# Physics 12th Board Exam HSC Science (Electronics) Maharashtra State Board Topics and Syllabus

Maharashtra State Board Syllabus For 12th Board Exam Physics: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of 12th Board Exam. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Physics syllabus for the academic year 2023-2024 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the 12th Board Exam Physics Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Physics Syllabus pdf 2023-2024. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for 12th Board Exam Physics in addition to this.

## Syllabus

1 Rotational Dynamics
1 Circular Motion
• Angular displacement
• Angular velocity and angular acceleration
• Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity
• Uniform circular motion
• Centripetal and centrifugal forces
• Vertical circular motion due to earth’s gravitation
• Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion.
• Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion.
2 Gravitation
• Newton’s law of gravitation
• Projection of satellite
• Periodic time
• Statement of Kepler’s laws of motion
• Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite
• Weightlessness condition in orbit
• Variation of ‘g’ due to altitude, lattitude, depth and motion
• Communication satellite and its uses
2 Mechanical Properties of Fluids
3 Angular Momentum
• Definition of M.I., K.E. of rotating body
• Rolling motion
• Physical significance of M.I.
• Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes
• M.I. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes
• Angular momentum and its conservation
3 Kinetic Theory of Gases and Radiation
4 Oscillations
• Explanation of periodic motion
• S.H.M.
• Differential equation of linear S.H.M.
• Projection of U.C.M. on any diameter
• Phase of S.H.M.
• K.E. and P.E. in S.H.M.
• Composition of two S.H.M.’s having same period and along same line
• Simple pendulum
• Damped S.H.M.
4 Thermodynamics
5 Oscillations
5 Elasticity
• General explanation of elastic property, Plasticity, Deformation
• Definition of stress and strain
• Hooke’s law
• Poisson’s ratio
• Elastic energy, Elastic constants and their relation
• Determination of ‘Y’
• Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load
• Applications of elastic behaviour of materials
6 Surface Tension
• Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory, Surface energy, Surface tension, Angle of contact, Capillarity and capillary action, Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension.
6 Superposition of Waves
• Progressive Waves
• Properties of progressive waves
• Reflection of Waves
• Superposition of Waves
• Superposition of Two Wave Pulses of Equal Amplitude and Same Phase Moving towards Each Other
• Superposition of Two Wave Pulses of Equal Amplitude and Opposite Phases Moving towards Each Other
• Amplitude of the Resultant Wave Produced due to Superposition of Two Waves
• Stationary Waves
• Formation of Stationary Waves
• Equation of Stationary Wave on a Stretched String
1. Condition for node
2. Condition for antinode
• Properties of Stationary Waves
• Comparison of Progressive Waves and Stationary Waves
• Free and Forced Vibrations
• Harmonics and Overtones
• End Correction
• Vibrations of air column in a pipe closed at one end
• Vibrations of air column in a pipe open at both ends
• Practical Determination of End Connection
• Vibrations Produced in a String
• Laws of a Vibrating String
1. Law of length
2. Law of tension
3. Law of linear density
• Sonometer
1. Verification of first law of a vibrating string
2. Verification of second law of a vibrating string
3. Verification of third law of a vibrating string
• Beats
• Analytical method to determine beat frequency
• Applications of beats
• Characteristics of Sound
1. Loudness
2. Pitch
3. Quality or timbre
• Musical Instruments
1. Stringed instruments
2. Wind instruments
3. Percussion instruments
• The Speed of a Travelling Wave
• Speed of a Transverse Wave on Stretched String
• Speed of a Longitudinal Wave Speed of Sound
• Speed of Wave Motion
• Terms involved in wave motion
• Velocity of transverse wave on string
• Velocity of longitudinal wave (Sound wave)
• Factors affecting velocity of sound in gaseous medium
1) Effect of pressure at constant temperature
2) Effect of temperature
3) Effect of density
4) Effect of humidity
• Study of Vibrations of Air Columns
7 Wave Motion
• Simple harmonic progressive waves
• Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves
• Change of phase
• Superposition of waves
• Formation of beats
• Doppler effect in sound
7 Wave Optics
• Introduction of Wave Optics
• Wave Optics
• Newton's Corpuscular Theory of light
• Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theory
• Huygens' Wave Theory of light
• Merits of Huygens' Wave Theory
• Limitations of Huygens' wave theory
• Properties of Luminiferous Ether
• Nature of Light
• Corpuscular Nature
• Wave Nature
• Dual Nature of Light
1. Ray optics or geometrical optics
2. Wave optics or physical optics
3. Particle nature of light
• Light as a Wave
• Huygens’ Theory
• Primary and Secondary Sources of Light
• Wavefront
• Huygens’ Principle
• Reflection of Light at a Plane Surface
• Refraction of Light at a Plane Boundary Between Two Media
• Dependence of Wavelength on the Refractive Index of the Medium
• Polarization
• Polarization by Reflection: Brewster’s Law
• Polarization by Scattering
• Interference
• Diffraction of Light
• Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction
• Experimental set up for Fraunhofer diffraction
• Fraunhofer Diffraction at a Single Slit
• Comparison of Young’s Double Slit Interference Pattern and Single Slit Diffraction Pattern
• Double slit diffraction pattern
• Resolving Power
• Rayleigh’s Criterion for Limit of Resolution (or for Resolving Power)
• Resolving Power of a Microscope
• Resolving Power of a Telescope
8 Stationary Waves
• Study of vibrations in a finite medium
• Formation of stationary waves on string
• Study of vibrations of air columns
• Free and Forced vibrations
• Resonance
8 Electrostatics
9 Current Electricity
• Current Electricity
• Kirchhoff’s Laws of Electrical Network
• Kirchhoff’s First Law: (Current law/Junction law)
• Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
• Wheatstone Bridge
• Wheatstone bridge
• Balanced bridge
• Unbalanced bridge
• Potentiometer
• Potentiometer Principle
• Applications to measure potential difference
1. To Compare emf. of Cells
2. To Find Internal Resistance (r) of a Cell
3. Application of potentiometer
1. Voltage Divider
2. Audio Control
3. Potentiometer as a senor
• Advantages of a Potentiometer Over a Voltmeter
1. Merits
2. Demerits
• Galvanometer
• Galvanometer as an Ammeter
• Galvanometer as a Voltmeter
9 Kinetic Theory of Gases and Radiation
10 Magnetic Fields Due to Electric Current
10 Wave Theory of Light
11 Magnetic Materials
11 Interference and Diffraction
12 Electromagnetic Induction
12 Electrostatics
13 AC Circuits
13 Current Electricity
• Kirchhoff’s Rules
• Kirchhoff's law
• Kirchhoff's first law or Kirchhoff's current law (KCL)
• Kirchhofrs second law or Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL)
• Applications of Kirchhoff's law
• Wheatstone’s bridge
• Meter bridge
• Potentiometer
• Comparison of emf of two cells with a potentiometer
• Measurement of internal resistance of a cell by potentiometer
• Wheatstone Bridge
• Wheatstone bridge
• Balanced bridge
• Unbalanced bridge
• Meter Bridge
• Metre Bridge
• Metre bridge or slide-wire bridge
• Applications of metre bridge
• Measurement of unknown resistance (S)
• Comparison of two unknown resistances
• Measurement of unknown temperature
• Measurement of unknown resistance of a galvanometer (Kelvin's method)
• Potentiometer
• Potentiometer Principle
• Applications to measure potential difference
1. To Compare emf. of Cells
2. To Find Internal Resistance (r) of a Cell
3. Application of potentiometer
1. Voltage Divider
2. Audio Control
3. Potentiometer as a senor
• Advantages of a Potentiometer Over a Voltmeter
1. Merits
2. Demerits
14 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
14 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
• Ampere’s Circuital Law
• Ampere's Law and Its Applications to Infinitely Long Straight Wire
• Magnetic field due to the current carrying wire of infinite length using Ampère’s law
• Magnetic field due to a long current carrying solenoid
• Toroid
• Moving Coil Galvanometer
• Moving Coil Galvanometer
• Moving Coil Galvanometer Conversion to Voltmeter and Ammeter
• Moving Coil Galvanometer Current Sensitivity
• Types of Moving Coil Galvanometer
1. Suspended type MCG: Principle, Construction
2. Pivoted type MCG
• Sensitivity of MCG
• Current sensitivity (Si)
• Voltage Sensitivity (Sv)
• Factors affecting the sensitivity of MCG
• Accuracy of MCG
• Conversion of MCG into ammeter
• Conversion of MCG into voltmeter
• Motion in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields
• Cyclotron
• Cyclotron
• Principle
• Construction
• Working
• Limitations
• Uses
15 Structure of Atoms and Nuclei
15 Magnetism
16 Semiconductor Devices
16 Electromagnetic Inductions
17 Electrons and Photons
18 Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei
19 Semiconductors
• Energy Bands in Solids
• Energy bands in Solids
• Energy bands in solids are of three types
1. Valence band
2. Conduction band
3. Forbidden energy gap or Energy band gap
• Extrinsic Semiconductor
• Doping
• Types of doping
1) Pentavalent dopants
2) Trivalent dopants
• Extrinsic semiconductors
• Types of Extrinsic semiconductors
1) n-type semiconductor
2) p-type semiconductor
• The conductivity of semiconductors (σ)
• Charge neutrality of extrinsic semiconductors
• Electrical Properties
• Special Purpose P-n Junction Diodes
• Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes: Led, Photodiode, Solar Cell and Zener Diode
• characteristics of Led, Photodiode, Solar Cell and Zener Diode
• Zener diode
• Optoelectronic junction devices - Photodiode, Light emitting diode, Solar cell
• Semiconductor Diode
• Semiconductor Diode
• Potential barrier at the junction diode
• Biasing of the p-n junction diode
1) Forward biasing
2) Reverse biasing
• V-I Characteristics of a p-n junction diode
1) p-n junction diode under forward bias: Cut-off or knee voltage
2) p-n junction diode under reverse bias: Breakdown voltage
3) Reverse Breakdown: Zener breakdown, Avalanche breakdown
• Dynamic Resistance
• Zener Diode as a Voltage Regulator
• Zener diode
• I-V characteristics of Zener diode
• Zener diode as voltage regulator
• Line regulation in Zener diode
• Load regulation in Zener diode
• Ratings of a Zener diode
• I-V Characteristics of Led
• Transistor and Characteristics of a Transistor
• Configurations of a transistor
i) Common-base configuration (CB)
ii) Common-emitter configuration (CE)
iii) Common-collector configuration (CC)
• Types of characteristic curves
i) Input characteristics curve
ii) Output characteristics curve
iii) Transfer characteristics curve
• Transistor characteristics in CE configuration
a) Input Characteristics
b) Output characteristics of a transistor: Active region, Cut-off region, Saturation region
• Different modes of operation of a transistor
• Current-transfer Characteristics
• Transistor as a switch
• Junction Transistor
• Transistor as a Switch
• Oscillators
• Digital Electronics and Logic Gates
• Logic Gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR)
• Logic gates - NOT gate, OR Gate, AND Gate, NAND Gate, NOR Gate
• Basic Idea of Analog and Digital Signals
20 Communication Systems

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