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Biology 12th Board Exam HSC Science (General) Maharashtra State Board Topics and Syllabus

Academic year:


1 Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants
2 Reproduction in Lower and Higher Animals
3 Inheritance and Variation
4 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • The Discovery of DNA 
  • The Genetic Material is a DNA 
    • Griffith’s experiments
    • Avery, McCarty and MacLeod’s experiment
    • Hershey - Chase Experiment
  • DNA Packaging 
    • Packaging in Prokaryotes
    • Packaging in Eukaryotes
  • DNA Replication 
    1. Heterocatalytic function
    2. Autocatalytic function
  • Protein Synthesis 
    • A. Transcription
    • Transcription Unit
    • Transcription unit and the gene
    • Processing of hnRNA
    • Genetic Code
    • Characteristics of Genetic code
    • Mutations and Genetic Code
    • t-RNA- the adapter molecule
    • B. Translation - protein synthesis
    • Mechanism of translation (i.e. synthesis of polypeptide chain)
  • Regulation of Gene Expression 
  • Operon Concept 
    • Lac operon
    • Role of lactose
  • Genomics 
    • Application of genomics
  • Human Genome Project 
    • Salient Features of Human Genome
    • Applications and Future Challenges
  • DNA Fingerprinting 
    1. Isolation of DNA
    2. Restriction digestion
    3. Gel electrophoresis
    4. Southern blotting
    5. Selection of DNA probe
    6. Hybridization
    7. Photography
    • Application of DNA fingerprinting
5 Origin and Evolution of Life
6 Plant Water Relation
7 Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition
8 Respiration and Circulation
9 Control and Co-ordination
10 Human Health and Diseases
11 Enhancement of Food Production
12 Biotechnology
  • Biotechnology 
    • Traditional biotechnology
    • modern biotechnology
  • Principles and Processes of Biotechnology 
    • Technique of gene cloning and rDNA technology
    • Tools and techniques for gene cloning/rDNA technology
  • Methodology for rDNA Technology 
    1. Isolation of DNA (gene) from the donor organism
    2. Insertion of desired foreign gene into a cloning vector (vehicle DNA)
    3. Transfer of rDNA into suitable competent host or cloning organism
    4. Selection of the transformed host cell
    5. Multiplication of transformed host cell
    6. Expression of the gene to obtain the desired product
  • Applications of Biotechnology 
    1. Healthcare Biotechnology
    2. Agriculture
    3. Gene therapy
    4. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
  • Bioethics 
    • Effects of Biotechnology on the Environment
    • Effects of Biotechnology on Human Health
  • Biopatent and Biopiracy 
13 Organisms and Populations
14 Ecosystems and Energy Flow
  • Ecosystem 
    • Structure and Function
    1. Productivity
    2. Decomposition
  • Energy Flow 
    • Energy Flow and Food Chains
    • Various types of food chains
    • photosynthetically active radiation, producers, consumers, herbivores,primary carnivores,secondary carnivores
  • Ecological Pyramids 

    Pyramids of Number, Biomass, Energy

  • Nutrient Cycling 
    • Nutrient Cycling - Gaseous and Sedimentary Cycle, Carbon and Phosphorus Cycle
    • Ecosystem – Carbon Cycle
    • Ecosystem – Phosphorus Cycle
  • Ecological Succession 
    • Introduction of Ecological Succession
    • Succession of Plants
  • Ecosystem Services 
    • Ecological Services - Carbon Fixation, Pollination, Seed Dispersal and Oxygen Release
15 Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues
701 Origin and the Evolution of Life
  • Origin of Life:- Early Earth, Spontaneous, assembly of organic compounds
  • Evolution:- Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution, Biological Evidences, Mechanism of evolution; Gene flow and genetic drift;Hardy Weinberg principle; Adaptive radiation.
  • Origin and Evolution of Human being.
702 Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
  • The Chromosomal Theory.
  • Chromosomes.
  • Linkage and Crossing Over.
  • Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness).
  • Sex Determination in Human being, birds, honey bee.
  • Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia.
  • Chromosomal disorders in human:- Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome.
801 Genetic Engineering and Genomics
  • Human Genome Project 
    • Salient Features of Human Genome
    • Applications and Future Challenges
  • DNA Fingerprinting 
    1. Isolation of DNA
    2. Restriction digestion
    3. Gel electrophoresis
    4. Southern blotting
    5. Selection of DNA probe
    6. Hybridization
    7. Photography
    • Application of DNA fingerprinting
  • Transgenic Animals 
    • Normal physiology and development, Study of disease, Biological products, Vaccine safety, Chemical safety testing
  • Biotechnological Applications in Medicine 
    • Insulin, gene therapy - with reference to treatment of SCID, molecular diagnosis by PCR, ELISA and use of DNA/RNA probe.
    • Genetically Engineered Insulin
    • Gene Therapy
    • Molecular Diagnosis
  • DNA Finger Printing.
  • Genomics and Human Genome Project.
  • Biotechnological Applications in Health:- Human insulin and vaccine production, Gene Therapy.
  • Transgenic animals.
901 Human Health and Diseases
  • Concepts of Immunology:- Immunity Types, Vaccines, Structure of Antibody, Antigen-Antibody Complex, Antigens on blood cells.
  • Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis, Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold and ringworm).
  • Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Cancer and AIDS.
902 Animal Husbandry
  • Animal Husbandry 
    • Dairy Farm management
    • Poultry Farm management
    • Animal Breeding
    • Apiculture
    • Fisheries
    • Sericulture
    • Lac culture
  • Management of Farms and Farm Animals.
  • Dairy.
  • Poultry.
  • Animal Breeding.
  • Bee-Keeping.
  • Fisheries.
  • Sericulture
  • Lac culture
1001 Circulation
  • Blood composition and coagulation, Blood groups.
  • Structure and pumping action of Heart.
  • Blood Vessels.
  • Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation.
  • Heart beat and Pulse.
  • Rhythmicity of Heart beat.
  • Cardiac output, Regulation of cardiac activity.
  • Blood related disorders:- Hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, and heart failure.
  • ECG, Lymphatic System (Brief idea):- Composition of lymph and its functions.
1002 Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism.
  • Excretory System.
  • Composition and formation of urine.
  • Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation.
  • Regulation of kidney function:- reninangiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and Diabetes inspidus, role of other organs in excretion.
  • Disorders; Kidney failure, Dialysis, Kidney stone (renal calculi).
  • Transplantation.
  • Uraemia, nephritis.
1003 Control and Co-ordination
  • Nervous System Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord, brief idea about PNS and ANS.
  • Transmission of nerve impulse.
  • Reflex action.
  • Sensory receptors (eye and ear), Sensory perception, general idea of other sense organs.
  • Endocrine System Endocrine glands Hormones and their functions Mechanism of hormone action.
  • Hormones as messengers and regulators.
  • Hormonal imbalance and diseases:- Common disorders (Dwarfism, Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, Diabetes mellitus, Addison’s disease)
1101 Human Reproduction
  • Reproductive system in male and female.
  • Histology of testis and ovary.
  • Reproductive cycle.
  • Production of gametes, fertilization, implantation.
  • Embryo development up to three germinal layers.
  • Pregnancy, placenta, parturition and lactation (Elementary idea).
  • Reproductive health-birth control, Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.
  • MTP, Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
1201 Organisms and Environment 2
  • Population and ecological adaptations:- population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, population attributes- growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation-Biodiversity - concept, patterns, importance, loss.
  • Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation, Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction,red data book, biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.
  • Environmental issues:- air pollution and its control, water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. (Case studies any two)
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