## Units and Topics

# | Unit/Topic | Marks |
---|---|---|

1 | Mathematical Logic | - |

1.1 | Mathematical Logic | - |

1.2 | Matrics | - |

1.3 | Trigonometric Functions | - |

1.4 | Pair of Straight Lines | - |

1.5 | Vectors | - |

1.6 | Line and Plane | - |

1.7 | Linear Programming | - |

2 | Matrices | - |

2.1 | Differentiation | - |

2.2 | Applications of Derivatives | - |

2.3 | Indefinite Integration | - |

2.4 | Definite Integration | - |

2.5 | Application of Definite Integration | - |

2.6 | Differential Equations | - |

2.7 | Probability Distributions | - |

2.8 | Binomial Distribution | - |

3 | Trigonometric Functions | - |

4 | Pair of Straight Lines | - |

5 | Circle | - |

6 | Conics | - |

7 | Vectors | - |

8 | Three Dimensional Geometry | - |

9 | Line | - |

10 | Plane | - |

11 | Linear Programming Problems | - |

12 | Continuity | - |

13 | Differentiation | - |

14 | Applications of Derivative | - |

15 | Integration | - |

16 | Applications of Definite Integral | - |

17 | Differential Equation | - |

18 | Statistics | - |

19 | Probability Distribution | - |

20 | Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution | - |

Total | - |

## Syllabus

- Mathematical Logic
- Quantifier and Quantified Statements in Logic
- Universal quantifier (∀)
- Existential quantifier (∃)

- Logical Connectives
- Conjunction (∧)
- Disjunction (∨)
- Negation (∼)
- Conditional statement (Implication, →)
- Biconditional (Double implication) (↔) or (⇔)

- Examples Related to Real Life and Mathematics
Examples related to real life and mathematics

- Statement Patterns and Logical Equivalence
tautology, contradiction, contingency, duality, negation of compound statement, contrapositive, converse, inverse

- Algebra of Statements
idempotent law, associative law, commutative law, distributive law, identity law, complement law, involution law, DeMorgan’s laws

- Application of Logic to Switching Circuits, Switching Table.
simple examples

- Quantifier and Quantified Statements in Logic

- Statements - Introduction
- Sentences and statement
- Truth value of statement
- Open sentences
- Compound statement
- Quantifier and quantified statements
- Logical connectives : conjunction, disjunction, negation, implication/ conditional, biconditional
- Truth tables of compound statements
- Examples related to real life and mathematics
- Statement patterns and logical equivalence - tautology, contradiction, contingency, duality, negation of compound statement, contrapositive, converse, inverse
- Algebra of statements - idempotent law, associative law, commutative law, distributive law, identity law, complement law, involution law, DeMorgan’s laws
- Difference between converse, contrapositive, contradiction
- Application - introduction to switching circuits (simple examples).

- Mathematical Logic
- Statement Patterns and Logical Equivalence
tautology, contradiction, contingency, duality, negation of compound statement, contrapositive, converse, inverse

- Quantifier and Quantified Statements in Logic
- Universal quantifier (∀)
- Existential quantifier (∃)

- Algebra of Statements
idempotent law, associative law, commutative law, distributive law, identity law, complement law, involution law, DeMorgan’s laws

- Application of Logic to Switching Circuits, Switching Table.
simple examples

- Statement Patterns and Logical Equivalence
- Logical Connective, Simple and Compound Statements
- Tautology, Contradiction, and Contingency
- Duality
- Negations of Compound Statements
- Converse, Inverse, and Contrapositive

**Statement and its truth value**

**Logical connective, simple and compound statements**

**Truth tables of statements and compound statements**

- Conjecture
- Disjunction
- Conditional (Implication)
- Biconditional (Double implication)
- Negation of a statement

**Statement pattern, ****logical equivalence**

**Tautology, contradiction, and contingency.**

**Quantifiers and quantified statements**

** Duality**

**Negations of compound statements**

- Negation of conjunction
- Negation of disjunction
- Negation of implication
- Negation of biconditional

** Converse, inverse, and contrapositive**

**Algebra of statements**

- Idempotent Law
- Commutative Law
- Associative Law
- Distributive Law
- De Morgan's Law
- Identity Law
- Complement Law
- Absorption Law
- Conditional Law
- Biconditional Law

**Application of logic to switching circuits, switching table.**

- Two switches in series
- Two switches in parallel

- Elementry Transformations
- Inverse of a Matrix
- Application of Matrices
- Method of Inversion
- Method of Reduction

- Elementary Operation (Transformation) of a Matrix
- Inverse of Matrix
- Applications of Determinants and Matrices

**Elementry transformations**

- Interchange of any two rows or any two columns
- Multiplication of the elements of any row or column by a non-zero scalar
- Adding the scalar multiples of all the elements of any row (column) to corresponding elements of any other row (column)

**Inverse of a matrix**

- Inverse of a nonsingular matrix by elementary transformation
- Inverse of a square matrix by the adjoint method

**Application of matrices**

- Method of Inversion
- Method of Reduction

**Trigonometric Equations and their solutions**

**Solutions of triangle**

- Polar co-ordinates
- Relation between the polar co-ordinates and the Cartesian co-ordinates
- Solving a Triangle
- The Sine rule
- The Cosine rule
- The Projection rule
- Applications of the Sine rule, the Cosine rule, and the Projection rule.

**Inverse Trigonometric Functions**

- Inverse sine function
- Inverse cosine function
- Inverse tangent function
- Inverse cosecant function
- Inverse secant function
- Inverse cotangent function
- Principal Values of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Properties of inverse trigonometric functions

- Combined Equation of a Pair Lines
- Homogeneous Equation of Degree Two
- Angle Between Lines
- General Second Degree Equation
ax

^{2}+ 2hxy + by^{2}+ 2gx + 2 fy + c = 0- Case 1: pair of straight line if abc+2fgh-af
^{2}-bg^{2}-ch^{2}=0 - Case 2: abc+2fgh-af
^{2}-bg^{2}-ch^{2}≠0 then represents a parabola if h^{2}= ab, ellipse if h^{2}< ab, and hyperbola if h^{2}> ab.

- Case 1: pair of straight line if abc+2fgh-af
- Equation of a Line in Space

**Combined equation of a pair lines**

**Homogeneous equation of degree two**

- Degree of a term
- Homogeneous Equation

**Angle between lines**

- Angle between lines represented by ax
^{2}+ 2hxy + by^{2}= 0

**General second degree equation in x and y**

- Representation of Vector
- Vectors and Their Types
- Algebra of Vectors
- Coplanar Vectors
- Vector in Two Dimensions (2-D)
- Three Dimensional (3-D) Coordinate System
- Components of Vector
- Position Vector of a Point P(X, Y, Z) in Space
- Component Form of a Position Vector
- Vector Joining Two Points
- Section formula
for internal and external division

- Dot/Scalar Product of Vectors
- Cross/Vector Product of Vectors
- Scalar Triple Product of Vectors
volume of a parallelepiped, co-planarity

- Vector Triple Product
- Addition of Vectors

**Representation of Vector**

- Magnitude of a Vector

**Vectors and their types**

- Zero Vector
- Unit Vector
- Co-initial and Co-terminus Vectors
- Equal Vectors
- Negative of a Vector
- Collinear Vectors
- Free Vectors
- Localised Vectors

**Algebra of Vectors**

- Scalar Multiplication
- Addition of Two Vectors
- Subtraction of two vectors

**Coplanar Vectors**

**Vector in Two Dimensions (2-D)**

**Three Dimensional (3-D) Coordinate System**

- Co-ordinates of a point in space
- Co-ordinates of points on co-ordinate axes
- Co-ordinates of points on co-ordinate planes
- Distance of P(x, y, z) from co-ordinate planes
- Distance of any point from origin
- Distance between any two points in space
- Distance of a point P(x, y, z) from coordinate axes

**Components of Vector**

**Position vector of a point P(x, y, z) in space**

**Component form of a position vector**

**Vector joining two points**

**Section formula**

- Section formula for internal division
- Midpoint formula
- Section formula for external division

**Dot/Scalar Product of Vectors**

- Finding angle between two vectors
- Projections
- Direction Angles and Direction Cosine
- Direction ratios
- Relation between direction ratios and direction cosines

**Cross/Vector Product of Vectors**

- Angle between two vectors
- Geometrical meaning of vector product

**Scalar Triple Product**

**Vector Triple Product**

- Vector and Cartesian Equations of a Line
- Concept of Line
- Skew Lines
- Equations of Plane
- Angle Between Planes
- Coplanarity of Two Lines
- Distance of a Point from a Plane

**Vector and Cartesian equations of a line**

- Equation of a line passing through a given point and parallel to a given vector
- Equation of a line passing through given two points

**Distance of a point from a line**

**Skew lines**

- Distance between skew lines
- Distance between parallel lines.

**Equations of Plane**

- Equation of plane passing through a point and perpendicular to a vector
- Passing through a point and parallel to two vectors.
- The vector equation of the plane passing through three non-collinear points
- The normal form of the equation of a plane
- Equation of plane passing through the intersection of two planes

**Angle between planes**

- Angle between two planes.
- Angle between a line and a plane.

**Coplanarity of two lines**

**Distance of a point from a plane**

- Linear Inequations
- Linear Programming Problem (L.P.P.)
- Lines of Regression of X on Y and Y on X Or Equation of Line of Regression
- Graphical Method of Solving Linear Programming Problems
- Linear Programming Problem in Management Mathematics

**Linear Inequations in two variables**

- Convex Sets.
- Graphical representation of linear inequations in two variables.
- Graphical solution of linear inequation.

**Linear Programming Problem (L.P.P.)**

- Meaning of Linear Programming Problem.
- Mathematical formulation of L.P. P.
- Formal definitions related to L.P.P
- Solution of L. P. P. by graphical methods.

- Elementary Operation (Transformation) of a Matrix
- Matrices
- Determinants
- Operations on Matrices
- Solution of System of Linear Equations by – Inversion Method

- Elementary transformation of a matrix revision of cofactor and minor
- Elementary row transformation
- Elementary column transformation
- Inverse of a matrix existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix
- Inverse by elementary transformation
- Adjoint method
- Application - solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method, inversion method.

- Differential Equations
- Order and Degree of a Differential Equation
- Formation of Differential Equations
- Methods of Solving First Order, First Degree Differential Equations
- Application of Differential Equations
- Population Growth and Growth of bacteria
- Ratio active Decay
- Newton's Law of Cooling
- Surface Area

- Random Variables and Its Probability Distributions
- Types of Random Variables
- Discrete random variable
- Continuous random variable

- Probability Distribution of Discrete Random Variables
- Probability mass function
- Cumulative distribution function
- Expected values and variance

- Probability Distribution of a Continuous Random Variable
- Probability density function
- Cumulative distribution function

- Variance of a Random Variable

- Trigonometric Functions
- General Solution of Trigonometric Equation of the Type
sinθ, = 0, cosθ = 0, tanθ = 0, sinθ = sinα, cosθ = cosα, tanθ = tanα, sin2 θ = sin2 α, cos2 θ = cos2 α, tan2 θ = tan2 α, acosθ + bsinθ = C

- Solution of a Triangle
Polar coordinates, Sine rule, Cosine rule, Projection rule, Area of a triangle, Application

- General Solution of Trigonometric Equation of the Type
- Basic Concepts of Trigonometric Functions
sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, cosecant function

- Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Inverse of Sin, Inverse of cosin, Inverse of tan, Inverse of cot, Inverse of Sec, Inverse of Cosec

- Trigonometric equations -
- General solution of trigonometric equation of the type : sinθ, = 0, cosθ = 0, tanθ = 0, sinθ = sinα, cosθ = cosα, tanθ = tanα, sin2 θ = sin2 α, cos2 θ = cos2 α, tan2 θ = tan2 α, acosθ + bsinθ = C solution of a triangle :
- Polar coordinates
- Sine rule
- Cosine rule
- Projection rule
- Area of a triangle
- Application
- Hero’s formula
- Napier Analogues
- Inverse trigonometric functions - definitions, domain, range, principle values, graphs of inverse trigonometric function, properties of inverse functions.

- Pair of Straight Lines
- Acute Angle Between the Lines
Acute Angle Between the Lines represented by ax

^{2}+2hxy+by^{2}=0

- Pair of lines passing through origin - Combined equation, Homogenous equation
- Theorem - the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse
- Acute angle between the lines represented by ax
^{2}+2hxy+by^{2}=0 - Condition for parallel lines
- Condition for perpendicular lines
- Pair of lines not passing through origin-combined equation of any two lines
- Condition that the equation ax2 +2hxy+by2 +2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof)
- Acute angle between the lines (without proof)
- Condition of parallel and perpendicular lines
- Point of intersection of two lines.

- Circle
- Condition of tangency
only for line y = mx + c to the circle x

^{2}+ y^{2}= a^{2}

- Condition of tangency

- Tangent of a circle - equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle,2) general circle
- Condition of tangency only for line y = mx + c to the circle x
^{2}+ y^{2}= a^{2} - Tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle
- Director circle
- Length of tangent segments
- Normal to a circle - equation of normal at a point.

- Conics
- Tangents and normals - equations of tangent and normal at a point
for parabola, ellipse, hyperbola

- Condition of tangency
for parabola, ellipse, hyperbola

- Tangents in terms of slope
for parabola, ellipse, hyperbola

- Properties of Tangents and Normals to Conics
without proof

- Tangents and normals - equations of tangent and normal at a point

- Tangents and normals - equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola, ellipse, hyperbola
- Condition of tangency for parabola,ellipse, hyperbola
- Tangents in terms of slope for parabola, ellipse, hyperbola
- Tangents from a point outside conics
- Locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular
- Properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof).

- Vectors
- Section formula
for internal and external division

- Basic Concepts of Vector Algebra
- Position Vector
- Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Vector

- Scalar Triple Product of Vectors
volume of a parallelepiped, co-planarity

- Geometrical Interpretation of Scalar Triple Product

- Revision
- Collinearity and coplanarity of vectors :
- Linear combination of vectors
- Condition of collinearity of two vectors
- Conditions of coplanarity of three vectors
- Section formula : section formula for internal and external division
- Midpoint formula
- Centroid formula
- Scaler triple product : definition, formula, properties, geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product
- Application of vectors to geometry medians of a triangle are concurrent
- Altitudes of a triangle are concurrent
- Angle bisectors of a triangle are concurrent
- Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse
- Median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides
- Angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle.

- Introduction of Three Dimensional Geometry
- Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line
- Angle Between Two Lines
- Three - Dimensional Geometry
- Relation Between Direction Ratio and Direction Cosines
- Three Dimensional Geometry - Problems

- Direction cosines and direction ratios: direction angles, direction cosines, direction ratios
- Relation between direction ratio and direction cosines
- Angle between two lines
- Condition of perpendicular lines.

- Concept of Line
- Shortest Distance Between Two Lines
- Distance between two skew lines
- Distance between parallel lines

- Equation of a Line in Space

- Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector
- Equation of line passing through two given points
- Distance of a point from a line
- Distance between two skew lines
- Distance between two parallel lines (vector approach).

- Plane
- Vector and Cartesian Equation of a Plane
- Angle Between Two Planes
- Angle Between Line and a Plane
- Coplanarity of Two Lines
- Distance of a Point from a Plane

- Equation of plane in normal form
- Equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector
- Equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors
- Equation of plane passing through three noncollinear points
- Equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes
- Angle between two planes
- Angle between line and plane
- Condition for the coplanarity of two lines
- Distance of a point from a plane (vector approach).

- Introduction of Linear Programming
- Mathematical Formulation of Linear Programming Problem
- Linear Programming
- Different Types of Linear Programming Problems
Different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems:-

- Manufacturing problem
- Diet Problem
- Transportation problem

- Graphical Method of Solving Linear Programming Problems

- Introduction of L.P.P.
- Definition of constraints
- Objective function
- Optimization
- Constraint equations
- Nonnegativity restrictions
- Feasible and infeasible region
- Feasible solutions
- Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L.P.P
- Different types of L.P.P. problems
- Graphical solutions for problem in two variables
- Optimum feasible solution.

- Introduction of Continuity
- Definition of Continuity
- Continuity of a Function at a Point
left hand limit, right hand limit

- Condition 1: If f (x) is to be continuous at x = a then f (a) must be defined.
- Condition 2: If f(x) is to be continuous at x = a then limxa→f (x) must exist.
- Condition 3: If f(x) is to be continuous at x = a then limxa→f (x) = f (a).

- Continuity of a Function at a Point
- Concept of Continuity
- Algebra of Continuous Functions
- Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
- Continuity of Some Standard Functions - Polynomial Function
- Continuity of Some Standard Functions - Rational Function
- Continuity of Some Standard Functions - Trigonometric Function
- Continuity - Problems

- Continuity of a function at a point : left hand limit, right hand limit
- Definition of continuity of a function at a point
- Discontinuity of a function
- Types of discontinuity
- Algebra of continuous functions
- Continuity in interval - definition
- Continuity of some standard functions - polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic function.

- Derivative
- Derivative of Functions in Product of Function Form
Derivative of Functions Which Are Expressed in Product of Function Form

- Derivative of Functions in Quotient of Functions Form
Derivative of Functions Which Are Expressed in Quotient of Function Form

- Derivative of Functions in Product of Function Form
- Relationship Between Continuity and Differentiability
left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept)

- Derivatives of Composite Functions - Chain Rule
- Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Derivatives of Implicit Functions
- Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
- Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms
- Higher Order Derivative
Derivative of Functions Which Expressed in Higher Order Derivative Form

- Second Order Derivative

- Revision- revision of derivative
- Relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept)
- Every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true
- Derivative of composite function-chain rule
- Derivative of inverse function
- Derivative of inverse trigonometric function :
- Derivative of implicit function definition and examples
- Derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function
- Exponential and logarithmic function
- Derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions, b) quotient of functions, c) higher order derivative, second order derivative d) [f
_{(x)}]^{[g(x)]}

- Mean Value Theorem
- Rate of Change of Bodies Or Quantities
- Increasing and Decreasing Functions
- Tangents and Normals
- Approximations
- Maxima and Minima - Introduction of Extrema and Extreme Values
- Maxima and Minima in Closed Interval
- Maxima and Minima

- Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point
- Rolle's theorem, and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof)
- Derivative as a rate measure-introduction
- Increasing and decreasing function
- Approximation (without proof)
- Maxima and minima-introduction of extrema and extreme values
- Maxima and minima in a closed interval
- First derivative test
- Second derivative test.

- Methods of Integration - Integration by Substitution
- Methods of Integration - Integration Using Partial Fractions
- Methods of Integration - Integration by Parts
- Definite Integral as the Limit of a Sum
- Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Area function, First fundamental theorem of integral calculus and Second fundamental theorem of integral calculus

- Properties of Definite Integrals
- Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution
- Integration

- Indefinite integrals-methods of integration
- Substitution method
- Integrals of the various types
- Integration by parts (reduction formulae are not expected)
- Integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors
- Non-repeated quadratic factors
- Definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum
- Fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof)
- Evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution, 2) integration by parts, properties of definite integrals.

- Area of the Region Bounded by a Curve and a Line
circle-line, elipse-ine, parabola-line

- Area Between Two Curves
- Applications of the Integrations
- Volume of Solid of Revolution
volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems)

- Volume of Solid of Revolution

- Area under the curve : area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems)
- Area bounded by two curves
- volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems).

- Basic Concepts of Differential Equation
- Order and Degree of a Differential Equation
- General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation
- Formation of Differential Equation by Eliminating Arbitary Constant
- Methods of Solving First Order, First Degree Differential Equations
- Differential Equations
- Applications of Differential Equation
Population growth, Bacterial colony growth, Surface area, Newton’s laws of cooling, Radioactive decay

- Applications of Differential Equation

- Definition-differential equation
- Order
- Degree
- General solution
- Particular solution of differential equation
- Formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by eliminating arbitary constants (at most two constants)
- Solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method
- Homogeneous differential equation (equation reducible to homogeneous form are not expected)
- Linear differential equation

Applications :-

- Population growth
- Bacterial colony growth
- Surface area
- Newton’s laws of cooling
- Radioactive decay.

- Statistics
- Bivariate Frequency Distribution
bivariate data, tabulation of bivariate data

- Scatter Diagram
(I) a) Perfect positive correlation, b) Positive correlation with high degree, c) Positive correlation with low degree

(II) a) Perfect negative correlation, b) Negative correlation with high degree, c) Negative correlation with low degree

(III) No correlation (Zero correlation)

- Bivariate Frequency Distribution

- Bivariate frequency distribution - bivariate data, tabulation of bivariate data
- Scatter diagram
- Covariance of ungrouped data
- Covariance for bivariate frequency distribution
- Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation.

- Conditional Probability
- Random Variables and Its Probability Distributions
- Probability Distribution
- Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable

- Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable
- Discrete and continuous random variable
- Probability mass function (p.m.f.)
- Probability distribution of a discrete random variable
- Cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable
- Expected value, Variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable
- Probability density function (p.d.f.)
- Distribution function of a continuous random variable.

- Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution
- Bernoulli Trial
- Normal Distribution (P.D.F)
mean, variance and standard deviation, standard normal variable, simple problems

- Normal Distribution (P.D.F)
- Mean of Binomial Distribution (P.M.F.)
- Variance of Binomial Distribution (P.M.F.)
- Standard Deviation of Binomial Distribution (P.M.F.)

- Definition of Bernoulli trial
- Conditions for Binomial distribution
- Binomial distribution (p.m.f.)
- Mean, Variance and standard deviation
- Calculation of probabilities (without proof)
- Normal distribution : p.d.f., mean, variance and standard deviation, standard normal variable, simple problems (without proof).