carbohydrates
      • Nomenclature of monosaccharides
      • Glucose
      • Structure and properties of glucose
      • Optical isomerism in glucose
      • Ring structure of glucose
      • Reducing nature of glucose
      • Representation of Fructose structure
    • Lipids  
      • Lipids
      1. Saturated fatty acids
      2. Unsaturated Fatty Acids 
      • Simple Lipids
      • Compound lipids
      • Sterols
      • Biological importance of lipids
    • Enzymes  
      • Enzymes
      • Properties of Enzymes
    • Nucleic Acids  
      • Nucleotides
      • Structure of DNA
      • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
      • DNA double helix
      • Types of RNA molecules
      • Biological functions of nucleic acids
  • Proteins  
    • Proteins
    • Based on our nutritional requirements, amino acids are classified as:
      1) Non-essential amino acids 
      2) Essential amino acids
    • Functions of proteins
    • Bonding and protein structure
      1) Peptide bond of proteins or polypeptides
    • Classification of proteins
      1) Primary (Basic) structures
      2) Secondary structure
      3) Tertiary structure
      4) Quaternary structure
    • Amino acids
9 Tissue and Tissue System
  • Plant Tissues  
    • Meristems or Meristematic Tissues  
      • Classification of Meristem
      1. Primordial meristem or promeristem 
      2. Apical meristems
      3. Intercalary meristematic
      4. Lateral meristem
      • Function of Meristem
    • Permanent Tissue  
  • Tissue System  
    1. Epidermal tissue system
    2. Ground tissue system
    3. Vascular tissue system
    • Introduction to Tissue System, Types and Characteristics of tissue System
    • Epidermal Tissue System  
      • Introduction
      • Leaf Epidermis
      • Subsidiary Cells
      • Epidermal Outgrowths
      • Prickles
    • Vascular Tissue System  
  • Fundamental Tissue System  
    • Extrastelar Ground Tissue
    • Intrastelar Ground Tissue
    • Different Components of Ground Tissue Systems
    • Endodermis
    • Pericycle
    • Pith or Medulla
  • Comparison of Primary Structure – Dicot and Monocot Root, Stem and Leaf  
    • Primary Structure of Dicot Root – Bean Root
    • Piliferous Layer or Epiblema
    • Cortex
    • Stele
    • Pericycle
    • Vascular System
    • Primary Structure of Monocot 
    • Root-maize Root
    • Primary Structure of Monocot 
10 Secondary Growth
  • Secondary Growth in Dicot Stem  
    • Vascular Cambium
    • Origin and Formation of Vascular 
    • Organization of Vascular Cambium
    • Storied (Stratified cambium) and Non-Storied (Non-stratified cambium)
    • Activity of Vascular Cambium
    • Dendroclimatology
    • Tyloses
    • Secondary Phloem
    • Periderm
    • Bark
    • Lenticel
  • Secondary Growth in Dicot Root  
    • Differences Between Secondary Growth in Dicot Stem and Root
  • Cambial Variants (Anomalous Secondary Growth)  
    • Anomalous position of Vascular Cambium
    • Abnormal behavior of Normal Cambium
    • Successive Cambium
    • Interxylary or Included Phloem
    • Presence of medullary bundles along with normal cambial activity
    • Presence of Cortial Bundles along with normal cambial activity
    • Intarxylary or Internal Phloem
    • Secondary Growth in Monocot
    • Anomalous Primary Growth
  • Timber  
    • Seasoning of wood
    • Grain, Texture, and Figure of wood
11 Transport in Plants
  • Types of Transport  
    • Surface Transport
    1. Pack Animals
    2. Bullock Carts
    3. Road Transport
    4. Motor Lorries and Buses
    5. Tramways
    6. Railway Transport
    • Water Transport
    1. Inland Waterways
    2. Ocean Waterways
    • Air Transport
  • Cell to Cell Transport  
    • Passive Transport
    • Characteristics of diffusion
    • Significance of diffusion in Plants
    1. Channel Protein
    2. Carrier Protein
    • Active Transport
  • Plant Water Relation  
  • Absorption of Water  
    • Absorption of Water
    • Path of Water Across Root Cells
    • Mechanism of Water Absorption
  • Translocation of Water (Ascent of Sap)  
    1. Root Pressure Theory (Vital Theory)
    2. Capillarity theory (physical force theory)
    3. Cohesion- tension theory (Transpiration pull theory)
    4. Adhesion
  • Transpiration  
    • Transpiration
    • Demonstration of Transpiration
    • Exchange of Gases
  • Translocation of Organic Solutes  
    • Path of Translocation
    • Ringing or girdling experiment
    • Direction of Translocation
    • Source and Sink
    • Phloem Loading
    • Phloem Unloading
    • Mechanism of Translocation
  • Mineral Absorption  
    • Passive Absorption
    • Active Absorption
    • Donnan equilibrium
12 Mineral Nutrition
  • Classification of Minerals  
    • Classification of minerals based on their quantity requirements
    • Classification of minerals based on mobility
    • Classification of minerals based on their functions
  • Functions, Mode of Absorption and Deficiency Symptoms of Macronutrients  
  • Functions, Mode of Absorption and Deficiency Symptoms of Micronutrients  
  • Deficiency Diseases and Symptoms  
  • Critical Concentration and Toxicity of Minerals  
    • Critical Concentration 
    • Mineral Toxicity
  • Hydroponics and Aeroponics  
  • Nitrogen Fixation  
    • Non – Biological nitrogen fixation
    • Biological nitrogen fixation
  • Nitrogen Cycle and Nitrogen Metabolism  
    • Nitrogen cycle
    1. Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen
    2. Nitrification
    3. Nitrate Assimilation
    4. Ammonification
    5. Denitrification
    • Nitrogen Metabolism Ammonium Assimilation (Fate of Ammonia)
    1. Reductive amination
    2. Transamination
    3. Catalytic Amination: (GS/GOGAT Pathway)
  • Special Modes of Nutrition  
    • Saprophytic mode of nutrition in angiosperms
    • Parasitic mode of nutrition in angiosperms
    •  Symbiotic mode of Nutrition
    •  Insectivorous mode of nutrition
13 Photosynthesis
  • Historical Events in Photosynthesis  
  • Definition, Significance and Site of Photosynthesis  
    • Definition of Photosynthesis
    • Significance of Photosynthesis
    • Site of Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthetic Pigments  
    • Chlorophyll
    • Phycobilins
  • Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation  
  • Photosynthetic Unit (Quantasome)  
  • Absorption Spectrum and Action Spectrum  
    • Absorption Spectrum
    • Action Spectrum
  • Emerson’s Experiments and Hill’s Reaction  
    • Red Drop or Emerson’s First Effect
    • Emerson’s Enhancement Effect
    • Hill’s Reaction
  • Modern Concept of Photosynthesis  
  • Photo-oxidation Phase of Light Reaction  
    • Photosystem and Reaction Centre
  • Photo Chemical Phase of Light Reaction  
    • Photolysis of Water
    • Electron Transport Chain of Chloroplast
  • Role of Sunlight in Photosynthesis  
    • Photophosphorylation  
      • Photophosphorylation
      • Forms of Photophosphorylation 
      1. Cyclic photophosphorylation
      2. Non-cyclic photophosphorylation
  • Dark Reaction or C3 Cycle or Biosynthetic Phase or Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction (PCR)Cycle  
    • Phase 1- Carboxylation (Fixation)
    • Phase 2 – Glycolytic Reversal / Reduction
    • Phase 3 – Regeneration
  • Hatch and Slack Pathway or C4 Cycle or Dicarboxylic Acid Pathway or Dicarboxylation Pathway  
    • Stage: I Mesophyll Cells
    • Stage: II Bundle Sheath Cells
    • Significance of C4 cycle
  • Crassulacean Acid Metabolism or CAM Cycle  
  • Photorespiration or C2 Cycle or Photosynthetic Carbon Oxidation (PCO) Cycle  
    • Significance of photorespiration
    • Carbon Dioxide Compensation Point
  • Factors Affecting Photosynthesis  
    • Blackman - Law of limiting factors
    • Factors affecting photosynthesis
    1. External Factors:
      1) Availability of sunlight
      2) Temperature
      3) Water
      4) Humidity
      5) CO2 Concentration [atmospheric]
      6) O2 availability
    2. Internal Factors:
      1) Number of leaves
      2) Size of leaves
      3) Leaf age
      4) Orientation of leaves
      5) Mesophyll cells and chloroplasts
      6) Internal CO2 concentration
      7) Anatomy of leaf
  • Photosynthesis in Bacteria  
14 Respiration
  • Gaseous Exchange  
    • Respiration
    • Compensation point
  • Structure of ATP  
  • Redox Reactions  
    • Classical ideas of redox reactions
    • Redox reaction in terms of electron transfer
  • Stages of Respiration  
    • Glycolysis
    • Pyruvate Oxidation (Link reaction)
    • Krebs cycle or Citric acid cycle or TCA cycle
    • Electron Transport Chain (ETC)(Terminal oxidation)
  • Respiratory Quotient (R.Q.)  
  • Types of Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration  
    • Cellular respiration
    • Types of cellular respiration
    1. Aerobic Respiration
    2. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Aerobic respiration in plant/animal
    • Anaerobic respiration in plant/animal
    • Differences in anaerobic respiration in plants and animals
  • Factors Affecting Respiration  
  • Pentose Phosphate Pathway (Phospho Gluconate Pathway)  
15 Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Growth Regulators  
    • Auxins
    • Gibberellins
    • Cytokinins (Cytos – cell, Kinesis – division)
    • Ethylene (Gaseous Phytohormone)
    • Abscisic Acid (ABA) (Stress Phyto hormone)
  • Plant Movements  
    • Vital movements
    • Physical Movement (Hygroscopic Movements)
  • Photoperiodism  
    • Photoperiodism
    1. Short Day Plants (SDP)
    2. Long Day Plants (LDP)
    3. Day Neutral Plants (DNP)
    • Phytochrome
  • Vernalization (Vernal – Spring Like)  
  • Seed Germination and Dormancy  
  • Senescence  
  • Stress Physiology  
    • Biotic Stresses
    • Abiotic Stresses

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