HSC Science (General) 12th Board ExamMaharashtra State Board
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Biology 12th Board Exam HSC Science (General) Maharashtra State Board Topics and Syllabus

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Topics with syllabus and resources

100.00 Botany - Genetics and Evolution
101.00 Genetic Basis of Inheritance
  • Mendelian inheritance.
  • Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction-incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups), Pleiotropy, Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance.
102.00 Gene - Its Nature, Expression and Regulation
  • Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron, muton and recon.
  • DNA as genetic material, structure of DNA as given by Watson and Crick's model, DNA Packaging, semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA.
  • RNA:- General structure, types and functions.
  • Protein Synthesis; central dogma, Transcription; Translation-Genetic Code, Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation).
200.00 Botany - Biotechnology and Its Application
201.00 Biotechnology - Process and Application
  • Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons, Plasmids, Bacteriophages; Producing Restriction Fragments, Preparing and cloning a DNA Library, Gene Amplification (PCR).
  • Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents)
300.00 Botany - Biology and Human Welfare
301.00 Enhancement in Food Production
  • Plant Breeding
  • Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular
  • Totipotency, Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief), Callus Culture, Suspension Culture.
  • Single Cell Protein.
  • Biofortification
302.00 Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Microbes in Household food processing.
  • Microbes in Industrial Production.
  • Microbes in Sewage Treatment.
  • Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.
  • Microbes as Biocontrol Agents.
  • Microbes as Biofertilizers.
400.00 Botany - Plant Physiology
401.00 Photosynthesis
  • Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role.
  • Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways), Chemiosmotic hypothesis, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis.
  • Law of limiting factors.
402.00 Respiration
  • ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis, TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration.
  • Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway.
  • Respiratory quotient of Nutrients.
  • Significance of Respiration.
500.00 Botany - Reproduction in Organisms
501.00 Reproduction in Plants
  • Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual).
  • Asexual reproduction; uniparental modes vegetative propagation, micropropagation
  • Sexual Reproduction:- structure of flower Development of male gametophyte, Structure of anatropous ovule.
  • Development of female Gametophyte.
  • Pollination:- Types and Agencies.
  • Outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction.
  • Double Fertilization:- Process and Significance.
  • Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit)
  • Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony. Significance of seed and fruit formation.
600.00 Botany - Ecology and Environment
601.00 Organisms and Environment 1 - Habitat and Niche
  • Ecosystems:- Patterns, components, productivity and decomposition, energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).
  • Ecological succession, Ecological services-carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
  • Environmental issues:- agrochemicals and their effects, solid waste management, Green house effect and global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, case studies (any two).
700.00 Zoology - Genetics and Evolution
701.00 Origin and the Evolution of Life
  • Origin of Life:- Early Earth, Spontaneous, assembly of organic compounds
  • Evolution:- Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution, Biological Evidences, Mechanism of evolution; Gene flow and genetic drift;Hardy Weinberg principle; Adaptive radiation.
  • Origin and Evolution of Human being.
702.00 Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
  • The Chromosomal Theory.
  • Chromosomes.
  • Linkage and Crossing Over.
  • Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness).
  • Sex Determination in Human being, birds, honey bee.
  • Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia.
  • Chromosomal disorders in human:- Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome.
800.00 Zoology - Biotechnology and Its Application
801.00 Genetic Engineering and Genomics
  • DNA Finger Printing.
  • Genomics and Human Genome Project.
  • Biotechnological Applications in Health:- Human insulin and vaccine production, Gene Therapy.
  • Transgenic animals.
900.00 Zoology - Biology and Human Welfare
901.00 Human Health and Diseases
  • Concepts of Immunology:- Immunity Types, Vaccines, Structure of Antibody, Antigen-Antibody Complex, Antigens on blood cells.
  • Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis, Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold and ringworm).
  • Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Cancer and AIDS.
902.00 Animal Husbandry
  • Animal Husbandry 
    • Dairy Farm management
    • Poultry Farm management
    • Animal Breeding
    • Apiculture
    • Fisheries
    • Sericulture
    • Lac culture
  • Management of Farms and Farm Animals.
  • Dairy.
  • Poultry.
  • Animal Breeding.
  • Bee-Keeping.
  • Fisheries.
  • Sericulture
  • Lac culture
1000.00 Zoology - Human Physiology
1001.00 Circulation
  • Blood composition and coagulation, Blood groups.
  • Structure and pumping action of Heart.
  • Blood Vessels.
  • Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation.
  • Heart beat and Pulse.
  • Rhythmicity of Heart beat.
  • Cardiac output, Regulation of cardiac activity.
  • Blood related disorders:- Hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, and heart failure.
  • ECG, Lymphatic System (Brief idea):- Composition of lymph and its functions.
1002.00 Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism.
  • Excretory System.
  • Composition and formation of urine.
  • Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation.
  • Regulation of kidney function:- reninangiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and Diabetes inspidus, role of other organs in excretion.
  • Disorders; Kidney failure, Dialysis, Kidney stone (renal calculi).
  • Transplantation.
  • Uraemia, nephritis.
1003.00 Control and Co-ordination
  • Nervous System Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord, brief idea about PNS and ANS.
  • Transmission of nerve impulse.
  • Reflex action.
  • Sensory receptors (eye and ear), Sensory perception, general idea of other sense organs.
  • Endocrine System Endocrine glands Hormones and their functions Mechanism of hormone action.
  • Hormones as messengers and regulators.
  • Hormonal imbalance and diseases:- Common disorders (Dwarfism, Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, Diabetes mellitus, Addison’s disease)
1100.00 Zoology - Reproduction in Organisms
1101.00 Human Reproduction
  • Reproductive system in male and female.
  • Histology of testis and ovary.
  • Reproductive cycle.
  • Production of gametes, fertilization, implantation.
  • Embryo development up to three germinal layers.
  • Pregnancy, placenta, parturition and lactation (Elementary idea).
  • Reproductive health-birth control, Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.
  • MTP, Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
1200.00 Zoology - Ecology and Environment
1201.00 Organisms and Environment 2
  • Population and ecological adaptations:- population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, population attributes- growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation-Biodiversity - concept, patterns, importance, loss.
  • Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation, Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction,red data book, biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.
  • Environmental issues:- air pollution and its control, water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. (Case studies any two)
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