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Organisation of Commerce and Management 12th Board Exam HSC Commerce (Marketing and Salesmanship) Maharashtra State Board Topics and Syllabus

Academic year:

Syllabus

1 Principles of Management
  • Concept of Principles of Management 
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Definition
    • Features
  • Nature of Principles of Management 
    • Universal application
    • General guidelines
    • Principles are formed by practice and experiments
    • Flexibility
    • Behavioral in nature
    • Cause and effect relationship
    • All principles are of equal importance
  • Significance of Management Principles 
    • Provides useful insight to managers
    • Helpful inefficient utilization of resources
    • Scientific decisions
    • Understanding social responsibility
    • Encourages Research and Development (R and D)
    • Helps to coordinate and control
    • Develops objective approach
  • Theories of Management 
  • Henry Fayol's Administrative Theory of Management 
    • Principle of Division of Work
    • Principle of Authority and Responsibility
    • Principle of Discipline
    • Principle of Unity of Command
    • Principle of Unity of Direction
    • Principle of Subordination of Individual Interest to Organisational Interest
    • Principle of Centralization
    • Principle of Remuneration
    • Principle of Scalar Chain
    • Principle of Order
    • Principle of Equity
    • Principle of Stability of Tenure
    • Principle of Initiative
    • Principle of Esprit de corpse: (Teamwork)
  • Fredrick Winslow Taylor's Scientific Management Theory 
    • Principles of Scientific Management 
      • Science, Not Rule of Thumb
      • Harmony, Not Discord
      • Mental Revolution
      • Cooperation, Not Individualism
      • Division of Responsibility
      • Development of employer and employees for greater efficiency and maximum prosperity
    • Techniques of Scientific Management 
      • Work Study
      • Standardization of Tools and Equipment
      • Scientific Task Setting
      • Scientific Selection and Training
      • Functional Organization
      • Differential Piece-Rate Wage Plan
1 Forms of Business Organizations
  • Sole proprietorship, Joint Hindu Family Business – meaning, features, merits and demerits.
  • Partnership – meaning, types, registration, merits, limitations, types of partners.
  • Co – Operative societies – types, merits and limitations.
  • Company – Private Ltd, Public Ltd – merits, limitations.
  • Starting a business – Basic factors.
  • Choice of forms of business organizations.
2 Functions of Management
  • Functions of Management 
    • Planning 
      • Meaning
      • Definition
      • Koontz and O'Donnell
      • James Stoner
      • Importance of Planning
      • Helps to set clear objectives
      • Provides path of action
      • Planning improves performance
      • Minimizes the risk
      • Planning leads to optimum utilization of resources
      • Helps in decision making
      • Useful in setting the standards for controlling
      • Facilitates Coordination of all activities
      • Facilitates other management functions
      • Promotes innovative ideas
    • Staffing 
      • Meaning
      • Definitions
      • Theo Haimann
      • Luther Gullick
      • S. Benjamin
      • Importance of Staffing
      • Effective Managerial Function
      • Leads to Effective Utilization of Human Resources
      • Builds Cordial Relationship
      • Helps Human Resource Development
      • Helps in Effective use of Technology and Other Resources
      • Improves Efficiency
      • Long Term Effect
      • Essential Contribution
      • Provides Job Satisfaction
      • Maintains Harmony
    • Directing 
      • Meaning
      • Definitions
      • Theo Haimann
      • Earnest Dale
      • Urwick and Brech
      • Importance of Directing
      • Initiates Action
      • Integrates Efforts
      • Means of Motivation
      • Provides Stability
      • Coping up with the Changes
      • Effective Utilization of Resources
      • Creates Team Spirit
      • Explores Capabilities of Individuals
      • Increases Efficiency Level
      • Co-operation
    • Co-ordinating 
      • Meaning
      • Definitions
      • McFarland
      • Henry Fayol
      • Mooney and Reeley
      • Importance of Co-ordinating
      • Encourages Team Spirit
      • Gives Proper Direction
      • Facilitates Motivation
      • Optimum Utilization of Resources
      • Achieve Organizational Objectives
      • Improves Relation
      • Leads to Higher Efficiency
      • Improves Goodwill
      • Unity of Direction
      • Specialization
  • Concept of Functions 
    • Controlling 
      • Meaning
      • Process of controlling
      • Definitions
      • Koontz and O'Donnell
      • Dale Henning
      • Philip Kotler
      • Importance of Controlling
      • Fulfilling Goals of Organization
      • Making Efficient Utilization of Resources
      • Accuracy of Standards
      • Motivates Employee
      • Ensures Order and Discipline
      • Facilitates Co-ordination
      • Psychological Pressure
      • Ensures Organizational Efficiency and Effectiveness
      • Builds Good Corporate Image
      • Acts as a Guide
2 Business Services
  • Nature and types of Business services – Banking, Insurance, Transportation, Warehousing, communication.
  • Banking – types of banks, functions of commercial banks, E – banking.
  • Insurance – principles & types of life, fire, marine insurances.
  • Postal and Telecom services.
  • Warehousing – types and functions.
  • Transport – meaning, role, means.
3 Entrepreneurship Development
3 Emerging Modes of Business
  • E – business – Meaning, Scope and benefits. Resource required for successful E –Business implementation.On – line transactions, payment mechanism.
  • Security and safety of business transactions.
  • Outsourcing – Concept, need and scope.
4 Social Responsibilities of Business and Business Ethics.
  • Concept of social responsibility.
  • Cases for social responsibility.
  • Responsibility towards different interest groups, owners, investors, employees, consumers, government, community, public in general.
  • Business ethics – concept and elements.
  • Business and environmental protection.
4 Business Services
  • Services 
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Definition
    • Philip Kotler
    • American Marketing Association
    • Features of services
    • Intangibility
    • Inseparability
    • Inconsistency
    • Perishability
    • Non-transferability
    • Consumer participation
  • Business Services 
    • Banking 
      • Meaning
      • Types of Banks
      1. Central Bank
      2. Commercial Bank
      3. Co-operative Bank
      4. Industrial Development Banks
      5. Exchange Banks
      6. Regional Rural Bank
      7. Savings Bank
      8. Investment Bank
      9. Specialised Banks
    • Insurance 
      • Meaning

      Principles of insurance

      • Principle of Utmost good faith
      • Principle of Insurable interest
      • Principle of Indemnity
      • Principle of Subrogation
      • Principle of Contribution
      • Principle of Mitigation of loss
      • Principle of Causa-Proxima

      Types of insurance

      • Life Insurance
      • Marine Insurance
      • Fire Insurance
    • Transport 
      • Meaning
      • Modes of Transport
      • Road Transport
      • Rail Transport
      • Air Transport
    • Communication 
      • Meaning
      • Types of Communication
      • Postal Services
      1. Mail Services
      2. Specialised Postal Services
      3. Money Remittance Services
      4. Retail Services
      • Modem means of communication
      1. Courier Service
      2. Internet
      3. e-mail
    • Warehousing 
      • Meaning
      • Types of Communication
      • Postal Services
      1. Mail Services
      2. Specialised Postal Services
      3. Money Remittance Services
      4. Retail Services
      • Modem means of communication
      1. Courier Service
      2. Internet
      3. e-mail
  • Functions of Commercial Banks 
    • Primary Functions
    1. Accepting Deposits
    2. Granting loans and advances
    • Secondary Functions
    1. Agency Functions
    2. Utility Functions
  • E-banking Service 
    1. Automated Teller Machine
    2. Credit Cards
    3. Debit Cards
    4. RTGS
    5. NEFT
    6. Net Banking and Mobile Banking
    7. IMPS Facility
5 Emerging Modes of Business
  • Concept of E-business 
    • Meaning of E-Business
    • Nature of E-Business
  • Scope of E-business 
    • Various Types of E-business Transactions are-
    1. Business to Business (B2B)
    2. Business to Consumer (B2C)
    3. Consumer to Business (C2B)
    4. Consumer to Consumer (C2C)
    5. Business to Administration (B2A)
    6. Consumer to Administration (C2A)
  • Benefits of E-business 
    1. Ease of formation
    2. Lower Investment requirements
    3. Convenience
    4. Speed
    5. Global access
    6. Movement towards a paperless society
    7. Government support
    8. Easy payment
  • Limitations of E-business 
    1. Lack of personal Touch
    2. Delivery Time
    3. Security issues
    4. Government interference
    5. High Risk
  • Online Transaction 
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Procedure of Online Transaction
    • Buying Selling Process
  • Outsourcing 
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Need for Outsourcing
    • Advantages of Outsourcing
    • Overall cost advantages
    • Stimulates entrepreneurship, employment and exports
    • Low manpower Cost
    • Access to professional, expert, and high-Quality services
    • Emphasis on core process rather than the supporting ones
    • Investment requirements are reduced
    • Increased efficiency and productivity
    • Knowledge sharing
    • Disadvantages of Outsourcing / Limitations of Outsourcing
    • Lack of customer focus
    • A threat to security and confidentiality
    • Dissatisfactory services
    • Ethical issues
    • Other disadvantages
  • Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) 
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Definition
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of BPO
  • Knowledge Process Outsourcing (Kpo) 
    • Meaning and Features of Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO)
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Definition
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of KPO
    •  
  • Legal Process Outsourcing (LPO) 
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of LPO
5 Consumer Protection
  • Importance of consumer protection.
  • Rights of consumers.
  • Consumer responsibilities.
  • Ways and means of consumer protection.
  • Consumer awareness and legal redressal with special reference to Consumer Protection Act.
  • Role of Consumer Organization and NGOS.
6 Principles of Management
  • Principles of Management – meaning, nature and significance.
  • Fayol’s Principles of Management.
  • Taylor’s scientific management – Principles and Techniques.
6 Social Responsibilities of Business
  • Concept of Social Responsibility 
    • Introduction
    • Definition
    • Concept of Social Responsibility
    • Need for Social responsibility
    • Concept of Trusteeship
    • Changing expectations of society
    • Reputation
    • Protection of Environment
    • Optimum Utilisation of Resources
    • Pressure of trade Union
    • Growth of Consumer Movement
    • Government Control
    • Long term self-interest
    • Complexities of Social Problems
    • Globalisation
    • Role of Media
  • Responsibilities Towards Different Interest Groups 
    • Responsibilities Towards Owners 
      • Responsibilities Towards Owners
      • Reasonable Profit
      • Exploring Business Opportunities
      • Optimum Use of Capital
      • Minimise Wastages
      • Efficient Business
      • Expansion and Diversification
      • Periodic information
      • Effective Use of owners' Funds
      • Creating Goodwill
    • Responsibilities Towards Investors 
      • Proper Conduct of Meetings
      • Return on Investment
      • Handling Grievances
      • Maintain Transparency
      • Proper Disclosure of Information
      • Maintain Solvency and Prestige
    • Responsibilities Towards Employees 
      • Job security
      • Fair Remuneration
      • Health and Safety Measures
      • Good Working Condition
      • Recognition of Trade Unions
      • Education and Training
      • Workers Participation in Management
      • Promotion and Career Opportunities
      • Proper Grievance Procedure
      • Miscellaneous
    • Responsibilities Towards Consumers 
      • Good Quality Products
      • Fair Prices
      • Customer's Safety
      • Honest Advertising
      • After Sales Service
      • Research and Development
      • Regular Supply
      • Attend Complaints
      • Training
      • Avoid Customer Exploitation
    • Responsibilities Towards Government 
      • Timely Payment of Taxes
      • Observing rules and regulations
      • Earning Foreign Exchange
      • Economic Development
      • Implementing Socio-Economic Policies
      • Suggestions to the Government
      • No favours
      • Contributing to Government Treasury
  • Social Responsibility Towards Protection of Environment 
    • Effect of Business on Environment
      1) Air Pollution
      2) Water Pollution
      3) Sound Pollution
      4) Electronic Garbage
  • Concept of Business Ethics 
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Definition
    • Features of Business Ethics
    • Code of conduct
    • Based on moral and social values
    • Gives protection to social groups
    • Provides basic framework
    • Voluntary
    • Requires education and guidance
    • Relative term
    • New concept
    • Moral and social values
  • Corporate Social Responsibility 
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Definition
    • Scope of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
    • Applicability of CSR
    • CSR Committee
    • CSR Activities
    • Allocation of Funds
    • Non-compliance of CSR activities
7 Consumer Protection
7 Functions of Management
  • Management Functions 
    • Planning - Concept and Importance of Planning
    • Controlling - Concept and Importance of Controlling
    • Coordination - Concept and Importance of Coordination
    • Directing - Concept and Importance of Directing
    • Organizing - Concept and Importance of Organizing
    • Staffing - Concept and Importance of Staffing
  • Planning – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
  • Organizing – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
  • Staffing – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
  • Directing – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
  • Controlling – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
  • Co – ordinating – Meaning, Nature, Importance.
8 Marketing
  • Concept of Marketing 
    • Introduction
    • Meaning
    • Definition
    • Features of Marketing
  • Market 
    • Place concept of Market
    • Commodity Concept of Market
    • Exchange concept of Market
    • Area concept of Market
    • Demand or Customer concept of Market
    • Space or Digital concept of Market
  • Types of Market 
    • On the Basis of Area Covered
    • On the Basis of Time
    • On the Basis of Volume of Transaction
    • On the Basis of Importance
    • On the Basis of Nature of Goods
    • On the Basis of Regulation
    • On the Basis of Competition
    • Imperfect markets: a) Monopoly b) Duopoly c) Oligopoly d) Monopoly
  • Importance of Marketing 
    • Importance of Marketing to the Society
    • Importance of Marketing to the Firm
    • Importance of Marketing to the Consumers
  • Functions of Marketing 
    1. Marketing Research
    2. Buying and Assembling
    3. Market Planning
    4. Product Development
    5. Standardisation and Grading
    6. Packaging and Labelling
    7. Branding
    8. Customer Support Service
    9. Pricing of Product
    10. Promotional Channels
    11. Distribution
    12. Transportation
    13. Warehousing
  • Concept of Marketing Mix 
    • Product
    • Price
    • Place
    • Promotion
    • People
    • Process
    • Physical Environment
8 Entrepreneurship Development
  • Concept, Functions and Need.
  • Entrepreneurship: Characteristics and Competencies.
  • Process of entrepreneurship development.
  • Entrepreneurship Values: Attitudes and Motivation- Meaning and concept.
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