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Chemistry 12th Board Exam HSC Science (Computer Science) Maharashtra State Board Topics and Syllabus

Academic year:


1 Solid State
  • Classification of solids based on different forces;
  • molecular ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
1 Solid State
2 Solutions
2 Solutions and Colligative Properties
  • Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties –relative lowering 161 of vapor pressure,Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
  • Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it
3 Chemical Thermodynamics and Energetic
  • Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings.
  • Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
  • First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, Hess’ law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transition, ionization and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes, and equilibrium constant.
  • Second and third law of thermodynamics
3 Ionic Equilibria
4 Chemical Thermodynamics
  • Chemical Thermodynamics 
  • Terms Used in Thermodynamics 
    • System and surrounding
    • Types of system
    • Properties of system
    • State functions
    • Path Functions
    • Thermodynamic equilibrium
    • Process and its types
  • Nature of Heat and Work 
    • Nature of work (W)
    • Nature of heat (Q)
    • Sign conventions of W and Q
  • Expression for Pressure-volume (PV) Work 
    • Free expansion
    • Units of energy and work
  • Concept of Maximum Work 
    • Expression for the maximum work
  • Internal Energy (U) 
  • First Law of Thermodynamics 
    • Formulation of first law of thermodynamics
    • First law of thermodynamics for various processes
  • Enthalpy (H) 
    • Relationship between ΔH and ΔU for chemical reactions
    • Work done in chemical reaction
  • Enthalpies of Physical Transformations 
    • Enthalpy of phase transition
    • Enthalpy for the atomic / molecular change
  • Thermochemistry 
    • Enthalpy of chemical reaction (ΔrH)
    • Exothermic and endothermic reactions
    • Standard enthalpy of reaction(ΔrH0)
    • Thermochemical equation
    • Standard enthalpy of formation (ΔfH0)
    • Standard enthalpy of reaction from standard enthalpies of formation
    • Standard enthalpy of combustion (ΔcH0)
    • Bond enthalpy
    • Hess’s law of constant heat summation
  • Spontaneous (Irreversible) Process 
    • Energy and spontaneity
    • Entropy
    • Entropy and spontaneity (Second law of Thermodynamics)
    • Second law of thermodynamics
    • Gibbs energy
    • Gibbs energy and spontaneity
    • Sponaneity and ΔH or ΔS
    • Temperature of equilibrium
    • Gibbs function and equilibrium constant
4 Electrochemistry
  • Redox reactions
  • conductance in electrolytic solutions
  • specific and molar conductivity
  • variations of conductivity with concentration
  • Kohlrausch’s Law
  • electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea)
  • dry cell –electrolytic and galvanic cells;
  • lead accumulator
  • EMF of a cell
  • standard electrode potential
  • Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells
  • fuel cells
  • corrosion.
  • Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell.
5 Chemical Kinetics
  • Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous)
  • factors affecting rate of reaction concentration, temperature, catalyst;
  • order and molecularity of a reaction;
  • rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions);
  • concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).
  • Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
5 Electrochemistry
6 Chemical Kinetics
6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining;
  • occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron
7 P-block Elements
7 Elements of Groups 16, 17 and 18
8 Transition and Inner Transition Elements
8 D and F Block Elements
9 Coordination Compounds
9 Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds –

  • Introduction
  • ligands
  • coordination number
  • colour
  • magnetic properties and shapes
  • IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds
  • bonding
  • Werner’s theory
  • VBT
  • CFT
  • isomerism
  • (structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems)
10 Halogen Derivatives
10 Halogen Derivatives of Alkanes (And Arenes)
11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Alcohols
11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
13 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
13 Amines
14 Biomolecules
14 Biomolecules
15 Introduction to Polymer Chemistry
15 Polymers

Classification -

  • natural and synthetic,
  • methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
  • copolymerization
  • Some important polymers
  • natural and synthetic like polythene
  • nylon
  • polyesters
  • bakelite
  • rubber
  • Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers.
16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chemicals in medicines : analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines elementary idea of antioxidants 2. Chemicals in food : Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents. 3. Cleansing agents : Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

16 Green Chemistry and Nanochemistry
701 Group 15 Elements
  • General introduction
  • electronic configuration
  • occurrence
  • oxidation states
  • trends in physical and chemical properties
  • nitrogen – preparation
  • properties and uses
  • compounds of nitrogen
  • preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid
  • oxides of nitrogen (structure only)
  • Phoshorous-allotropic forms
  • compounds of phosphorous
  • preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3 ,PCl5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).


702 Group 16 Elements
  • General introduction
  • electronic configuration
  • oxidation states
  • occurrence
  • trends in physical and chemical properties
  • dioxygen
  • preparation
  • properties and uses
  • Classification of oxides
  • simple oxides
  • Ozone
  • Sulphur – allotropic forms
  • compounds of sulphur
  • preparation
  • properties and uses of sulphur dioxide
  • sulphurc acid
  • industrial process of manufacture
  • properties and 162 uses
  • oxoacids of sulphur (structures only)
703 Group 17 Elements
  • General introduction
  • electronic configuration
  • oxidation states
  • occurrence
  • trends in physical and chemical properties
  • compounds of halogens
  • preparatio
  • properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid
  • interhalogen compounds
  • oxoacids of halogens (structure only)
704 Group 18 Elements
  • General introduction
  • electronic configuration
  • Occurrence
  • trends in physical and chemical properties
  • uses.
801 D-block Elements
  • General introduction
  • electronic configuration
  • occurrence and characteristics of transition metals
  • general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4 .
802 F-block Elements
  • F-block Elements 
    • The Lanthanoids 

      Electronic Configurations, Atomic and Ionic Sizes, Oxidation States, General Characteristics, Chemical Reactivity and Lanthanoid Contraction and Its Consequences

    • The Actinoids 

      Electronic Configurations, Ionic Sizes, Oxidation States, General Characteristics and Comparison with Lanthanoids

  Lanthanoids –

  • Electronic configuration
  • oxidation states
  • chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids –

  • Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
  • Comparison with lanthanoids
1001 Haloalkanes
  • Nomenclature
  • nature of C-X bond
  • physical and chemical properties
  • mechanism of substitution reactions
  • Stability of carbocations
  • R-S and d-l configuration
1002 Haloarenes


  • Nature of C-X bond,
  • substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations, R-S and d-l configurations.
  • Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane
  • thrichloromethane
  • tetrachloromethane
  • iodoform
  • freons
  • DDT
1101 Alcohols
  • Nomenclature
  • methods of preparation
  • physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only)
  • identification of primary
  • secondary and tertiary alcohols
  • mechanism of dehydration
  • uses of methanol and ethanol.
1102 Phenols
  • Nomenclature
  • methods of preparation
  • physical and chemical properties
  • acidic nature of phenol
  • electrophillic substitution reactions
  • uses of phenols.
1103 Ethers
  • Nomenclature
  • methods of preparation
  • physical and chemical properties
  • uses.
1201 Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Nomenclature
  • nature of carbonyl group
  • methods of preparation
  • Physical and chemical properties
  • mechanism of nucleophilic addition
  • reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes
  • uses
1202 Carboxylic Acids
  • Nomenclature
  • acidic nature
  • methods of preparation
  • physical and chemical properties
  • uses
1301 Amines
  • Nomenclature
  • classification
  • structure
  • methods of preparation
  • physical and chemical properties
  • uses
  • identification of primary
  • secondary and tertiary amines.
1302 Cyanides and Isocyanides
  • Will be mentioned at relevant places in context
1303 Diazonium Salts
  • Preparation
  • chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry
1401 Carbohydrates
  • Classification (aldoses and ketoses)
  • monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose)
  • oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
  • polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen)
  • importance
1402 Proteins
  • Elementary idea of α -amino acids
  • peptide
  • linkage
  • polypeptides
  • proteins
  • structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins
  • enzymes
  • Lipids and hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure, their classification and functions
1404 Nucleic Acids


1601 Chemicals in Medicines
  • analgesics
  • tranquilizers
  • antiseptics
  • disinfectants
  • antimicrobials
  • antifertility drugs
  • antibiotics
  • antacids
  • antihistamines elementary idea of antioxidants
1602 Chemicals in Food
1603 Cleansing Agents
  • Soaps and detergents
  • cleansing action
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