Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 12th
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Biology (Botany and Zoology) Class 12th HSC Science Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Topics and Syllabus

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Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Syllabus For Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology): Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 12th. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) syllabus for the academic year 2022-2023 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) Syllabus pdf 2022-2023. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) in addition to this.

Academic year:

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) Revised Syllabus

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) and their Unit wise marks distribution

Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Biology (Botany and Zoology) Course Structure 2022-2023 With Marking Scheme

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Syllabus

1.01 Asexual and Sexual Reproduction in Plants
1.03 Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
1.04 Principles and Processes of Biotechnology
  • Development of Biotechnology 
  • Method of Biotechnology 
    •  Fermentation
    • Single Cell Protein (SCP)
  • Advancements in Modern Biotechnology 
    • Genetic Engineering
    • Steps involved in Recombinant DNA Technology 
  • Tools for Genetic Engineering 
    • Restriction Enzymes
    • DNA Ligase
    • Alkaline Phosphatase
    • Vectors
    • Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA)
  • Methods of Gene Transfer 
    • Direct or Vectorless Gene Transfer
    • Indirect or Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer
  • Screening for Recombinants 
    • Insertional Inactivation - Blue-White Colony Selection Method
    • Antibiotic resistant markers
    • Replica plating technique
    • Molecular Techniques - Isolation of Genetic Material and Gel Electrophoresis
    • Nucleic Acid Hybridization - Blotting Techniques
    • Bioassay for Target Gene Effect
    • Genome Sequencing and Plant Genome Projects
    • Evolutionary pattern assessed using DNA
    • Genome editing and CRISPR - Cas9
    • RNA Interference (RNAi)
  • Transgenic Plants / Genetically Modified Crops (Gm Crops) 
    • Herbicide Tolerant – Glyphosate
    • Herbicide Tolerant - Basta
    • Insect resistance - Bt Crops
    • Virus Resistance
    • FlavrSavr Tomato
    • Golden rice - Biofortification
    • Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
    • Polylactic acid (PLA)
    • Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)
    • Biopharming
    • Bioremediation
    • Biofuel: Algal Biofuel
    • Bioprospecting
  • Commercial Applications of Biotechnology 
    1. Crop Biotechnology
      a) Hybrid Seeds
      b) Genetically Modified Crops - Bt Cotton, Bt Brinjal, Golden Rice, Herbicide tolerant plants
      c) Biofertilizers
    2. Animal Husbandry
    3. Human Health
      a) Vaccines and Vaccination - Edible Vaccines
      b) Treatment
      c) Interferon
      d) Gene therapy
      e) Cloning - Reproductive cloning, Therapeutic cloning
    4. Industrial Products / White Biotechnology
    5. Environment and Biotechnology
    6. Food Biotechnology
    7. DNA fingerprinting
1.05 Plant Tissue Culture
1.06 Principles of Ecology
  • Ecology 
    • Definitions of ecology
    • Ecological hierarchy
    • Branches of Ecology
    • Habitat and Niche
    • Ecological equivalents
  • Ecological Factors 
    • Climatic Factors
    • Edaphic factors
    • Topographic factors
    • Biotic factors
  • Ecological Adaptations 
  • Dispersal of Fruits and Seeds 
    • Dispersal by Wind (Anemochory)
    • Dispersal by Water (Hydrochory)
    • Dispersal by Animals (Zoochory)
    • Dispersal by Explosive Mechanism (Autochory)
1.07 Ecosystem
  • Ecosystem - Structure and Function 
    • Ecosystems
    • Components of the environment - Abiotic and biotic, Productivity, Decomposition, Energy flow, Nutrient cycling
    • The function of the Ecosystem:
    1. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), Definition of PAR, 10% Law, standing crop and standing state.
    2. Productivity of an ecosystem
    3. Concept of trophic level in an ecosystem
    4. Energy flow
    5. Food chain
    6. Food Web
    7. Ecological pyramids
    8. Decomposition
    9. Biogeochemical cycle (Nutrient cycle)
    10. Types of ecosystem
    11. Ecosystem services ( Benefits)
    12. Ecosystem Management
  • Plant Succession 
    • Causes of Succession
    • Characteristics of ecological succession
    • Types of succession
    • Process of succession
    • Classification of plant succession
    • Significance of Plant Succession
1.08 Environmental Issues
1.09 Plant Breeding
  • Relationship Between Humans and Plants 
  • Domestication of Plants 
  • Origin of Agriculture 
  • History of Agriculture 
  • Organic Agriculture 
    • Biofertilizers
  • Plant Breeding 
    • Plant breeding
    1. Hybridization and its technique
      - Steps of Hybridization technique
      - Indian Hybrid Crops 
    2. Mutation Breeding
    • Main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop
      (i) Collection of variability
      (ii) Evaluation and selection of parents
      (iii) Cross hybridisation among the selected parents
      (iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants
      (v) Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars
    • Gross Revolution: Wheat and Rice, Sugar cane, Millets
    • Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance
      ⇒ Methods of breeding for disease resistance
      ⇒ Mutation
    • Plant Breeding for Developing a Resistance to Insect Pest
    • Heterosis and inbreeding depression
    • Plant Breeding for improved food quality - Biofortification
  • Conventional Plant Breeding Methods 
    • Plant Introduction
    • Selection
    • Hybridization
    • Heterosis
    • Mutation Breeding
    • Polyploid Breeding
    • Green Revolution
    • Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to diseases
    • Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests
  • Modern Plant Breeding 
    • New Plant Engineering Techniques / New Breeding Techniques (NBT)
1.1 Economically Useful Plants and Entrepreneurial Botany
2.01 Reproduction in Organisms
2.02 Human Reproduction
2.03 Reproductive Health
2.04 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
2.05 Molecular Genetics
2.06 Evolution
2.07 Human Health and Diseases
2.08 Microbes in Human Welfare
2.09 Applications of Biotechnology
2.1 Organisms and Populations
  • Organism and Its Environment 
    • Responses to Abiotic Factors 
      • Responses to Abiotic Factors
      • Living organisms deal with the extreme weather conditions through the following adaptations:
        (i) Regulation
        (ii) Conformation
        (iii) Migration
        (iv) Suspension
  • Habitat 
    • Niche (or) Ecological Niche
  • Major Abiotic Components or Factors 
    • Temperature
    • Adaptations to temperature
    • Light
    • Water
    • Soil 
    • Wind
    • Humidity
    • Altitude
  • Concept of Biome and Their Distribution 
    • Characters of a biome
    • Aquatic Biomes
    • Terrestrial biomes
    • Major Biomes of the Earth
    • Tundra Biome 
    • Taiga Biome 
    • Grassland Biome
    • Alpine biome
    • Forest biomes
    • Desert biomes
  • Adaptations and Its Types 
    • Adaptation
    • Some more examples of adaptations
    • Three basic types of adaptations
    1. Structural adaptations
    2. Physiological adaptations
    3. Behavioural adaptations
  • Population 
    •  Population
    •  Natality
    1. Absolute Natality
    2. Realized Natality
    •  Mortality
    1. Absolute Mortality
    2. Realized Mortality
    • Sex ratio
    • Age distribution and Age pyramid
    • Population Growth 
    • Population Attributes 
      • Population Ecology
      • The population has certain attributes
      1. Birth Rate, Death Rate
      2. Sex Ratio
      3. Age Distribution
      4. Age Pyramid
      5. Population Size
      6. Population density
      7. Population Growth
  • Population Age Distribution 
  • Growth Models / Curves 
    • Growth Models / Curves
    • S-Shaped growth form (sigmoid growth)
  • Population Interactions 
    • Population Interactions
    1. Predation (adaptations in organisms to avoid predation)
    2. Competition (Interspecific, interference, Competitive exclusion, Competitive release, Gause's Competitive Exclusion Principle)
    3. Parasitism 
      ⇒ Types of parasites: Ectoparasites, Endoparasites, Brood parasitism
    4. Commensalism
    5. Mutualism
    6. Amensalism
2.11 Biodiversity and Its Conservation
  • Biodiversity 
    • Biodiversity
    • Type of biodiversity
      (i) Genetic diversity
      (ii) Species diversity
      (iii) Ecosystem diversity
    • Global biodiversity and a proportionate number of species of major taxa of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates
  • Importance of Biodiversity 
    • Ecological Role of Biodiversity
    • Economic Role of Biodiversity
    • Scientific Role of Biodiversity
    • Rivet Popper hypothesis
  • Biogeographical Regions of India 
  • Threats to Biodiversity 
  • Causes of Biodiversity Loss 
    • Habitat Loss
    • Habitat fragmentation
    • Over exploitation
    • Exotic species invasion
    • Global Climate changes
    • Shifting or Jhum cultivation (Slash-and-burn agriculture)
    • Coextinctions
    • Intensive agriculture
    • Loss of biodiversity
    • Hotspots
    • Endangered organisms
    • Extinction
  • IUCN 
    • Red Data Book
  • Biodiversity and Its Conservation (Questions) 
    • In-situ Conservation 
    • Protected Areas
    • National Parks (NP)
    • Wild Life Sanctuaries (WLS)
    • Biosphere Reserve (BR)
    • Sacred Groves
    • Ex-Situ Conservation
    • Offsite Collections
    • Gene Banks
2.12 Environmental Issues

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