Biology HSC Science (General) 12th Standard Board Exam Maharashtra State Board Syllabus 2024-25

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Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus - Free PDF Download

Maharashtra State Board Syllabus 2024-25 12th Standard Board Exam: The Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for the examination year 2024-25 has been released by the MSBSHSE, Maharashtra State Board. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2024-25 Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new Maharashtra State Board syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for 2024-25 is below.

Academic year:

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Revised Syllabus

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology and their Unit wise marks distribution

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Course Structure 2024-25 With Marking Scheme

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Syllabus

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 1: Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants

  • Reproduction in Plant  
  • Mode of Reproduction in Plant  
    • Mode of Reproduction in Plant:
    1. Sexual reproduction
      - Why the Sexual Mode of Reproduction?
    2. Asexual reproduction
  • Asexual Reproduction  
    • Asexual Reproduction in Plant  
      • Asexual reproduction in plant
      • Types of asexual reproduction in plant
  • Asexual Reproduction in Plant  
    • Vegetative Reproduction  
    • Natural Vegetative Reproduction  
      • Method of natural vegetative reproduction:
      1. Reproduction by Stem
      2. Reproduction by Leaf
      3. Reproduction by Root
      • Advantages of natural vegetative reproduction
      • Disadvantages of natural vegetative reproduction
    • Artificial Vegetative Reproduction - Conventional Method  
      • Artificial vegetative reproduction
      • Types of artificial vegetative reproduction - conventional and modern methods
      • Artificial method of vegetative reproduction
      1. Cutting
      2. Layering
      3. Grafting
      4. Suckering
      5. Micropropagation
      • Advantages and disadvantages of artificial vegetative reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants  
    • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
    • Stages of Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
      (i) Pre-fertilisation events
      (ii) Double fertilisation
      (iii) Post-fertilisation events
  • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Structure and Events  
  • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Stamen (Male Reproductive Unit)  
    • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Stamen (Male Reproductive Unit)
    1. Stamen
    2. Anther development
    3. Structure of Anther
    4. T. S. of Anther
  • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Microsporangium  
    • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Microsporangium
    1. Microsporangium
    2. Structure of microspore
    3. Microsporogenesis
  • Structure of Microspore Or Pollen Grain  
    • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Pollen Grain
    1. Pollen grain
    2. Male gametophyte
    3. Development of Male Gametophyte
    4. Pollen product
    5. Pollen viability
    6. Pollen allergy
  • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Pistil (Female Reproductive Unit)  
    • Pistil (female Reproductive Unit)
    • Ovule
    • Forms of ovule
    1. Orthotropous ovule
    2. Anatropous ovule
    3. Hemi-anatropous ovule
    4. Campylotropous ovule
    5. Amphitropous ovule
    6. Circinotropous ovule
  • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Megasporangium  
    • Pre-fertilization: Megasporangium
    1. Megasporangium
    2. Megasporogenesis
  • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Formation of Embryo Sac  
    • Pre-fertilization in Plant: Formation of Embryo Sac
    1. Formation of Embryo sac
    2. Female gametophyte
    3. Development of Female Gametophyte
  • Pollination  
    • Outbreeding Devices  
    • Pollen Pistil Interaction  
  • Kinds of Pollination  
    • Self Pollination (Autogamy)  
    • Cross Pollination  
    • Cross Pollination  
  • Agents of Pollination  
  • Double Fertilization and Triple Fusion in Plant  
  • Post Fertilisation in Plant: Structures and Events  
    • Development of Endosperm  
  • Post Fertilization in Plant: Development of Embryo (Embryogeny)  
  • Formation of Seed and Fruit  
    • Formation of Seed and Fruit
    • Significance of seed and fruit formation
  • Apomixis  
    • Apomixis
    • Classification of apomixis
    1. Recurrent apomixis
      a) Vegetative reproduction
      b) Agamospermy - Adventive embryony, Diplospory, Apospory
    2. Non-recurrent apomixis
  • Parthenocarpy  
  • Polyembryony  

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 2: Reproduction in Lower and Higher Animals

  • Reproduction in Animal and Human  
  • Mode of Reproduction in Animal  
    • Mode of Reproduction in Animal:
    1. Sexual reproduction
    2. Asexual reproduction
  • Asexual Reproduction  
    • Asexual Reproduction in Animal  
  • Sexual Reproduction in Animals  
    • Why the Sexual Mode of Reproduction?
  • Human Reproductive System  
    • The Male Reproductive System  
      • The male reproductive system
      1. Testes
      2. Accessory ducts
      3. Accessory glands
      4. External genitalia
      • Histology of seminiferous tubules
    • The Female Reproductive System  
      • Female Reproductive System
      1. Ovaries
      2. Accessory ducts
      3. External genitalia
      4. Accessory glands
      5. Mammary glands
  • Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)  
    • Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)
    • Phases menstrual cycle
    1. Menstrual phase
    2. Follicular or proliferative phase
    3. Ovulatory phase
    4. Luteal or secretory phase
  • Gametogenesis  
    • Gametogenesis
    1. Spermatogenesis
    2. Structure of human spermatozoan
    3. Oogenesis
    4. Structure of ovum
  • Fertilization in Human  
    • Fertilization
    • Mechanism of fertilization
    • Effect of fertilization
    • Significance of fertilization
    • Sex determination
  • Syngamy  
    • Syngamy
    • Types of syngamy (on the basis of fusion gametes)
    1. Self-fertilization or Endogamy
    2. Cross-fertilization or Exogamy
    • Types of syngamy
    1. Isogamy
    2. Heterogamy
    3. Oogamy
    • Difference between Syngamy and Triple Fusion
  • Embryonic Development in Human  
    • Cleavage
    • Blastulation
    • Implantation
    • Gastrulation
  • Implantation in Human  
    • Implantation in Humans
    • Implantation duration and process
    • Implantation bleeding
  • Pregnancy in Humans  
    • First Trimester
    • Second Trimester
    • Third (final) Trimester
  • Placenta (Growth) in Human  
    • Placenta 
    • Functions of Placenta
  • Parturition (Birth) in Human  
    • Parturition (Birth) in Human
    1. Dilation stage
    2. Expulsion stage
    3. After birth
    • Twins - Fraternal and identical
    • More than two - The triplets, Quadruplets, etc
    • Test tube babies
    • Two unlucky conjoined twins
    • Siamese twins - A developmental abnormality
  • Lactation in Human  
  • Reproductive Health  
    • Family Welfare Programme
    • Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) Programme
      - Goals of RCH Programmes
  • Population Stabilisation and Birth Control  
    • Population stabilisation and birth control
    • Contraceptive methods
    1. Temporary method:
      a. Natural method/ Safe period / Rhythm method
      b. Coitus Interruptus or withdrawal
      c. Lactational amenorrhea (absence of menstruation)
      d. Chemical means (spermicides)
      e. Mechanical means / Barrier methods
      f. Physiological (Oral) Devices
    2. Permanent Method:
  • Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)  
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)  
  • Infertility  
    • IVF-ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. 
    • ICSI: Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection  
    • GIFT: Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer 
    • ZIFT: Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer  
    • IUT: Intra-Uterine Transfer
    • IUI: Intra-Uterine insemination

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 3: Inheritance and Variation

  • Heredity  
    • Heredity
    • Heredity change
  • Inheritance  
    • Inheritance
    • Chromosomes and Mechanism of inheritance
  • Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Genetics  
  • Genes and Genetic  
    • Genes
    • Genetic
    • Genetic Terminology
    1. Character
    2. Trait
    3. Factor
    4. Gene
    5. Alleles or Allelomorphs
    6. Dominant
    7. Recessive
    8. Phenotype
    9. Genotype
    10. Homozygous (pure)
    11. Heterozygous
    12. Pure line 
    13. Monohybrid
    14. F1 generation
    15. F2 generation
    16. Punnett square/ Checkerboard
    17. Homologous Chromosomes 
    18. Back cross
    19. Test cross
    20. Phenotypic ratio
    21. Genotypic ratio
    22. Monohybrid cross
    23. Dihybrid cross
  • Mendelian Inheritance - Mendel’s Laws of Heredity  
    1. Law of Dominance
    2. Law of segregation (Law of purity of gametes)
    3. Law of Independent Assortment
  • Back Cross and Test Cross  
  • Deviations from Mendel’s Findings  
    • Types of gene interaction:
    1. Intragenic interactions
    2. Intergenic (non-allelic) interactions
    1. Incomplete dominance
    2. Co-dominance
    3. Multiple alleles
    4. Pleiotropy
  • Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance  
  • Chromosomes - The Carriers of Heredity  
    • Chromosomes
    • Discovery of Chromosomes
    • Function of Chromosomes
    • Number of Chromosomes
    • Structure of a Chromosome
    • Chromosomes in Homologous Pair
  • Linkage and Crossing Over  
    • Linkage
    • Types of linkage: Complete linkage and Incomplete linkage
    • Linkage Groups
    • Sex-linkage: Complete sex linkage and Incomplete sex linkage
    • Crossing Over
    • Morgan’s Experiments showing linkage and crossing over
  • Autosomal Inheritance  
    • Autosomal Inheritance
    1. Widow’s peak
    2. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • Sex Linked Inheritance  
    • X-linked (sex-linked) genes
    • Y-linked (Holandric) genes
    1. Colour blindness
    2. Haemophilia (Bleeder’s disease)
  • Sex Determination  
  • Genetic Disorders  

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 4: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Its Structure  
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    • The Discovery of DNA
    • Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  • Search for Genetic Material  
    • The Genetic Material is a DNA  
      • Hershey - Chase Experiment
  • Packaging of DNA Helix  
    • Packaging in Prokaryotes
    • Packaging in Eukaryotes
  • DNA Replication  
    • Functions of DNA:
    1. Heterocatalytic function
    2. Autocatalytic function
    • Process of semi-conservative replication:
    1. Activation of Nucleotides
    2. Point of Origin or Initiation point
    3. Unwinding of DNA molecule
    4. Replicating fork
    5. Synthesis of new strands
    6. Leading and Lagging strand
    7. Formation of daughter DNA molecules
  • Protein Synthesis  
    • Protein synthesis
    • Process of protein synthesis: Transcription and Translation
    • Central Dogma
  • Regulation of Gene Expression  
  • Operon Concept  
    • Operon
    • Lactose or lac operon
    • Lac operon consists of the following components:
    1. Regulator gene (repressor gene) 
    2. Promoter gene
    3. Operator gene
    4. Structural genes
    5. Inducer
    • Role of lactose
  • Genomics  
    • Genomics
    • Classification of Genomics
    1. Structural genomics
    2. Functional genomics
    • Application of genomics
  • Human Genome Project  
    • Human Genome Project
    • Goals of HGP
    • Methodologies
    • Salient Features of Human Genome
    • Applications and Future Challenges
  • DNA Fingerprinting Technique  

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 5: Origin and Evolution of Life

  • Origin and Evolution of Universe and Earth  
  • Theories of Origin of Life  
    • Origin of life
    • Theories of origin of life
    1. Big Bang Theory
    2. Theory of Panspermia
    3. Theory of Spontaneous Generation or Abiogenesis
    4. Theory of Biogenesis
    5. Theory of Chemical Origin
    6. Urey and Miller's experiment
  • Chemical Evolution of Life (Self-assembly Theory of the Origin of Life)  
    • Chemical Evolution of Life (Self-assembly Theory of the Origin of Life)
    1. Origin of Earth and Primitive atmosphere
    2. Formation of ammonia, water, and methane
    3. Formation of simple organic molecules
    4. Formation of complex organic molecules
    5. Formation of Nucleic acids
    6. Formation of Protobionts or Procells
    7. Formation of first cell
      - Urey and Miller’s Experiment
      - RNA World Hypothesis
  • Evolution  
  • Theories of Biological Evolution  
    • Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection  
      • Darwinism or Theory of Natural Selection
      • Objections to Darwinism
      • Neo Darwinism
    • Mutation Theory  
      • Mutation theory
      • Features of the mutation theory
      • Objections to Mutation Theory
    • Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution  
    • Adaptive Radiation  
  • Mechanism of Organic Evolution  
  • Hardy Weinberg’s Principle  
  • Evidences for Biological Evolution  
    • Evidence for Biological evolution:
    1. Paleontological evidence
    2. Evidence from Morphological and anatomical evidence
    3. Embryological evidence
    4. Molecular evidence
    5. Evolution by natural selection (Industrial melanism)
    6. Evolution by anthropogenic
  • Speciation  
    • Speciation
    • Modes to form New species
    1. Intraspecific Speciation: Allopatric speciation and Sympatric speciation
    2. Interspecific Speciation: Hybridisation
  • Geological Time Scale  
  • Origin and Evolution of Man  

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 6: Plant Water Relation

  • Plant Water Relation  
  • Properties of Water  
  • Water and Mineral Absorption by Root  
    • Root
    • Root Hair
    • Root Hair-Water Absorbing Unit
    • Speciality of root hairs
  • Characteristics of Roots for Absorbing Water  
    • Characteristics of Roots for Absorbing Water:
    1. The surface area of roots is enormous
    2. Root hairs contain cell sap of a higher concentration than that of the surrounding water
    3. Root hairs have a thin wall
  • Water Available to Roots for Absorption  
  • Means of Transport in Plants  
    • Concept of Imbibition  
    • Simple Diffusion  
    • Concept of Osmosis  
      • Endosmosis
      • Exosmosis
    • Osmotic Pressure  
      • Isotonic solution
      • Hypotonic solution
      • Hypertonic solution
    • Facilitated Diffusion  
      • Passive symports and antiports
    • Turgidity and Flaccidity (Plasmolysis)  
      • Turgidity
      • Plasmolysis
      • Flaccidity
      • Uses of Turgidity of plants
    • Active Transport  

      Active absorption

      Types of Active Absorption:

      1. Osmotic absorption
      2. Non-osmotic absorption
    • Passive Transport  
  • Water Potential (ψ)  
    • Chemical potential
    • Water Potential (ψ)
    • Factors affecting water absorption
  • Path of Water Across the Root  
    • Pathway of water across the root
    • Two ways of Pathway of water
    1. Apoplast pathway
    2. Symplast pathway: Vacuolar and Transmembrane
  • Translocation of Water (Ascent of Sap)  
    1. Root Pressure Theory (Vital Theory)
    2. Capillarity theory (physical force theory)
    3. Cohesion-tension theory (Transpiration pull theory)
    4. Adhesion
  • Translocation of Mineral Ions  
  • Transport of Food  
    • Path of translocation
    1. Vertical translocation 
    2. Lateral translocation
    • Mechanism of sugar transport through phloem
  • Transpiration  
    • Transpiration
    • Demonstration of Transpiration
    • Exchange of Gases
  • Kinds of Transpiration  
    • Kinds of Transpiration
    1. Stomatal Transpiration
    2. Cuticular transpiration
    3. Lenticular transpiration
  • Structure of Stomatal Apparatus  
    • Opening and Closing of Stoma
  • Significance of Transpiration  

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 7: Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition

  • Plant Growth  
    • Plant Growth
    • Aspect of growth:
    1. Quantitative aspect of growth
    2. Qualitative aspect of growth
    • Meristems:
    1. Apical meristem
    2. Intercalary meristem
    3. Lateral meristem
  • Phases of Plant Growth  
    • Phases of Plant Growth
    1. Phase of cell division/ formation (Meristematic Phase)
    2. Phase of cell enlargement/ elongation (Elongation Phase)
    3. Phase of Cell maturation/ differentiation (Maturation Phase)
  • Conditions Necessary for Plant Growth  
  • Plant Growth Rate  
    • Growth Rates
      1) Arithmetic growth
      2) Geometric growth
    • Growth curve:
      a) Lag Phase
      b) Log Phase
      c) Stationary Phase
    • Absolute and Relative growth rate
  • Types of Plant Growth  
    • Types of growth
    1. Arithmetic growth
    2. Geometric growth
  • Plant Growth Curve  
  • Differentiation, De-differentiation, Re- Differentiation  
  • Plant Development  
  • Plant Plasticity  
  • Plant Hormones  
    • Plant Hormones
    • Types of Plant Hormones
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Auxins  
    • Auxins
    • Physiological effects and applications of auxin
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Gibberellins  
    • Gibberellins
    • Physiological effects and application of Gibberellins
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Cytokinins  
    • Cytokinin
    • Physiological effects and applications of cytokinin
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Ethylene  
    • Ethylene
    • Physiological effects and application of ethylene
  • Types of Plant Hormones: Abscisic Acid (ABA)  
    • Abscisic Acid
    • Physiological effects and application of ABA
  • Photoperiodism  
    • Photoperiodism
    1. Short Day Plants (SDP)
    2. Long Day Plants (LDP)
    3. Day Neutral Plants (DNP)
    • Phytochrome
  • Vernalization (Yarovization)  
    • Vernalization
    • Advantages of vernalization
  • Plant Mineral Nutrition  
    • Sources of minerals
    • Classification of minerals on the basis of their quality requirement:
    1. Essential minerals 
    2. Non-essential minerals 
    • Classification of minerals on the Basis of their quantity requirement:
    1. Microelement minerals
    2. Macroelement minerals
    • Symptoms of Mineral deficiency in plants
    • Toxicity of Micronutrients
    • Minerals salt absorption: Passive Absorption and Donnan equilibrium
  • Biogeochemical Cycle  
    • Nitrogen Cycle  
      • Nitrogen fixation
      • Nitrogen assimilation
      • Ammonification
      • Nitrification
      • Denitrification
      • Human impacts on the nitrogen cycle

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 8: Respiration and Circulation

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 9: Control and Co-ordination

  • Control and Co-ordination  
    • Coordination
    • Types of coordination
    1. Nervous coordination
    2. Chemical coordination
  • Nervous System in Hydra  
  • Nervous System in Planaria (Flatworm)  
  • Neural Tissue  
    • Neural tissue
    • Types of Neural tissue
    1. Neurons/Nerve cells 
    2. Neuroglial cells
    • Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types  
      • Neuron
      • Types of neurons
      1. Unipolar neurons
      2. Bipolar neurons
      3. Multipolar neurons
      4. Sensory or afferent neurons
      5. Motor or efferent neurons
      6. Association (connecting) neurons
      • Nerve
      • Types of Nerve
      1. Sensory nerves
      2. Motor nerves
      3. Mixed nerves
      • Difference between Neuron and Nerve
    • Neuroglial Cells (Or Glial Cells)  
      • Neuroglial cells
      • Neuroglia Functions 
      • Types of  Glial cells and Their Functions
      1. Microglia
      2. Macroglia
      3. Astrocytes
      4. Oligodendrocytes
      5. Ependymal Cells
      6. Radial Glial Cells
      7. Schwann Cells
      8. Satellite Cells
      9. Enteric Glia Cells
  • Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types  
    • Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System  
      • Neuron consists of three parts: Cell body, axon and dendrites
      • Structure of the neuron
        1) Cell body (Cyton)
        2) Axon - Neuron-muscular junction, synaptic knob, neurotransmitters
        ⇒ Types of axons:
        a) Myelinated nerve fibres: Schwann cells, Nodes of Ranvier
        b) Non-myelinated nerve fibres
        3) Dendrites
      • Types based on the number of axons and dendrites
        (i) Unipolar
        (ii) Bipolar
        (iii) Multipolar
    • Nerve Fibres  
      • Nerve Fibres
      • Properties of nerve fibres
      • Types of Nerve Fibres
      1. Myelinated nerve fibre
      2. Non-myelinated nerve fibre
    • Synapse  
      • Synapse
      • Types of synapses 
      1. Electrical synapse
      2. Chemical synapse
    • Transmission of Nerve Impulse  
      • Transmission of Nerve Impulse
      • Generation of nerve impulse
      1. Depolarization
      2. Re-polarization
      • Neurotransmitters
  • Human Nervous System  
    • Human Nervous system
    • Need of Nervous System
    • Components of Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)  
    • Central nervous system (CNS)
    • CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
  • The Human Brain  
    • Brain
    • How are these Tissues protected?
    • How does the Nervous Tissue cause Action?
  • Central Nervous System (CNS): Structure of Human Brain  
    • Three main parts:
    1. Cerebrum (cerebrum: brain)
    2. Cerebellum ("little brain")
    3. Medulla Oblongata
    • Three Primary Regions of the Brain:
    1. Forebrain
    2. Midbrain
    3. Hindbrain
  • The Spinal Cord  
    • Spinal Cord 
    • Functions of the spinal cord
  • Reflex and Reflex Action  
    • Reflexes
    • Types of actions
    1. Voluntary actions 
    2. Involuntary actions
  • Reflex Arc  
    • Various terms associated with reflex arc:
    1. Receptor
    2. Sensory neuron
    3. Central nervous system
    4. Motor neuron
    5. Effector
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • Types of Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    1. Somatic Nervous System
    2. Autonomic Nervous System
    3. Emotions and autonomic nervous system
  • Sensory Receptors  
    •  Sensory Receptor
    • Classification of receptors
    1. Exteroceptors: Receive external stimuli
      - Phonoreceptors
      - Statoreceptors
      - Photoreceptors
      - Thermoreceptors
      - Mechanoreceptors
      - Chemoreceptors
    2. Interoceptors : Receive stimuli coming from within the body
      - Enteroceptors
      - Proprioceptors
      - Baroreceptors
  • Human Eye: Structure of the Eye  
    • The eyes - Photoreceptor: Rod cell and cone cell
    • External structure of an Eye
    1. Sclera
    2. Conjunctiva
    3. Cornea
    4. Iris
    5. Pupil
    • The internal structure of an Eye
    1. Lens
    2. Retina
    3. Optic nerve
    4. Aqueous Humour
    5. Vitreous Humour
  • Working of the Human Eye  
    • Working of the eye
    • Power of Accommodation
    • Persistence of vision
    • Apparent size of an object
    • The far point and near point of the human eye
    • Light and dark adaptation
    • Colour Vision
  • Human Ear  
    • Structure of Human Ear
    • Mechanism of Human ear
  • Disorders of Nervous System  
    • Psychological disorders
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Hormones  
    • Properties of Hormones
    • Functions of hormones
    • Mechanism of hormone action
    1. Mode of hormone action through membrane receptors
    2.  Mode of action through intracellular receptors
  • Human Endocrine System  
    • Human Endocrine System
    • The hormones at a glance
  • Human Endocrine Glands  
    • The Hypothalamus  
      • The Hypothalamus: Neurosecretory cells
      • Hormones produced by hypothalamus are of two types:
        (i) Releasing hormones
        (ii) Inhibiting hormones
    • Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis Gland  
      • Pituitary gland
      • Division of pituitary gland
        (i) Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary): Pars distalis, pars tuberalis
        (ii) Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary): Pars nervosa, infundibulum, MSH (Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone)
      • Hormones of adenohypophysis/ hormones of pars distalis:
        (i) Growth Hormone (GH)
        (ii) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
        (iii) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
        (iv) Prolactin
        (v) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
        (vi) Luteinizing hormone (LH)
      • Hormones of neurohypophysis
    • The Pineal Gland  
      • Pineal gland
      • Function of melatonin
    • Thyroid Gland  
      • Thyroid gland: Isthmus, Follicles and stromal tissues, tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyrocalcitonin (TCT), Iodine
      • Functions of thyroid hormones
    • Parathyroid Gland  
      • Parathyroid gland
      • Functions of parathyroid hormone
    • Thymus Gland  
      • Thymus gland
      • Function of thymosins
    • Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal Gland)  
      • Adrenal Gland
      • Hormones and functions of adrenal gland
        (i) Adrenal cortex: Zona reticularis, Zona Fasciculata
        (ii) Adrenal medulla: Adrenaline, Nor-adrenaline, Catecholamines, emergency hormones or hormones of fight or flight
    • Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)  
      • Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans): α-cells and β-cells
        (i) Insulin
        (ii) Glucagon
      • Other hormone secreting cells of islets of Langerhans
        (i) Delta or D cells
        (ii) F cells
    • Reproductive Glands (Gonads)  

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 10: Human Health and Diseases

  • Defence System in Our Body: Immune System  
    • Immune System
    • Cells of Immune System
    1. Lymphocytes
      - Mechanism of response of T-lymphocytes to antigens
      - Mechanism of action of B-lymphocytes to antigens
    2. Antigen Presenting cells
    • Kind of Immune System
    1. Innate Immunity (Inborn/natural)
      (a) Non-specific innate immunity
      (b) Specific innate immunity
    2. Acquired Immunity (During Lifetime)
      (a) Active Acquired Immunity: Natural (By previous infections), Artificial (by vaccinations).
      (b) Passive Acquired Immunity: Natural (Antibodies in a foetus received from the mother's blood), Artificial (Readymade antibodies produced in other animals).
  • Immunity  
  • Types of Immunity  
    • Types of Immunity
    1. Innate immunity or Inborn immunity
      ⇒ Types of Barriers
      a) Physical barriers: Skin, Mucous membrane
      b) Physiological barriers: Acid, Saliva
      c) Cellular barriers: Leukocytes, Natural killer cells, Macrophages
      d) Cytokine barriers: Interferons
    2. Acquired immunity
      ⇒ Structure of antibody
      ⇒ Types of Acquired Immunity
      (i) Active Immunity: Natural acquired active immunity and artificial acquired active immunity
      (ii) Passive immunity: Natural Acquired Passive immunity and Artificially Acquired Passive immunity
  • Vaccination and Immunization  
  • Structure of Antibody  
    • Antibody
    • Immunoglobulins
    • Structure of Antibody
    • Formation of antigen-antibody complex
    • Antigen on Blood Cells
    • ABO Blood Groups
    • Rh factor
  • Disease  
    • Diseases
    • Identification of disease
  • Categories of Disease  
    • Categories of Disease
    1. Extent of occurrence
      - Endemic diseases
      - Epidemic diseases
      - Pandemic diseases
      - Sporadic diseases
    2. Communicability: Communicable or Infectious diseases & Non- Communicable or Non-Infectious diseases
    3. Kinds of pathogens
    4. Kinds of transmitting agents
    5. Congenital diseases and acquired diseases
    6. Other types of diseases
      - Infectious diseases
      - Hereditary diseases
      - Physiological diseases
      - Deficiency diseases
  • Common Diseases in Human Beings  
    • Protozoan Diseases  
      • Protozoan Diseases
      • Malaria
      • Amoebiasis
      • African sleeping sickness
      • Kala-azar
    • Helminthic Diseases  
      • Helminthic diseases
      • Ascariasis
      • Filariasis/ Elephantiasis
      • Taeniasis
    • Bacterial Diseases  
      • Bacterial diseases in human beings
      • Typhoid ( Enteric fever)
      • Pneumonia
      • Shigellosis (Bacillary dysentery)
      • Bubonic plague (Black death)
      • Diphtheria
      • Cholera
      • Tetanus (Lock jaw)
      • Tuberculosis
      • Syphilis
      • Whooping cough (Pertussis)
      • Dysentery
      • Plague
    • Fungal Diseases  
      • Fungal diseases
      • Ringworm (Dermatophytosis)
      • Athlete’s foot
  • Viral Diseases  
    • Viral Diseases
    • Common Viral Diseases
    1. Common cold
    2. HIV/AIDS
    3. Chicken pox
    4. Hepatitis
  • Vector Borne Diseases  
    • Vector
    • Vector Borne Diseases: Mosquitoes, Cockroaches and Rats
    1. Malaria
    2. Elephantiasis (filariasis)
    3. Yellow fever
    4. Dengue
    • Control of mosquitoes:
    1. Spraying
    2. Elimination of breeding places
    3. Spraying on stagnant water
    4. Biological control
  • Cancer  
    • Cancer
    • Causes of cancer
    • Cancer detection and diagnosis
    • Treatment of cancer
    • Scope of Immunology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)  
  • Adolescence  
    • Adolescence
    • Stages of Adolescence
    • Physical changes of adolescence
    • Mental Health and Adolesence
  • Addiction  
    • Addiction
    • Causes of substances abuse during Adolescence
  • Drug Abuse  
    • Drugs
    • Addiction and Dependence
    • Effects of Drug
    • Prevention and Control of Drug abuse
1002 Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Modes of Excretion: Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, and Uricotelism  
    • Modes of Excretion
    1. Ammonotelism
    2. Ureotelism 
    3. Uricotelism 
    • Nephridiopores
    • Types of nephridia
    1. Protonephridia
    2. Metanephridia
  • Human Excretory System  
    • Kidneys
    • Sweat glands
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
    • Lungs
    • Kidneys
      ⇒ V.S. of kidney shows that there are two distinct regions:
      1) Renal Cortex
      2) Renal Medulla
    • Nephron
      ⇒ Structure of nephron: Glomerulus, Renal Tubule
      1) Bowman's capsule (Glomerular capsule)
      2) Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
      3) Loop of Henle
      4) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
      5) Collecting tubule (CT)
  • Function of the Kidney - “Production of Urine”  
    • Ultrafiltration
    • Reabsorption
    • Tubular secretion (Renal Secretion)
    • Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
    • Collecting duct
  • Regulation of Kidney Function  
    • Osmoregulation
    • Regulation of Kidney Function
    1. Renin-Angiotensin,
    2. Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)
    3. ADH and Diabetes Inspidus
  • Common Disorders of the Urinary System  
    • Kidney stones
    • Uremia
    • Nephritis
    • Renal Failure
    • Diabetes
    • Urinary tract infection
    • Haemodialysis
    • Peritoneal dialysis 
    • Kidney transplant
    • Renal Calculi
    • Glomerulonephritis

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 11: Enhancement of Food Production

  • Improvement in Food Production  
  • Plant Breeding  
    • Plant breeding
    1. Hybridization and its technique
      - Steps of Hybridization technique
      - Indian Hybrid Crops 
    2. Mutation Breeding
    • Main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop
      (i) Collection of variability
      (ii) Evaluation and selection of parents
      (iii) Cross hybridisation among the selected parents
      (iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants
      (v) Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars
    • Gross Revolution: Wheat and Rice, Sugar cane, Millets
    • Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance
      ⇒ Methods of breeding for disease resistance
      ⇒ Mutation
    • Plant Breeding for Developing a Resistance to Insect Pest
    • Heterosis and inbreeding depression
    • Plant Breeding for improved food quality - Biofortification
  • Tissue Culture  
    • Tissue Culture
    • Micropropagation (Clonal Propagation)
    • Advantages of microporpagation
  • Single Cell Protein (SCP)  
    • Single cell protein (SCP)
    • Advantages of Single-Cell Protein
  • Biofortification  
    • Biofortification
    • Some examples of biofortification
  • Animal Husbandry (Livestock)  
    • Animal Husbandry
    • Role of Animal Husbandry in Human Welfare
    • Advantages of Animal Husbandry
    • Management of farms and farm animals
    • Dairy Farming  
      • Dairy farm management
      • Composition of Cattle Feed
      • Feed Management
      • Improvement of Livestock Development in India
      • Diseases
      • Uses of Dairy Farming
    • Poultry Farming  
      • Poultry Farming
      • Poultry Feeding
      • Poultry Disease
      • Poultry product
      • Uses of Poultry Farming
      • Poultry management
    • Apiculture (Bee Farming)  
      • Apiculture
      • Types of Honey Bee
      • Useful product of Honey Bees
    • Pisciculture (Fish Farming)  
      • Pisciculture
      • Types of Fish Culture
      • Types of Ponds for Fish Culture
      • Cultivable Food Fishes
      • Nutritional Value of Fishes
  • Animal Breeding  
  • Sericulture  
    •  Sericulture 
    • The life cycle of silk moth (Mulberry silkworm)
    • Uses of Sericulture
  • Lac Culture  
    • Lac culture
    • Life Cycle of Lac Insect
  • Microbes in Human Welfare  
  • Microbes in Industrial Production  
    1. Fermented beverages
    2. Antibiotics
    3. Chemicals, enzymes and other bioactive molecules
  • Microbes in Sewage Treatment  
    • Primary Treatment
    • Secondary treatment or Biological treatment
    • Ganga Action Plan and Yamuna Action Plan
  • Microbes in Energy Generation  
  • Microbes as Biocontrol Agents  
    • Biological control of pests and diseases
  • Microbes as Biofertilizers  
    • Biofertilizers
    • Types of Biofertilizers
    • Biofertilizer microorganisms
    • Sources of Biofertilizers 
      a) Bacteria as a nitrogen fixer
      b) Fungi
      c) Cyanobacteria
1101 Human Reproduction

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 12: Biotechnology

  • Biotechnology  
    • Biotechnology 
    • Phases of biotechnology
    1. Traditional biotechnology
    2. Modern biotechnology
    3. European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB)
    • Areas include Biotechnology
    • Benefits of Biotechnology
    • Development of Biotechnology in India
  • Process and Principles of Biotechnology  
    • Technique of gene cloning and rDNA technology 
    • Tools and techniques for gene cloning/ rDNA technology
    1. Different instruments (devices) 
      - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
      - Mechanism of PCR
    2. Biological tools
      - Enzymes 
      - Cloning vectors
      - Competent host
    • Genetic Engineering
    • Bioprocess Engineering
  • Methodology for rDNA Technology  
    1. Isolation of DNA (gene) from the donor organism
    2. Insertion of a desired foreign gene into a cloning vector (vehicle DNA)
    3. Transfer of rDNA into the suitable competent host or cloning organism
    4. Selection of the transformed host cell
    5.  Expression of the gene to obtain the desired product
  • Commercial Applications of Biotechnology  
    1. Crop Biotechnology
      a) Hybrid Seeds
      b) Genetically Modified Crops - Bt Cotton, Bt Brinjal, Golden Rice, Herbicide tolerant plants
      c) Biofertilizers
    2. Animal Husbandry
    3. Human Health
      a) Vaccines and Vaccination - Edible Vaccines
      b) Treatment
      c) Interferon
      d) Gene therapy
      e) Cloning - Reproductive cloning, Therapeutic cloning
    4. Industrial Products / White Biotechnology
    5. Environment and Biotechnology
    6. Food Biotechnology
    7. DNA fingerprinting
  • Bioethics  
  • Effects of Biotechnology  
  • Biopatent and Biopiracy  

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

  • Organisms and the Environment Around  
  • Habitat and Its Types  
    • Habitat
    • Types of Habitats
    1. Aquatic habitat: Fresh water Habitat and Marine water habitat
    2. Terrestrial habitat: Forest habitat, Grassland habitat, and Desert habitat
  • Niche  
    • Niche
    • Types of niches
    1. Spatial or habitat niche
    2. Trophic niche
    3. Multidimensional or hypervolume niche
    • Differences between Habitat and Niche
  • Structure of an Ecosystem  
    • Biotic Components
    1. Producers
    2. Primary consumers
    3. Secondary consumers
    4. Tertiary consumers
    • Abiotic Components
    1. Sunlight
    2. Air
    3. Water
    4. Temperature
    5. Soil
    • Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
  • Adaptations and Its Types  
    • Adaptation
    • Some more examples of adaptations
    • Three basic types of adaptations
    1. Structural adaptations
    2. Physiological adaptations
    3. Behavioural adaptations
  • Population  
    •  Population
    •  Natality
    1. Absolute Natality
    2. Realized Natality
    •  Mortality
    1. Absolute Mortality
    2. Realized Mortality
    • Sex ratio
    • Age distribution and Age pyramid
    • Population Growth 
  • Population Interactions  
    • Population Interactions
    1. Predation (adaptations in organisms to avoid predation)
    2. Competition (Interspecific, interference, Competitive exclusion, Competitive release, Gause's Competitive Exclusion Principle)
    3. Parasitism 
      ⇒ Types of parasites: Ectoparasites, Endoparasites, Brood parasitism
    4. Commensalism
    5. Mutualism
    6. Amensalism

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 14: Ecosystems and Energy Flow

  • Ecosystem  
  • Forests: Our Lifeline  
    • Forest Biology
    • Forest Biodiversity
    1. Crown
    2. Canopy
    3. Understorey
    • Forest Ecosystem
    • Spatial pattern: Stratification and zonation
  • Structure of an Ecosystem  
    • Biotic Components
    1. Producers
    2. Primary consumers
    3. Secondary consumers
    4. Tertiary consumers
    • Abiotic Components
    1. Sunlight
    2. Air
    3. Water
    4. Temperature
    5. Soil
    • Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
  • Energy Flow in an Ecosystem  
    • Food Chain
      a) Grazing food chain (GFC)
      b) Detritus Food Chain (DFC)
    • Food Web
    • Trophic level
      a) Producers
      b) Herbivores (Primary consumer)
      c) Carnivores (Secondary consumer)
      d) Top carnivores (Tertiary consumer)
  • Classification of Animal  
    • Animal and their food
    • Classification of animal on the basis of food
    1. Herbivores
    2. Carnivores
    3. Omnivores
    4. Scavengers
    5. Decomposers
  • Tropic Level  
    • First Trophic level (Photoautotrophs)
    • Second trophic level (Herbivores)
    • Third trophic level (Carnivores) 
    • Fourth Trophic level (Top carnivore) 
  • Food Chain  
    • Food chain
    • Importance of food chain
  • Food Web  
    • Food web
    • Advantage of Food web
  • Ecological Pyramids  
    • Ecological Pyramids
      (i) Pyramid of number
      (ii) Pyramid of biomass
      ⇒ The Pyramid of biomass in terrestrial ecosystem
      ⇒ Pyramid of biomass in sea
      (iii) Pyramid of energy
    • Limitations of ecological pyramids
  • Nutrient Cycling  
    • Nutrient Cycles
    • Types of Nutrient cycles
    1. Carbon Cycle 
    2. Phosphorus Cycle 
  • Ecological Succession  
    • Ecological succession
    • Classification of ecological succession
      (i) Primary Succession
      (ii) Secondary Succession
    • Succession of Plants
    • Kinds of plant succession
      (i) Hydrarch Succession
      (ii) Xerarch Succession
    • Definition of a climax community, ecological succession, sere, Pioneer species
  • Ecosystem Services  
    • Ecological services and their cost
    1. Carbon fixation
    2. Pollination
    3. Seed dispersal
    4. Oxygen release

Maharashtra State Board 12th Standard Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Chapter 15: Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues

  • Biodiversity  
    • Biodiversity
    • Type of biodiversity
      (i) Genetic diversity
      (ii) Species diversity
      (iii) Ecosystem diversity
    • Global biodiversity and a proportionate number of species of major taxa of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates
  • Levels of Biodiversity  
    • Genetic diversity
    • Species diversity
    • Ecological (Ecosystem) diversity
  • Patterns of Biodiversity  
    • Latitudinal and altitudinal gradients:
      a) Speciation
      b) Tropical environments
      c) Availability of Solar Energy
    • Species-Area relationships
  • Biodiversity Current Scenario  
  • Loss of Biodiversity  
    • Loss of Biodiversity
    • Causes of Biodiversity losses
      (i) Habitat loss and fragmentation
      (ii) Overexploitation
      (iii) Alien species invasions
      (iv) Co-extinctions
    • Why to conserve Diversity?
    • How do we conserve biodiversity?
    • The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has classified the threatened species of plants and animals into three categories for the purpose of their conservation.
    1. Endangered Species
    2. Vulnerable Species
    3. Rare Species
  • Conservation of Wildlife  
  • Biological Diversity Act, 2002  
  • Environmental Issues  
  • Air Pollution and Its Causes  
    • Air Pollution
    • Causes of Air pollution
    • Sources of Air Pollution
  • Effects of Air Pollution  
  • Prevention of Air Pollution  
    • Measures to control air pollution
    • Devices to control air pollution
    1. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP)
    2. Scrubbers
    3. Catalytic converters
  • Noise Pollution  
    • Noise Pollution
    • Health hazards due to noise pollution
  • Measures to Limit Noise Pollution  
  • Water Pollution and Its Causes  
    • Water Pollution
    • Causes of Water Pollution
    • Sources of Water Pollution
  • Effects of Water Pollution  
  • Prevention of Water Pollution  
  • Green House Effect  
    • Green House Effect
    • Green House gases
  • Preventive Measures of Green House Effect  
  • Global Warming  
    • Global Warming
    • Causes of Global warming
    • Effect of Global Warming
  • Preventive Measures of Global Warming  
  • Ozone Layer Depletion  
    • Depletion of Ozone Layer
    • Chemicals responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer
  • Deforestation and Its Causes  
    • Deforestation
    • Causes of deforestation: Jhum cultivation
  • Mission Harit Maharashtra  

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