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Biology 12th Board Exam HSC Science (General) Maharashtra State Board Topics and Syllabus

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Maharashtra State Board Syllabus For 12th Board Exam Biology: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of 12th Board Exam. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology syllabus for the academic year 2023-2024 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus pdf 2023-2024. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for 12th Board Exam Biology in addition to this.

Academic year:

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Revised Syllabus

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology and their Unit wise marks distribution

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Course Structure 2023-2024 With Marking Scheme

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Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Reproduction in Lower and Higher Animals

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Inheritance and Variation

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Origin and Evolution of Life

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Plant Water Relation

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Respiration and Circulation

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Control and Co-ordination

  • Control and Co-ordination 
    • Coordination
    • Types of coordination
    1. Nervous coordination
    2. Chemical coordination
  • Nervous System in Hydra 
  • Nervous System in Planaria (Flatworm) 
  • Neural Tissue 
    • Neural tissue
    • Types of Neural tissue
    1. Neurons/Nerve cells 
    2. Neuroglial cells
    • Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types 
      • Neuron
      • Types of neurons
      1. Unipolar neurons
      2. Bipolar neurons
      3. Multipolar neurons
      4. Sensory or afferent neurons
      5. Motor or efferent neurons
      6. Association (connecting) neurons
      • Nerve
      • Types of Nerve
      1. Sensory nerves
      2. Motor nerves
      3. Mixed nerves
      • Difference between Neuron and Nerve
    • Neuroglial Cells (Or Glial Cells) 
      • Neuroglial cells
      • Neuroglia Functions 
      • Types of  Glial cells and Their Functions
      1. Microglia
      2. Macroglia
      3. Astrocytes
      4. Oligodendrocytes
      5. Ependymal Cells
      6. Radial Glial Cells
      7. Schwann Cells
      8. Satellite Cells
      9. Enteric Glia Cells
  • Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types 
    • Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System 
      • Neuron consists of three parts: Cell body, axon and dendrites
      • Structure of the neuron
        1) Cell body (Cyton)
        2) Axon - Neuron-muscular junction, synaptic knob, neurotransmitters
        ⇒ Types of axons:
        a) Myelinated nerve fibres: Schwann cells, Nodes of Ranvier
        b) Non-myelinated nerve fibres
        3) Dendrites
      • Types based on the number of axons and dendrites
        (i) Unipolar
        (ii) Bipolar
        (iii) Multipolar
    • Nerve Fibres 
      • Nerve Fibres
      • Properties of nerve fibres
      • Types of Nerve Fibres
      1. Myelinated nerve fibre
      2. Non-myelinated nerve fibre
    • Synapse 
      • Synapse
      • Types of synapses 
      1. Electrical synapse
      2. Chemical synapse
  • Human Nervous System 
    • Human Nervous system
    • Need of Nervous System
    • Components of Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System (CNS) 
    • Central nervous system (CNS)
    • CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
  • The Human Brain 
    • Brain
    • How are these Tissues protected?
    • How does the Nervous Tissue cause Action?
  • Central Nervous System (CNS): Structure of Human Brain 
    • Three main parts:
    1. Cerebrum (cerebrum: brain)
    2. Cerebellum ("little brain")
    3. Medulla Oblongata
    • Three Primary Regions of the Brain:
    1. Forebrain
    2. Mid brain
    3. Hindbrain
  • The Spinal Cord 
    • Spinal Cord 
    • Functions of the spinal cord
  • Reflex and Reflex Action 
    • Reflexes
    • Types of actions
    1. Voluntary actions 
    2. Involuntary actions
  • Reflex Arc 
    • Various terms associated with reflex arc:
    1. Receptor
    2. Sensory neuron
    3. Central nervous system
    4. Motor neuron
    5. Effector
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • Types of Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    1. Somatic Nervous System
    2. Autonomic Nervous System
    3. Emotions and autonomic nervous system
  • Sensory Receptors 
    •  Sensory Receptor
    • Classification of receptors
    1. Exteroceptors: Receive external stimuli
      - Phonoreceptors
      - Statoreceptors
      - Photoreceptors
      - Thermoreceptors
      - Mechanoreceptors
      - Chemoreceptors
    2. Interoceptors : Receive stimuli coming from within the body
      - Enteroceptors
      - Proprioceptors
      - Baroreceptors
  • Human Eye: Structure of the Eye 
    • The eyes - Photoreceptor: Rod cell and cone cell
    • External structure of an Eye
    1. Sclera
    2. Conjunctiva
    3. Cornea
    4. Iris
    5. Pupil
    • The internal structure of an Eye
    1. Lens
    2. Retina
    3. Optic nerve
    4. Aqueous Humour
    5. Vitreous Humour
  • Working of the Human Eye 
    • Working of the eye
    • Power of Accommodation
    • Persistence of vision
    • Apparent size of an object
    • The far point and near point of the human eye
    • Light and dark adaptation
    • Colour Vision
  • Human Ear 
    • Structure of Human Ear
    • Mechanism of Human ear
  • Disorders of Nervous System 
    • Psychological disorders
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Hormones 
    • Properties of Hormones
    • Functions of hormones
    • Mechanism of hormone action
    1. Mode of hormone action through membrane receptors
    2.  Mode of action through intracellular receptors
  • Human Endocrine System 
    • Human Endocrine System
    • The hormones at a glance
  • Human Endocrine Glands 
    • The Hypothalamus 
      • The Hypothalamus: Neurosecretory cells
      • Hormones produced by hypothalamus are of two types:
        (i) Releasing hormones
        (ii) Inhibiting hormones
    • Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis Gland 
      • Pituitary gland
      • Division of pituitary gland
        (i) Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary): Pars distalis, pars tuberalis
        (ii) Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary): Pars nervosa, infundibulum, MSH (Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone)
      • Hormones of adenohypophysis/ hormones of pars distalis:
        (i) Growth Hormone (GH)
        (ii) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
        (iii) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
        (iv) Prolactin
        (v) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
        (vi) Luteinizing hormone (LH)
      • Hormones of neurohypophysis
    • Thyroid Gland 
      • Thyroid gland: Isthmus, Follicles and stromal tissues, tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyrocalcitonin (TCT), Iodine
      • Functions of thyroid hormones
    • Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal Gland) 
      • Adrenal Gland
      • Hormones and functions of adrenal gland
        (i) Adrenal cortex: Zona reticularis, Zona Fasciculata
        (ii) Adrenal medulla: Adrenaline, Nor-adrenaline, Catecholamines, emergency hormones or hormones of fight or flight
    • Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) 
      • Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans): α-cells and β-cells
        (i) Insulin
        (ii) Glucagon
      • Other hormone secreting cells of islets of Langerhans
        (i) Delta or D cells
        (ii) F cells

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Human Health and Diseases

  • Defence System in Our Body: Immune System 
    • Immune System
    • Cells of Immune System
    1. Lymphocytes
      - Mechanism of response of T-lymphocytes to antigens
      - Mechanism of action of B-lymphocytes to antigens
    2. Antigen Presenting cells
    • Kind of Immune System
    1. Innate Immunity (Inborn/natural)
      (a) Non-specific innate immunity
      (b) Specific innate immunity
    2. Acquired Immunity (During Lifetime)
      (a) Active Acquired Immunity: Natural (By previous infections), Artificial (by vaccinations).
      (b) Passive Acquired Immunity: Natural (Antibodies in a foetus received from the mother's blood), Artificial (Readymade antibodies produced in other animals).
  • Immunity 
  • Types of Immunity 
    • Types of Immunity
    1. Innate immunity or Inborn immunity
      ⇒ Types of Barriers
      a) Physical barriers: Skin, Mucous membrane
      b) Physiological barriers: Acid, Saliva
      c) Cellular barriers: Leukocytes, Natural killer cells, Macrophages
      d) Cytokine barriers: Interferons
    2. Acquired immunity
      ⇒ Structure of antibody
      ⇒ Types of Acquired Immunity
      (i) Active Immunity: Natural acquired active immunity and artificial acquired active immunity
      (ii) Passive immunity: Natural Acquired Passive immunity and Artificially Acquired Passive immunity
  • Vaccination and Immunization 
  • Structure of Antibody 
    • Antibody
    • Immunoglobulins
    • Structure of Antibody
    • Formation of antigen-antibody complex
    • Antigen on Blood Cells
    • ABO Blood Groups
    • Rh factor
  • Disease 
    • Diseases
    • Identification of disease
  • Categories of Disease 
    • Categories of Disease
    1. Extent of occurrence
      - Endemic diseases
      - Epidemic diseases
      - Pandemic diseases
      - Sporadic diseases
    2. Communicability: Communicable or Infectious diseases & Non- Communicable or Non-Infectious diseases
    3. Kinds of pathogens
    4. Kinds of transmitting agents
    5. Congenital diseases and acquired diseases
    6. Other types of diseases
      - Infectious diseases
      - Hereditary diseases
      - Physiological diseases
      - Deficiency diseases
  • Common Diseases in Human Beings 
    • Protozoan Diseases 
      • Protozoan Diseases
      • Malaria
      • Amoebiasis
      • African sleeping sickness
      • Kala-azar
    • Bacterial Diseases 
      • Bacterial diseases in human beings
      • Typhoid ( Enteric fever)
      • Pneumonia
      • Shigellosis (Bacillary dysentery)
      • Bubonic plague (Black death)
      • Diphtheria
      • Cholera
      • Tetanus (Lock jaw)
      • Tuberculosis
      • Syphilis
      • Whooping cough (Pertussis)
      • Dysentery
      • Plague
  • Viral Diseases 
    • Viral Diseases
    • Common Viral Diseases
    1. Common cold
    2. HIV/AIDS
    3. Chicken pox
    4. Hepatitis
  • Vector Borne Diseases 
    • Vector
    • Vector Borne Diseases: Mosquitoes, Cockroaches and Rats
    1. Malaria
    2. Elephantiasis (filariasis)
    3. Yellow fever
    4. Dengue
    • Control of mosquitoes:
    1. Spraying
    2. Elimination of breeding places
    3. Spraying on stagnant water
    4. Biological control
  • Cancer 
    • Cancer
    • Causes of cancer
    • Cancer detection and diagnosis
    • Treatment of cancer
    • Scope of Immunology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) 
  • Adolescence 
    • Adolescence
    • Stages of Adolescence
    • Physical changes of adolescence
    • Mental Health and Adolesence
  • Addiction 
    • Addiction
    • Causes of substances abuse during Adolescence
  • Drug Abuse 
    • Meaning of ‘drugs’
    • Meaning of 'Drug Abuse'
    • Stimulants and Narcotics - Analgesics
    • Awareness of the fact that the use of certain drugs has been banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA) and reasons for the same.
1002 Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Modes of Excretion: Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, and Uricotelism 
    • Modes of Excretion
    1. Ammonotelism
    2. Ureotelism 
    3. Uricotelism 
    • Nephridiopores
    • Types of nephridia
    1. Protonephridia
    2. Metanephridia
  • Human Excretory System 
    • Kidneys
    • Sweat glands
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
    • Lungs
    • Kidneys
      ⇒ V.S. of kidney shows that there are two distinct regions:
      1) Renal Cortex
      2) Renal Medulla
    • Nephron
      ⇒ Structure of nephron: Glomerulus, Renal Tubule
      1) Bowman's capsule (Glomerular capsule)
      2) Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
      3) Loop of Henle
      4) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
      5) Collecting tubule (CT)
  • Function of the Kidney - “Production of Urine” 
    • Ultrafiltration
    • Reabsorption
    • Tubular secretion (Renal Secretion)
    • Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
    • Collecting duct
  • Regulation of Kidney Function 
    • Osmoregulation
    • Regulation of Kidney Function
    1. Renin-Angiotensin,
    2. Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)
    3. ADH and Diabetes Inspidus
  • Common Disorders of the Urinary System 
    • Kidney stones
    • Uremia
    • Nephritis
    • Renal Failure
    • Diabetes
    • Urinary tract infection
    • Haemodialysis
    • Peritoneal dialysis 
    • Kidney transplant
    • Renal Calculi
    • Glomerulonephritis

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Enhancement of Food Production

  • Improvement in Food Production 
  • Plant Breeding 
    • Plant breeding
    1. Hybridization and its technique
      - Steps of Hybridization technique
      - Indian Hybrid Crops 
    2. Mutation Breeding
    • Main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop
      (i) Collection of variability
      (ii) Evaluation and selection of parents
      (iii) Cross hybridisation among the selected parents
      (iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants
      (v) Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars
    • Gross Revolution: Wheat and Rice, Sugar cane, Millets
    • Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance
      ⇒ Methods of breeding for disease resistance
      ⇒ Mutation
    • Plant Breeding for Developing a Resistance to Insect Pest
    • Heterosis and inbreeding depression
    • Plant Breeding for improved food quality - Biofortification
  • Tissue Culture 
    • Tissue Culture
    • Micropropagation (Clonal Propagation)
    • Advantages of microporpagation
  • Single Cell Protein (SCP) 
    • Single cell protein (SCP)
    • Advantages of Single-Cell Protein
  • Biofortification 
    • Biofortification
    • Some examples of biofortification
  • Animal Husbandry (Livestock) 
    • Animal Husbandry
    • Role of Animal Husbandry in Human Welfare
    • Advantages of Animal Husbandry
    • Management of farms and farm animals
    • Dairy Farming 
      • Dairy farm management
      • Composition of Cattle Feed
      • Feed Management
      • Improvement of Livestock Development in India
      • Diseases
      • Uses of Dairy Farming
    • Poultry Farming 
      • Poultry Farming
      • Poultry Feeding
      • Poultry Disease
      • Poultry product
      • Uses of Poultry Farming
      • Poultry management
    • Pisciculture (Fish Farming) 
      • Pisciculture
      • Types of Fish Culture
      • Types of Ponds for Fish Culture
      • Cultivable Food Fishes
      • Nutritional Value of Fishes
  • Animal Breeding 
  • Sericulture 
    •  Sericulture 
    • The life cycle of silk moth (Mulberry silkworm)
    • Uses of Sericulture
  • Lac Culture 
    • Lac culture
    • Life Cycle of Lac Insect
  • Microbes in Human Welfare 
  • Microbes in Industrial Production 
    1. Fermented beverages
    2. Antibiotics
    3. Chemicals, enzymes and other bioactive molecules
  • Microbes in Sewage Treatment 
    • Primary Treatment
    • Secondary treatment or Biological treatment
    • Ganga Action Plan and Yamuna Action Plan
  • Microbes in Energy Generation 
  • Microbes as Biocontrol Agents 
    • Biological control of pests and diseases
  • Microbes as Biofertilizers 
    • Biofertilizers
    • Types of Biofertilizers
    • Biofertilizer microorganisms
    • Sources of Biofertilizers 
      a) Bacteria as a nitrogen fixer
      b) Fungi
      c) Cyanobacteria
1101 Human Reproduction

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Biotechnology

  • Biotechnology 
    • Biotechnology 
    • Phases of biotechnology
    1. Traditional biotechnology
    2. Modern biotechnology
    3. European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB)
    • Areas include Biotechnology
    • Benefits of Biotechnology
    • Development of Biotechnology in India
  • Process and Principles of Biotechnology 
    • Technique of gene cloning and rDNA technology 
    • Tools and techniques for gene cloning/ rDNA technology
    1. Different instruments (devices) 
      - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
      - Mechanism of PCR
    2. Biological tools
      - Enzymes 
      - Cloning vectors
      - Competent host
    • Genetic Engineering
    • Bioprocess Engineering
  • Methodology for rDNA Technology 
    1. Isolation of DNA (gene) from the donor organism
    2. Insertion of a desired foreign gene into a cloning vector (vehicle DNA)
    3. Transfer of rDNA into the suitable competent host or cloning organism
    4. Selection of the transformed host cell
    5.  Expression of the gene to obtain the desired product
  • Commercial Applications of Biotechnology 
    1. Crop Biotechnology
      a) Hybrid Seeds
      b) Genetically Modified Crops - Bt Cotton, Bt Brinjal, Golden Rice, Herbicide tolerant plants
      c) Biofertilizers
    2. Animal Husbandry
    3. Human Health
      a) Vaccines and Vaccination - Edible Vaccines
      b) Treatment
      c) Interferon
      d) Gene therapy
      e) Cloning - Reproductive cloning, Therapeutic cloning
    4. Industrial Products / White Biotechnology
    5. Environment and Biotechnology
    6. Food Biotechnology
    7. DNA fingerprinting
  • Bioethics 
  • Effects of Biotechnology 
  • Biopatent and Biopiracy 

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Organisms and Populations

  • Organisms and the Environment Around 
  • Habitat and Its Types 
    • Habitat
    • Types of Habitats
    1. Aquatic habitat: Fresh water Habitat and Marine water habitat
    2. Terrestrial habitat: Forest habitat, Grassland habitat, and Desert habitat
  • Niche 
    • Niche
    • Types of niches
    1. Spatial or habitat niche
    2. Trophic niche
    3. Multidimensional or hypervolume niche
    • Differences between Habitat and Niche
  • Structure of an Ecosystem 
    • Biotic Components
    1. Producers
    2. Primary consumers
    3. Secondary consumers
    4. Tertiary consumers
    • Abiotic Components
    1. Sunlight
    2. Air
    3. Water
    4. Temperature
    5. Soil
    • Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
  • Adaptations and Its Types 
    • Adaptation
    • Some more examples of adaptations
    • Three basic types of adaptations
    1. Structural adaptations
    2. Physiological adaptations
    3. Behavioural adaptations
  • Population 
    •  Population
    •  Natality
    1. Absolute Natality
    2. Realized Natality
    •  Mortality
    1. Absolute Mortality
    2. Realized Mortality
    • Sex ratio
    • Age distribution and Age pyramid
    • Population Growth 
  • Population Interactions 
    • Population Interactions
    1. Predation (adaptations in organisms to avoid predation)
    2. Competition (Interspecific, interference, Competitive exclusion, Competitive release, Gause's Competitive Exclusion Principle)
    3. Parasitism 
      ⇒ Types of parasites: Ectoparasites, Endoparasites, Brood parasitism
    4. Commensalism
    5. Mutualism
    6. Amensalism

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Ecosystems and Energy Flow

  • Ecosystem 
  • Forests: Our Lifeline 
    • Forest Biology
    • Forest Biodiversity
    1. Crown
    2. Canopy
    3. Understorey
    • Forest Ecosystem
    • Spatial pattern: Stratification and zonation
  • Structure of an Ecosystem 
    • Biotic Components
    1. Producers
    2. Primary consumers
    3. Secondary consumers
    4. Tertiary consumers
    • Abiotic Components
    1. Sunlight
    2. Air
    3. Water
    4. Temperature
    5. Soil
    • Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
  • Energy Flow in an Ecosystem 
    • Food Chain
      a) Grazing food chain (GFC)
      b) Detritus Food Chain (DFC)
    • Food Web
    • Trophic level
      a) Producers
      b) Herbivores (Primary consumer)
      c) Carnivores (Secondary consumer)
      d) Top carnivores (Tertiary consumer)
  • Classification of Animal 
    • Animal and their food
    • Classification of animal on the basis of food
    1. Herbivores
    2. Carnivores
    3. Omnivores
    4. Scavengers
    5. Decomposers
  • Tropic Level 
    • First Trophic level (Photoautotrophs)
    • Second trophic level (Herbivores)
    • Third trophic level (Carnivores) 
    • Fourth Trophic level (Top carnivore) 
  • Food Chain 
    • Food chain
    • Importance of food chain
  • Food Web 
    • Food web
    • Advantage of Food web
  • Ecological Pyramids 
    • Ecological Pyramids
      (i) Pyramid of number
      (ii) Pyramid of biomass
      ⇒ The Pyramid of biomass in terrestrial ecosystem
      ⇒ Pyramid of biomass in sea
      (iii) Pyramid of energy
    • Limitations of ecological pyramids
  • Nutrient Cycling 
    • Nutrient Cycles
    • Types of Nutrient cycles
    1. Carbon Cycle 
    2. Phosphorus Cycle 
  • Ecological Succession 
    • Ecological succession
    • Classification of ecological succession
      (i) Primary Succession
      (ii) Secondary Succession
    • Succession of Plants
    • Kinds of plant succession
      (i) Hydrarch Succession
      (ii) Xerarch Succession
    • Definition of a climax community, ecological succession, sere, Pioneer species
  • Ecosystem Services 
    • Ecological services and their cost
    1. Carbon fixation
    2. Pollination
    3. Seed dispersal
    4. Oxygen release

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues

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