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Biology 12th Board Exam HSC Science (General) Maharashtra State Board Topics and Syllabus

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Maharashtra State Board Syllabus For 12th Board Exam Biology: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of 12th Board Exam. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology syllabus for the academic year 2022-2023 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus pdf 2022-2023. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for 12th Board Exam Biology in addition to this.

Academic year:

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Revised Syllabus

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology and their Unit wise marks distribution

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Course Structure 2022-2023 With Marking Scheme

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Syllabus

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Reproduction in Lower and Higher Animals

  • Reproduction in Animal and Human 
  • Mode of Reproduction in Animal 
    • Mode of Reproduction in Animal:
    1. Sexual reproduction
    2. Asexual reproduction
  • Asexual Reproduction in Animal 
    • Asexual Reproduction in Animal
    1. Fission (Binary fission or multiple fission)
    2. Budding
    3. Regeneration
    4. Gemmule Formation
  • Sexual Reproduction in Animals 
    • Why the Sexual Mode of Reproduction?
  • Human Reproductive System 
    • Male Reproductive System 
      • Male Reproductive System
      1. Testes: Histology of Testis
      2. Accessory ducts
      3. Glands: Prostate gland, Cowper’s gland/Bulbourethral gland, Semen
      4. External genitalia: Scrotum
      • Puberty / Sexual maturity in males
    • Female Reproductive System 
      • Female Reproductive System
      1. Ovary: Structure and development of the ovary, Ovarian histology of a mature female, Structure of Graafian follicle
      2. Oviduct/Fallopian tube/Uterine tube: Infundibulum, Ampulla, Isthmus/Cornua
      3. Uterus: Fundus, Body, Cervix
      4. Vagina
      5. External genitalia
      6. Accessary glands/Vestibular glands/Bartholin’s glands
      • Puberty / Sexual maturity in Females
  • Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle) 
    • Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)
    • Menstrual phase
    • Proliferative phase/Follicular phase/Post-menstrual phase
    • Ovulatary phase
    • Secretory phase/Luteal phase
  • Gametogenesis in Animal 
    • Gametogenesis in Animal
    1. Male gamete: Sperm and Structure of Human Sperm
    2. Female gamete: Ovum and Structure of Human Ovum
    • Spermatogenesis:
      I. Multiplication phase
      II. Growth phase
      III. Maturation phase
    • Structure of sperm
    • Oogenesis
    • Structure of secondary oocyte
  • Fertilization in Human 
    • Fertilization
    • Mechanism of fertilization
    1. Movement of sperm towards the egg
    2. Entry of sperm into the egg
    3. Activation of ovum
    • Significance of fertilization
  • Syngamy 
    • Syngamy
    • Types of syngamy (on the basis of fusion gametes)
    1. Self-fertilization or Endogamy
    2. Cross-fertilization or Exogamy
    • Types of syngamy
    1. Isogamy
    2. Heterogamy
    3. Oogamy
    • Difference between Syngamy and Triple Fusion
  • Embryonic Development in Human 
    • Cleavage
    • Blastulation
    • Implantation
    • Gastrulation
  • Implantation in Human 
    • Implantation in Human
    • Implantation duration and process
    • Implantation bleeding
  • Pregnancy in Humans 
    • First Trimester
    • Second Trimester
    • Third (final) Trimester
  • Placenta (Growth) in Human 
    • Placenta 
    • Functions of Placenta
  • Parturition (Birth) in Human 
    • Parturition (Birth) in Human
    1. Dilation stage
    2. Expulsion stage
    3. After birth
    • Twins - Fraternal and identical
    • More than two - The triplets, Quadruplets, etc
    • Test tube babies
    • Two unlucky conjoined twins
    • Siamese twins - A developmental abnormality
  • Lactation in Human 
  • Reproductive Health 
    • Family Welfare Programme
    • Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) Programme
      - Goals of RCH Programmes
  • Birth Control 
    • Birth control
    • Contraceptive methods
    1. Temporary method:
      a. Natural method/ Safe period / Rhythm method
      b. Coitus Interruptus or withdrawal
      c. Lactational amenorrhea (absence of menstruation)
      d. Chemical means (spermicides)
      e. Mechanical means / Barrier methods
      f. Physiological (Oral) Devices

          2. Permanent Method:

    • Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) 
    • AIDS
    • Hepatitis -B or Serum Hepatitis
  • Infertility 
    • IVF (In Vitro Fertilization)
    • ZIFT (Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer)
    • GIFT (Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer)
    • ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection)
    • Artificial Insemination (AI)
    • IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination)
    • Sperm bank / Semen bank
    • Adoption

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Inheritance and Variation

  • Heredity 
    • Heredity
    • Heredity change
  • Inheritance 
    • Inheritance
    • Chromosomes and Mechanism of inheritance
  • Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Genetics 
  • Genes and Genetic 
    • Genes
    • Genetic
    • Genetic Terminology
    1. Character
    2. Trait
    3. Factor
    4. Gene
    5. Alleles or Allelomorphs
    6. Dominant
    7. Recessive
    8. Phenotype
    9. Genotype
    10. Homozygous (pure)
    11. Heterozygous
    12. Pure line 
    13. Monohybrid
    14. F1 generation
    15. F2 generation
    16. Punnett square/ Checkerboard
    17. Homologous Chromosomes 
    18. Back cross
    19. Test cross
    20. Phenotypic ratio
    21. Genotypic ratio
    22. Monohybrid cross
    23. Dihybrid cross
  • Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance 
    • Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
    1. Law of Dominance
    2. Law of segregation (Law of purity of gametes)
    3. Law of Independent Assortment
    • Application of Mendel's laws
  • Back Cross and Test Cross 
  • Deviations from Mendel’s Findings 
    • Types of gene interaction:
    1. Intragenic interactions
    2. Intergenic (non-allelic) interactions
    1. Incomplete dominance
    2. Co-dominance
    3. Multiple alleles
    4. Pleiotropy
  • Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance 
  • Chromosomes - The Carriers of Heredity 
    • Chromosomes
    • Discovery of Chromosomes
    • Function of Chromosomes
    • Number of Chromosomes
    • Structure of a Chromosome
    • Chromosomes in Homologous Pair
  • Linkage and Crossing Over 
    • Linkage
    • Types of linkage: Complete linkage and Incomplete linkage
    • Linkage Groups
    • Sex-linkage: Complete sex linkage and Incomplete sex linkage
    • Crossing Over
    • Morgan’s Experiments showing linkage and crossing over
  • Autosomal Inheritance 
    • Autosomal Inheritance
    1. Widow’s peak
    2. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • Sex Linked Inheritance 
    • X-linked (sex-linked) genes
    • Y-linked (Holandric) genes
    1. Colour blindness
    2. Haemophilia (Bleeder’s disease)
  • Sex Determination 
    • Sex Determination in human beings
    • Sex Determination in birds
    • Sex Determination in honey bees
  • Genetic Disorders 
    • Thalassemia
    • Down’s Syndrome (21st trisomy)
    • Turner’s Syndrome
    • Klinefelter’s syndrome (XXY males)

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Molecular Basis of Inheritance

  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Its Structure 
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    • The Discovery of DNA
    • Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  • The Genetic Material is a DNA 
    • Griffith’s experiments
    • Avery, McCarty, and MacLeod’s experiment
    • Hershey - Chase Experiment
  • Packaging of DNA Helix 
    • Packaging in Prokaryotes
    • Packaging in Eukaryotes
  • DNA Replication 
    • Functions of DNA:
    1. Heterocatalytic function
    2. Autocatalytic function
    • Process of semi-conservative replication:
    1. Activation of Nucleotides
    2. Point of Origin or Initiation point
    3. Unwinding of DNA molecule
    4. Replicating fork
    5. Synthesis of new strands
    6. Leading and Lagging strand
    7. Formation of daughter DNA molecules
  • Protein Synthesis 
    • Protein synthesis
    • Process of protein synthesis: Transcription and Translation
    • Central Dogma
  • Regulation of Gene Expression 
  • Operon Concept 
    • Operon
    • Lactose or lac operon
    • Lac operon consists of the following components:
    1. Regulator gene (repressor gene) 
    2. Promoter gene
    3. Operator gene
    4. Structural genes
    5. Inducer
    • Role of lactose
  • Genomics 
    • Genomics
    • Classification of Genomics
    1. Structural genomics
    2. Functional genomics
    • Application of genomics
  • Human Genome Project 
  • DNA Fingerprinting Technique 
    • DNA Fingerprinting Technique
    1. Isolation of DNA
    2. Restriction digestion
    3. Gel electrophoresis
    4. Southern blotting
    5. Selection of DNA probe
    6. Hybridization
    7. Photography
    • Application of DNA fingerprinting

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Origin and Evolution of Life

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Plant Water Relation

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Respiration and Circulation

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Control and Co-ordination

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Human Health and Diseases

  • Defence System in Our Body: Immune System 
    • Immune System
    • Cells of Immune System
    1. Lymphocytes
      - Mechanism of response of T-lymphocytes to antigens
      - Mechanism of action of B-lymphocytes to antigens
    2. Antigen Presenting cells
    • Kind of Immune System
    1. Innate Immunity (Inborn/natural)
      (a) Non-specific innate immunity
      (b) Specific innate immunity
    2. Acquired Immunity (During Lifetime)
      (a) Active Acquired Immunity: Natural (By previous infections), Artificial (by vaccinations).
      (b) Passive Acquired Immunity: Natural (Antibodies in a foetus received from the mother's blood), Artificial (Readymade antibodies produced in other animals).
  • Immunity 
  • Types of Immunity: Innate or Inborn (Inherited) Immunity and Acquired or Adaptive Immunity 
    • Innate immunity or Inborn immunity
    • Acquired immunity
    • Types of Acquired Immunity
    1. Active immunity
      - Natural Acquired Active immunity
      - Artificial Acquired Active immunity
    2. Passive immunity
      - Natural Acquired Passive immunity
      - Artificially Acquired Passive immunity
  • Vaccination and Immunization 
    • Vaccination and its Types
    • Immunization
    • Immunization Schedule
  • Structure of Antibody 
    • Antibody
    • Immunoglobulins
    • Structure of Antibody
    • Formation of antigen-antibody complex
    • Antigen on Blood Cells
    • ABO Blood Groups
    • Rh factor
  • Disease 
    • Diseases
    • Identification of disease
  • Categories of Disease 
    • Categories of Disease
    1. Extent of occurrence
      - Endemic diseases
      - Epidemic diseases
      - Pandemic diseases
      - Sporadic diseases
    2. Communicability: Communicable or Infectious diseases & Non- Communicable or Non-Infectious diseases
    3. Kinds of pathogens
    4. Kinds of transmitting agents
    5. Congenital diseases and acquired diseases
    6. Other types of diseases
      - Infectious diseases
      - Hereditary diseases
      - Physiological diseases
      - Deficiency diseases
  • Diseases Caused by Protozoa 
    • Malaria
    • Amoebic dysentery (Amoebiasis)
    • Sleeping sickness
  • Diseases Caused by Parasitic Worms 
    • Ascariasis
    • Taeniasis
    • Filariasis/ Elephantiasis
  • Diseases Caused by Bacteria 
    • Cholera
    • Typhoid fever
    • Tuberculosis
    • Tetanus
    • Syphilis
    • Diphtheria
    • Whooping cough (Pertussis)
    • Pneumonia
  • Viral Diseases 
    • Viral Diseases
    • Common Viral Diseases
    1. Common cold
    2. HIV/AIDS
    3. Chicken pox
    4. Hepatitis
  • Diseases Caused by Fungi 
    • Ring Worm(Dermatophytosis)
  • Vector Borne Diseases 
    • Vector
    • Vector Borne Diseases: Mosquitoes, Cockroaches and Rats
    1. Malaria
    2. Elephantiasis (filariasis)
    3. Yellow fever
    4. Dengue
    • Control of mosquitoes:
    1. Spraying
    2. Elimination of breeding places
    3. Spraying on stagnant water
    4. Biological control
  • Cancer 
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) 
    • AIDS
    • Hepatitis -B or Serum Hepatitis
  • Adolescence 
    • Adolescence
    • Stages of Adolescence
    • Physical changes of adolescence
    • Mental Health and Adolesence
  • Addiction 
    • Addiction
    • Causes of substances abuse during Adolescence
  • Drug Abuse 
    • Drugs
    • Addiction and Dependence
    • Effects of Drug
    • Prevention and Control of Drug abuse
1002 Excretion and Osmoregulation

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Enhancement of Food Production

1101 Human Reproduction

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Biotechnology

  • Biotechnology 
    • Biotechnology 
    • Phases of biotechnology
    1. Traditional biotechnology
    2. Modern biotechnology
    • Areas include in Biotechnology
    • Benefits of Biotechnology
    • Development of Biotechnology in India
  • Process and Principles of Biotechnology 
    • Technique of gene cloning and rDNA technology 
    • Tools and techniques for gene cloning/ rDNA technology
    1. Different instruments (devices) 
      - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
      - Mechanism of PCR
    2. Biological tools
      - Enzymes 
      - Cloning vectors
      - Competent host
  • Methodology for rDNA Technology 
    1. Isolation of DNA (gene) from the donor organism
    2. Insertion of a desired foreign gene into a cloning vector (vehicle DNA)
    3. Transfer of rDNA into the suitable competent host or cloning organism
    4. Selection of the transformed host cell
    5.  Expression of the gene to obtain the desired product
  • Commercial Applications of Biotechnology 
    1. Healthcare Biotechnology
    2. Agriculture
    3. Gene therapy
    4. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
      - Advantages of GM food-plant
  • Bioethics 
  • Effects of Biotechnology 
  • Biopatent and Biopiracy 

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Organisms and Populations

  • Organisms and the Environment Around 
  • Habitat and Its Types 
    • Habitat
    • Types of Habitats
    1. Aquatic habitat: Fresh water Habitat and Marine water habitat
    2. Terrestrial habitat: Forest habitat, Grassland habitat, and Desert habitat
  • Niche 
    • Niche
    • Types of niches
    1. Spatial or habitat niche
    2. Trophic niche
    3. Multidimensional or hypervolume niche
    • Differences between Habitat and Niche
  • Structure of an Ecosystem 
    • Biotic Components
    1. Producers
    2. Primary consumers
    3. Secondary consumers
    4. Tertiary consumers
    • Abiotic Components
    1. Sunlight
    2. Air
    3. Water
    4. Temperature
    5. Soil
    • Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
  • Adaptations and Its Types 
    • Adaptation
    • Some more examples of adaptations
    • Three basic types of adaptations
    1. Structural adaptations
    2. Physiological adaptations
    3. Behavioural adaptations
  • Population 
    •  Population
    •  Natality
    1. Absolute Natality
    2. Realized Natality
    •  Mortality
    1. Absolute Mortality
    2. Realized Mortality
    • Sex ratio
    • Age distribution and Age pyramid
    • Population Growth 
  • Population Interactions 
    • Mutualism
    • Competition
    • Parasitism
    • Predation
    • Commensalism

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Ecosystems and Energy Flow

  • Ecosystem 
    • Ecosystem
    • Types of Ecosystem
    1. Natural Ecosystem
    2. Artificial Ecosystem
  • Forests: Our Lifeline 
    • Forest Biology
    • Forest Biodiversity
    1. Crown
    2. Canopy
    3. Understorey
    • Forest Ecosystem
    • Spatial pattern: Stratification and zonation
  • Structure of an Ecosystem 
    • Biotic Components
    1. Producers
    2. Primary consumers
    3. Secondary consumers
    4. Tertiary consumers
    • Abiotic Components
    1. Sunlight
    2. Air
    3. Water
    4. Temperature
    5. Soil
    • Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
  • Energy Flow in an Ecosystem 
  • Classification of Animal 
    • Animal and their food
    • Classification of animal on the basis of food
    1. Herbivores
    2. Carnivores
    3. Omnivores
    4. Scavengers
    5. Decomposers
  • Tropic Level 
    • First Trophic level (Photoautotrophs)
    • Second trophic level (Herbivores)
    • Third trophic level (Carnivores) 
    • Fourth Trophic level (Top carnivore) 
  • Food Chain 
    • Food chain
    • Importance of food chain
  • Food Web 
    • Food web
    • Advantage of Food web
  • Ecological Pyramids 
    • Energy Pyramid
    • Interdependence between organisms
  • Nutrient Cycling 
    • Nutrient Cycles
    • Types of Nutrient cycles
    1. Carbon Cycle 
    2. Phosphorus Cycle 
  • Ecological Succession 
    • Succession
    • Succession of Plants
  • Ecosystem Services 

Maharashtra State Board 12th Board Exam Biology Syllabus for Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues

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