Topics with syllabus and resources
100.00 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.
- Historical approach to particulate nature of matter,
- laws of chemical combination,
- Dalton’s atomic theory : concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
- Atomic and molecular masses
- mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro’s law and Avogadro number, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry
200.00 States of Matter : Gases and Liquids
- Three states of matter.
- Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding.
- Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law.
- Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation.
- Ideal gas equation.
- Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases.
- Critical temperature.
- Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)
300.00 Structure of Atom
- Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars.
- Rutherford’s model and its limitations
- Bohr’s model and its limitations
- concept of shells and subshells
- dual nature of matter and light
- de Broglie’s relationship
- Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
- concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals
400.00 Periodic Table
- Significance of classification
- brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and present form of periodic table
- periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii, ionic radii. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
- Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term.
- Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,electronegativity, valence
500.00 Redox Reactions
- Concept of oxidation and reduction
- redox reactions, oxidation number, Balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number
600.00 Chemical Equilibrium
- Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes
- dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium
- Le Chatelier’s principle.
- Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH.
- Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea).
- Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples.) Handerson equation.
700.00 Surface Chemistry
- Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids;
- catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis;
- colloidal state : distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; Lyophilic, Lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation;
- emulsion – types of emulsions. Elementary idea of nanomaterials
800.00 Nature of Chemical Bond
- Valence electrons, ionic bond, Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters.
- Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory
- concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond
- Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water.
- Hydrogen peroxide- preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
- Uses of hydrogen peroxide
1000.00 S-block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
1001.00 Group 1 and Group 2 Elements
- General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
- Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
- Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate and industrial uses of lime and limestone, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium
1100.00 P-block Elements Group Introduction to P-block Elements
1101.00 Group 13 Elements
- General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence.
- Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group.
- Boronphysical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides.
- Aluminium; uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
1102.00 Group 14 Elements
- General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element.
- Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds; oxides.
- Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates
1200.00 Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry
- General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
- Melting point and boiling point.
- Electronic displacements in a covalent bond; inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
- Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond; free radicals,carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions
- Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis
- Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethane), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation.
- Chemical reactions; addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff’s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition
- Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethylene), physical properties.
- Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides, water
1600.00 Aromatic Compounds
- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene; resonance aromaticity; chemical properties
- mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration, sulphonaiton, halogenation, Friedel Craft alkylation and acylation; Carcinogenicity and toxicity
1700.00 Environmental Chemistry
- Environmental pollution- air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, green house effect and global warming.
- Pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution