Maharashtra State BoardHSC Science (General) 11th
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Biology 11th HSC Science (General) Maharashtra State Board Topics and Syllabus

Academic year:

Syllabus

2 Systematics of Living Organisms


3 Kingdom Plantae


4 Kingdom Animalia
  • Criteria Used for Animal Classification 
  • Animal Body Plan 
    • Cell aggregate plan
    • Blind sac body plan
    • Tube within the tube body plan
  • Animal Classification 
    • Phylum: Porifera (Pori-pores; Feron-bearing)
    • Phylum: Cnidaria
    • Phylum: Ctenophora
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes (platy -flat, helminth -worms)
    • Phylum: Aschelminthes (ascus-sac, helminth-worm) / Nemathelminthes (NEMA-thread)
    • Phylum: Annelida (Annulus: Ring)  
    • Phylum: Arthropoda (Atheros: Joint, Podos: leg)
    • Phylum: Mollusca (Mollis: soft)
    • Phylum: Echinodermata (Echinus - Spines, derma - skin)
    • Phylum: Hemichordata (Hemi: Half, Chordata: Rod)
    • Phylum: Chordata
      a) Subphylum: Urochordata or Tunicata
      b) Subphylum: Cephalochordata
      c) Subphylum: Vertebrata -
      1. Division: A Gnathostomata
      2. Division: Gnathostomata
      i) Superclass: Pisces
      - Class Chondrichthyes: (chondron: cartilage, ichthyes: fish)
      - Class: Osteichthyes (Osteon: bone, ichthyes: fish) 
      ii) Superclass: Tetrapod
      - Class: Amphibia (Amphi: both, bias: life)
      - Class: Reptilia (Repere: to creep or to crawl)
      - Class: Aves (Avis: bird)
      - Class: Mammalia (mammae: breasts, nipples)


5 Cell Structure and Organization
  • Concept of Cell 
    • Totipotency
  • Types of Cells 
    • Prokaryotic cells
    • Eukaryotic Cells
  • Components of Eukaryotic Cell 

    Components of Eukaryotic cell:

    1. Cell wall
    2. Cell membrane / Plasma membrane/ biomembrane
    3. Cytoplasm
    4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    5. Golgi complex
    6. Lysosomes
    7. Vacuoles
    8. Glyoxysomes
    9. Mitochondria (Singular: Mitochondrion)
    10. Plastids
    11. Ribosomes
    12. Nucleus
    13. Cytoskeleton


6 Biomolecules
  • Introduction of Biomolecules 
  • Biomolecules in the Cell 

    A. Carbohydrates

    • Monosaccharides - Glucose, Galactose, Fructose
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides - Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
    • The biological significance of Carbohydrates

    B. Lipids:

    • Saturated fatty acids
    • Unsaturated Fatty Acids - Simple Lipids, Compound lipids, Sterols

    C. Proteins:

    • Classification of proteins - Simple proteins, Conjugated proteins, Derived proteins

    D. Nucleic Acids - Structure of DNA, Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

    E. Enzymes

    • Nature of Enzymes
    • Properties of Enzymes - Proteinaceous Nature, Three-Dimensional conformation, Reversibility of action, Nomenclature of Enzymes, 
    • Classification of Enzymes - Oxidoreductases, Transferases, Hydrolases, Lyases, Isomerases, Ligases, or Synthetases, Mechanism of enzyme action
    • Lock and Key model
    • Induced Fit model (Flexible Model)
    • Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity - Concentration of Substrate, Enzyme Concentration, Temperature, Effect of pH, Other Substances
    • Concept of Metabolism - Catabolic pathways, Anabolic pathway
    • Metabolic pool
    • Secondary metabolites (SMs)
      1. Terpenes
      2. Phenolics
      3. Nitrogen-containing compounds
    • Economic importance


7 Cell Division
  • Introduction of Cell Division 
  • Cell Cycle 
    • Interphase
    • G1-phase
    • S-phase
    • G2 phase
    • M-phase or period of division
  • Types of Cell Division 
    • Amitosis
    • Mitosis
      1. Prophase
      2. Metaphase
      3. Anaphase
      4. Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
    • Significance of mitosis
    • Death of cell
    • Meiosis
      A. First meiotic division or Heterotypic division (Meiosis I)
    • Prophase -I - Zygotene, Pachytene, Diplotene, Diakinesis
    • Metaphase - I
    • Anaphase - I
    • Telophase - I
    • Cytokinesis-I
      B. Second meiotic division or Homotypic Division (Meiosis II)
    • Prophase-II
    • Metaphase-II
    • Anaphase-II
    • Telophase-II
    • Cytokinesis-II
    • Significance of Meiosis


8 Plant Tissues and Anatomy


9 Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Angiosperms 
    • Classification Upto Class, Characteristic Features and Examples
    • flowers, dicotyledons, monocotyledons,double fertilisation
  • Morphology 

    A. Root:

    • Typical Root Structure
    • Function of Root
    • Types of Root -  Tap root, Adventitious roots,
    • Modification of root - Modifications of tap root, For Respiration
    • Modifications of Adventitious Roots -
      a) Food storage
      b) For mechanical support
      1. Prop roots
      2. Stilt roots
      3. Climbing roots
      4. Clinging Roots
      5. Plank Roots/Buttresses
      6. Buoyont roots
      c) For special functions 
      1. Epiphytic roots
      2. Sucking roots or Haustoria

    B. Stem:

    • Modifications of stem
      a. Underground stem
      1. Rhizome
      2. Stem Tuber
      3. Bulb
      4. Corm
      b. Subaerial stem
      1. Trailer
      2. Runner 
      3. Stolons
      4. Sucker
      5. Offset
      c. Aerial modification
      1. Thorn
      2. Phylloclade
      3. Cladodes
      4. Cladophylls
      5. Bulbils

    C. Leaf

    1. Typical leaf structure
      Leaf base
      Petiole or mesopodium
      Lamina or epipodium
    2. Leaf venation
    3. Types of leaf
      a. Pinnately compound
      b. Palmately compound
    4. Modification of leaves
      a. Leaf spines
      b. Leaf tendril
      c. Leaf hooks
      d. Phyllode
    5. Phyllotaxy

    D. Inflorescence

    • Types of inflorescence - Racemose, Cymose

    E. Flower 

    1. Insertion of floral whorls - Hypogyny, Perigyny, Epigyny.
    2. Floral parts and their structure
      1. Calyx (K) 
      2. Corolla (C) - Perianth (P), Aestivation, Epicalyx
      3. Androecium (A)
      Typical stamen shows three different parts: Anther, Filament, Connective
      4. Gynoecium (G)
      - Placentation
      - Types of Placentation: Marginal, Axile, Parietal, Basal, Free central.

    F. Fruit

    G. Seed

  • Study of Some Important Families 
    • Fabaceae 
    • Solanaceae
10 Animal Tissue
  • Introduction of Animal Tissue 
  • Histology 
  • Animal Tissues - Epithelial Tissues 
    1. Simple epithelial tissue
      1. Squamous epithelial tissue
      2. Cuboidal epithelial tissue
      3. Columnar epithelium
      4. Ciliated epithelium
      5. Glandular epithelium
      6. Sensory epithelial tissue
      7. Germinal epithelial tissue
    2. Compound epithelial tissue
      a. Stratified epithelium
      b. Transitional epithelium
    • Cell junctions 
      Types of Cell junction
      - Tight junctions (TJs)
      - Hemidesmosomes (HDs)
      - Gap Junctions (GJs)
      - Adherens Junctions (AJs)
      - Desmosomes (Ds)
  • Animal Tissues - Connective Tissue 
    1. Connective Tissue Proper
      1. Areolar tissue (Areola: air pockets)
      2. Adipose tissue (adipo: fat)
    2. Dense Connective Tissue
    3. Supporting Connective Tissue - Cartilage, Hyaline cartilage (Hyline: Glass-like), Elastic cartilage, Fibrocartilage, Calcified cartilage, Bone
    4. Fluid Connective tissue (Vascular)
  • Animal Tissues - Muscular Tissue 
    • Types of Muscular Tissue
    • Skeletal muscles,
    • Smooth or Non-striated muscles,
    • Cardiac Muscles
  • Animal Tissues - Neural Tissue 
    • Nervous Tissue
    • Based on their functions, Neurons are classified into three types - Afferent Neuron, Efferent Neuron, Interneuron or association neuron
    • Based on the number of processes given out from cyton, neurons are classified into three types - Unipolar/Monopolar Neuron, Bipolar Neuron, Multipolar Neuron
11 Study of Animal Type : Cockroach
12 Photosynthesis
13 Respiration and Energy Transfer
14 Human Nutrition
15 Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Excretion and Excretory Products 
    • Ammonotelism 
    • Ureotelism
    • Uricotelism (C5H4O3N4)
    • Two major types of nephridia - Protonephridia, Metanephridia.
  • Excretory System in Human Being 
    • Kidney 
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
    • Nephron - Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, Proximal Convoluted Tubule, Loop of Henle, Distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule, Juxta Glomerular Apparatus
  • Urine Formation 
    1. Ultrafiltration / Glomerular filtration
    2. Selective reabsorption
    3. Tubular secretion / Augmentation
  • Concentration of Urine 
  • Composition of Urine 
    • Angiotensin II has triple function
  • Role of Other Organs in Excretion 
    • Skin
    • Sebaceous glands
    • Lungs
  • Disorders and Diseases 
    1. Kidney stones - Calcium stones, Struvite stones, Uric acid stones, Cystine stones, Symptoms, Diagnosis.
    2. Uremia
    3. Nephriti
    4. Renal Failure
      a. Acute Renal failure (ARF)
      b. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) 
      Haemodialysis
      Peritoneal dialysis
    5. Kidney transplant
16 Skeleton and Movement
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