Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 12th
Advertisement Remove all ads

Biology (Botany and Zoology) Class 12th HSC Science Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Topics and Syllabus

Advertisement Remove all ads

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus For Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology): Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 12th. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) syllabus for the academic year 2021-2022 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) Syllabus pdf 2021-2022. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) in addition to this.

Academic year:

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) and their Unit wise marks distribution

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) Course Structure 2021-2022 With Marking Scheme

Advertisement Remove all ads
Advertisement Remove all ads
Advertisement Remove all ads

Syllabus

1.01 Asexual and Sexual Reproduction in Plants
  • Asexual Reproduction 
    • Binary Fission, Sporulation, Budding, Gemmule Formation and Fragmentation
    • Cell division in unicellular organism - Budding in yeast, Binary fission in Amoeba
    • Asexual reproductive structures - Zoospores of Chlamydomonas, Conidia of Penicillium, Buds in Hydra, Gemmules in sponge
    • Vegetative Propagation in Plants (angiosperms)
  • Vegetative Reproduction 
    • Natural methods
    1. Vegetative reproduction in root
    2. Vegetative reproduction in stem
    3. Vegetative reproduction in leaf
    • Artificial Methods
    1. Conventional methods
    2. Modern Method
  • Sexual Reproduction 
  • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Structure and Events 
    • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Structure and Events
    1. Pollen grain formation
    2. Embryo sac formation
    3. Pollination
    4. Pollen Pistil interaction
  • Fertilization 
    • Pollen on the stigma 
    • Pollen tube in the style
    • Entry of pollen tube into embryo sac
    • Double fertilization andtriple fusion
  • Post Fertilization in Plant: Structures and Events 
    • Post Fertilization in Plant: Structures and Events
    1. Development of Endosperm
    2. Development of Embryo (embryogeny)
  • Apomixis 
    • Apomixis
    • Categories of apomixis
    1. Recurrent apomixis
    2. Non-recurrent apomixis
    3. Adventive Embryony
  • Polyembryony 
  • Parthenocarpy 
1.02 Classical Genetics
1.03 Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
1.04 Principles and Processes of Biotechnology
  • Development of Biotechnology 
  • Method of Biotechnology 
    •  Fermentation
    • Single Cell Protein (SCP)
  • Advancements in Modern Biotechnology 
    • Genetic Engineering
    • Steps involved in Recombinant DNA Technology 
  • Tools for Genetic Engineering 
    • Restriction Enzymes
    • DNA Ligase
    • Alkaline Phosphatase
    • Vectors
    • Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA)
  • Methods of Gene Transfer 
    • Direct or Vectorless Gene Transfer
    • Indirect or Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer
  • Screening for Recombinants 
    • Insertional Inactivation - Blue-White Colony Selection Method
    • Antibiotic resistant markers
    • Replica plating technique
    • Molecular Techniques - Isolation of Genetic Material and Gel Electrophoresis
    • Nucleic Acid Hybridization - Blotting Techniques
    • Bioassay for Target Gene Effect
    • Genome Sequencing and Plant Genome Projects
    • Evolutionary pattern assessed using DNA
    • Genome editing and CRISPR - Cas9
    • RNA Interference (RNAi)
  • Transgenic Plants / Genetically Modified Crops (Gm Crops) 
    • Herbicide Tolerant – Glyphosate
    • Herbicide Tolerant - Basta
    • Insect resistance - Bt Crops
    • Virus Resistance
    • FlavrSavr Tomato
    • Golden rice - Biofortification
    • Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
    • Polylactic acid (PLA)
    • Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)
    • Biopharming
    • Bioremediation
    • Biofuel: Algal Biofuel
    • Bioprospecting
  • Commercial Applications of Biotechnology 
    1. Healthcare Biotechnology
    2. Agriculture
    3. Gene therapy
    4. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
      - Advantages of GM food-plant
1.05 Plant Tissue Culture
1.06 Principles of Ecology
  • Ecology 
    • Definitions of ecology
    • Ecological hierarchy
    • Branches of Ecology
    • Habitat and Niche
    • Ecological equivalents
  • Ecological Factors 
    • Climatic Factors
    • Edaphic factors
    • Topographic factors
    • Biotic factors
  • Ecological Adaptations 
  • Dispersal of Fruits and Seeds 
    • Dispersal by Wind (Anemochory)
    • Dispersal by Water (Hydrochory)
    • Dispersal by Animals (Zoochory)
    • Dispersal by Explosive Mechanism (Autochory)
1.07 Ecosystem
  • Ecosystem – Structure and Function 
    • Ecosystems Components
    • Productivity, Decomposition, Energy flow, Nutrient cycling
    • Function of Ecosystem
    1. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)
    2. Productivity of an ecosystem
    3. Concept of trophic level in an ecosystem
    4. Energy flow
    5. Food chain
    6. Food Web
    7. Ecological pyramids
    8. Decomposition
    9. Biogeochemical cycle (Nutrient cycle)
    10. Types of ecosystem
    11. Ecosystem services ( Benefits)
    12. Ecosystem Management
  • Plant Succession 
    • Causes of Succession
    • Characteristics of ecological succession
    • Types of succession
    • Process of succession
    • Classification of plant succession
    • Significance of Plant Succession
1.08 Environmental Issues
1.09 Plant Breeding
1.1 Economically Useful Plants and Entrepreneurial Botany
2.01 Reproduction in Organisms
  • Modes of Reproduction 

    Modes of Reproduction - Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

  • Asexual Reproduction 
    • Binary Fission, Sporulation, Budding, Gemmule Formation and Fragmentation
    • Cell division in unicellular organism - Budding in yeast, Binary fission in Amoeba
    • Asexual reproductive structures - Zoospores of Chlamydomonas, Conidia of Penicillium, Buds in Hydra, Gemmules in sponge
    • Vegetative Propagation in Plants (angiosperms)
  • Sexual Reproduction 
2.02 Human Reproduction
2.03 Reproductive Health
2.04 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Multiple Alleles 
    • Characteristics of multiple alleles
    • Self-sterility in Nicotiana
  • Human Blood Groups 
    • ABO blood types
    • Rhesus or Rh Factor
  • Genetic Control of Rh Factor 
    • Fisher and Race hypothesis
    • Wiener Hypothesis
    • Incompatibility of Rh Factor – Erythroblastosis foetalis
    • Prevention of Erythroblastosis foetalis
  • Sex Determination 
    • Sex Determination in human beings
    • Sex Determination in birds
    • Sex Determination in honey bees
  • Sex Linked Inheritance 
    • X-linked (sex-linked) genes
    • Y-linked (Holandric) genes
    1. Colour blindness
    2. Haemophilia (Bleeder’s disease)
  • Karyotyping 
    • Preparation of Karyotype
    • Applications of Karyotyping
    • Human Karyotype
  • Genetic Disorders 
    • Thalassemia
    • Down’s Syndrome (21st trisomy)
    • Turner’s Syndrome
    • Klinefelter’s syndrome (XXY males)
  • Chromosomal Abnormalities 
    • Autosomal aneuploidy in human beings
    • Allosomal abnormalities in human beings
2.05 Molecular Genetics
2.06 Evolution
  • Origin of Life (Theories) 
    • Origin of Life (Theories)
    1. Theory of special creation
    2. Cosmozoic theory/Theory of Panspermia
    3. Theory of spontaneous generation (Abiogenesis)
    4. Theory of biogenesis
  • Geological Time Scale 
  • Biological Evolution 
    • Biological Evolution and Evidences for Biological Evolution (Paleontology, Comparative Anatomy, Embryology and Molecular Evidences)
    • Formation of protobionts
    • Experimental approach to the origin of life
  • Evidences for Biological Evolution 
    • Paleontological evidences
    • Evidences from comparative anatomy
    1. Homologous structures
    2. Analogous structures
    3. Vestigial organs 
    4. Connecting link
    5. Atavistic organs
    • Embryological evidences
    1. Molecular evidences
  • Theories of Biological Evolution 
    • Lamarck’s theory
    • The main objection to Lamarckism 
    • Neo-Lamarckism
    • Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection
    1. Objections to Darwinism
    2. Neo Darwinism 
    • Mutation theory
    1. Salient features of Mutation Theory
    • Modern synthetic theory
    • Evolution by anthropogenic sources
    1. Natural Selection (Industrial melanism)
    • Adaptive Radiation 
    1. Darwin’s finches
  • Mechanism of Organic Evolution 
    • Mutations
    • Gene recombination
    • Gene flow 
    • Genetic drift
    • Natural selection
    • Type of Natural selection: Stabilizing selection, Directional selection, and Disruptive Natural selection
    • Isolation
    • Speciation
  • Hardy Weinberg’s Principle 
  • Human Evolution 
    • Human Evolution
    • Human ancestors
    1. Australopithecus
    2. Homo habilis
    3. Homo erectus
    4. Homo erectus
    5. Neanderthal man 
    6. Cro-Magnon
    • Homo sapiens sapiens (modern man)
2.07 Human Health and Diseases
  • Common Diseases Inhuman Beings 
    • Bacterial and viral diseases Bacterial diseases
    • Viral diseases
    • Protozoan diseases
    • Life cycle of Plasmodium
    • Prevention
    • Fungal diseases
    • Helminthic diseases
  • Maintenance of Personal and Public Hygiene 
  • Basic Concepts of Immunology 
    • Innate immunity
    • Acquired immunity
    • Components of acquired immunity
    • Types of acquired immunity
    • Immune responses
    • Primary immune response
    • Secondary immune response
    • Lymphoid organs
    • Primary lymphoid organs
    • Secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs
    • Cells of the immune system
    • Antigens
    • Types of antigens
    • Antibodies
    • Antigen -antibody interaction 
    • Binding force of antigen - antibody reaction
    • Different types of antigen and antibody reactions
    • Vaccines
    • Vaccination and immunization
    • Hypersensitivity 
  • Immunodeficiency Diseases 
    • Structure of HIV
    • HIV Transmission
  • Autoimmune Diseases 
    • Tumour immunology
    • Immunotherapy of cancer
  • Drugs and Alcohol Abuse 
    • Adolescence - Drug and Alcohol Abuse 
      • Addiction and dependence
      • Effects of drugs and alcohol
      • Prevention and control 
      1. Effectively dealing with peer pressure
      2. Seeking help from parents and peers
      3. Education and counselling
      4. Looking for danger signs
      5. Seeking professional and medical assistance 
  • Mental Health – Depression 
    • Signs and symptoms of mental depression
2.08 Microbes in Human Welfare
2.09 Applications of Biotechnology
2.1 Organisms and Populations
2.11 Biodiversity and Its Conservation
2.12 Environmental Issues
Advertisement Remove all ads

Textbook SolutionsVIEW ALL [2]

Advertisement Remove all ads
Share
Notifications

View all notifications


      Forgot password?
View in app×