Maharashtra State BoardHSC Science (General) 11th
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Biology 11th HSC Science (General) Maharashtra State Board Topics and Syllabus

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Topics with syllabus and resources

100.00 Diversity in Living World (Botany)


101.00 Diversity in Organisms
  • Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea.
  • Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature - meaning of the terms taxonomy, systematics, classification and nomenclature, Need of classification
  • Three domains of life, Concept of species
  • Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Binomial nomenclature explanation, significance and examples
  • Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples
  • Lichens - Meaning, characters, examples and importance.
  • Viruses and viroids - Definitions, characters, types with examples, Economic importance and list of viral diseases.
102.00 Kingdom Plantae
  • Concept of Algae 
    • characteristics (morphology, common name, major pigments, stored food, composition of cell wall, flagellar number and position of insertion, habitat, mode of sexual reproduction – isogamous, anisogamous and oogamous) and examples of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae; Economic importance of algae
    • zoospores, isogamous, anisogamous, oogamous, algin, carrageen,The algae are divided into three main classes: Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae
    • Chlorophyceae - green algae
    • Phaeophyceae - brown algae
    • Rhodophyceae - red algae
  • Concept of Bryophyta 
    • general characteristics, distinctive features of liverworts and mosses; graphic outline of life cycle of Funaria with reference to alternation of generations.
    • Economic Importance of Bryophytes
    • Introduction - gametophyte, antheridium, antherozoids, sporophyte,he bryophytes are divided
    • Liverworts - gemmae (sing. gemma). Gemmae are green, multicellular, asexual buds
    • Mosses - protonema,leafy stage
  • Pteridophyta 
    • characteristics; classification into classes:- psilopsida (Psilotum), lycopsida (Selaginella, Lycopodium), sphenopsida (Equisetum) and pteropsida (Dryopteris, Pteris and Adiantum). Graphic outline of life cycle of a typical pteridophyte (fern). Definition of homospory and heterospory with relevant examples. Economic importance.
    • sporophylls,prothallus,homosporous,heterosporous,seed habit
  • Phanerogams 
  • Gymnosperms 
    • general characteristics and graphic outline of life cycle of a typical gymnosperm (Pinus).
    • Economic importance.
    • mycorrhiza,Gymnosperms:(a) Cycas(b) Pinus (c) Ginkgo
  • Angiosperms 
    • Classification Upto Class, Characteristic Features and Examples
    • flowers, dicotyledons, monocotyledons,double fertilisation
  • Botanical Gardens and Herbaria 

    Meaning, Importance and List of Gardens and Herbaria in India

  • Salient features of major plant groups - Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Three to five salient features and two examples of each category.
  • Botanical gardens and herbaria - Meaning, importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India
200.00 Structure and Function of Cell (Botany)


201.00 Biochemistry of Cell
  • Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.
  • Structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in brief.
  • Enzymes - Definition, Types, general properties, Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief.
202.00 Cell Division
  • Cell cycle
  • Mitosis
  • Meiosis
300.00 Structural Organization in Plants (Botany)


301.00 Morphology of Plants
  • Morphology
  • Anatomy and functions of different parts - Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus)
  • Plant tissues.
400.00 Plant Physiology (Botany)


401.00 Plant Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition

Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases - Absorption of water and minerals,Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. Active and passive absorption in brief

Guttation :- 

  • Ascent of sap, root pressure concept and cohesion - tension theory. Translocation of sugars through phloem brpief account.
  • Transpiration – structure of stomata, mechanism of opening and closing of stomata, Role of K+ ions

Role of water and minerals - macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. Mineral deficiency symptoms, Mineral toxicity, Elementary idea of Hydroponics, Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation)

402.00 Plant Growth and Development: Seed Dormancy
  • Germination - Hypogeal, epigeal and viviparous.
  • Definition and characteristics of growth. Phases of growth, Conditions of growth, Differentiation, de- differentiation, redifferentiation
  • Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell
  • Growth regulators - auxins, gibberellins, cytokinines, ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism
  • Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea)
  • Vernalization.
500.00 Diversity in Living World (Zoology)


501.00 Kingdom Animalia
  • Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera, co elenterata ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Hemichordata.
  • Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata, Cephalochordata, Cyclostomata, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia
  • Zoological parks and Museums - General idea with list.
600.00 Structure and Function of Cell (Zoology)


601.00 Organization of Cell
  • Cell theory - brief account
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell - structure and examples.
  • Plant cell and animal cell.
  • Nuclear organization - Nucleus, nucleolus and nucleoplasm.
  • Cell wall and cell membrane - (fluid mosaic model).
  • Cell organelles: Plastids, Mitochondria, Golgi complex, Lysosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Vacuoles, Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Microbodies, cytoskeleton, cilia and flagella
700.00 Structural Organization in Animals (Zoology)


701.00 Study of Animal Tissues

Animal tissues - types

  • Epithelial tissues - simple epithelium (squamous, cuboidal, columnar, Ciliated, glandular). - compound epithelium (stratified).
  • Connective tissue - (Areolar, Adipose, Tendons, Ligaments, Cartilage and Bone).
  • Muscular tissue - (Smooth, striated and cardiac).
  • Nervous tissue (Neurons, glial cells and types of neurons).
702.00 Study of Animal Type
  • Morphology, anatomy and functions of digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only)
800.00 Human Physiology (Zoology)


801.00 Human Nutrition
  • Digestive system in brief
  • Physiology of digestion, gastrointestinal hormones, Peristalsis. Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
  • Absorption, assimilation and egestion
  • Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, Jaundice, vomiting and diarrhoea
802.00 Human Respiration

Respiratory Organs in Animals (Recall Only)

Respiratory system in brief

Breathing- inspiration and expiration.

Exchange of gases, transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration. Regulation of Respiration, Respiratory volumes

Respiratory disorders- Asthma, Emphysema and occupational lung diseases.

803.00 Human Skeleton and Locomotion

Brief account of human skeleton:

  1. Axial Skeleton
  2. Appendicular Skeleton
  • (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical)
  • Types of joints - synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses.
  • Types of diarthroses - ball and socket, hinge, condyloid, pivot, saddle and gliding joints.
  • Types of Movement- Ciliary, Flagellar, Muscular
  • Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction. Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis, Osteoporosis, arthritis, muscular dystrophy tetany and gout
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