Department of Pre-University Education, KarnatakaPUC Karnataka Science Class 12
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Geology Class 12 PUC Karnataka Science Department of Pre-University Education, Karnataka Topics and Syllabus

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Academic year:

Units and Topics


100 Petrology
101 Introduction
  • Definition of a rock, general classification of rocks into igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic types. Rock cycle.
200 Igneous Rocks
201 Introduction

a) Definition of magma and lava b) Composition of magma c) Forms of igneous rocks 1) Extrusive – Lava flows 2) Intrusive – Concordant (Sill) and Discordant (Dyke)

202 Structures – Definition
203 Types
  • Vesicular, Amygdaloidal, Columnar, Ropy and Pillow
204 Texture – Definition
205 Controlling Factors
  • Crystallanity: Holocrystalline, Merocrystalline and Holohyaline
206 Granularity
  • Coarse, Medium and Fine
207 Shape of Minerals
  • Euhedral, Subhedral and Anhedral
208 Mutual Relationship of Minerals
  • a) Equigranular: Panidiomorphic, Hypidoimorphic and Allotriomorphic
  • b) Inequigranular: Porphyritic, Poikilitic and Ophitic
209 Classification of Igneous Rocks

(i) Volcanic, (ii) Hypabyssal and (iii) Plutonic with examples

210 Brief Description of Important Igneous Rocks

a) Volcanic – Basalt and Pumice b) Hypabyssal – Dolerite and Porphyry c) Plutonic – Granite and Syenite

211 Uses of Igneous Rocks
212 Significance of Igneous Rocks
213 Summary (Points to Remember)
214 Model Questions
300 Sedimentary Rocks
301 Introduction


302 Processes and Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
  • Weathering, Erosion, Denudation, Transportation, Deposition, Compaction. Lithification and Diagenisis
303 Structures
  • Stratification, Lamination, Graded bedding, Current bedding, Ripple marks and Mud cracks
304 Textures; Wentworth’S Grain Size Parameters

Boulder, Cobble, Pebble, Gravel, Sand, Silt and Clay

305 Classification of Sedimentary Rocks Based on
  • a) Mode of origin – Residual, Mechanical, Chemical and Organic.
  • b) Grain size – Rudaceous, Aranaceous and Argillaceous
306 Brief Description of Sedimentary Rocks
  • Conglomerate, Breccia, Sandstone, Shale, Limestone and Shell Limestone.
307 Summary (Points to Remember)
308 Model Questions
400 Metamorphic Rocks
401 Introduction
  • Definition of metamorphism
402 Agents of Metamorphism
  • Temperature, pressure and chemically active fluids
403 Zones of Metamorphism
  • Epi-, Meso- and Hypo-zones
404 Kinds of Metamorphism in Brief
  • Dynamic, Thermal, Dynamothermal and Plutonic
405 Textures and Structures
  • Textures and structures viz. Granulose, Gneissose and Schistose
406 Description of Important Metamorphic Rocks

a) Slate b) Marble c) Quartzite d) Gneiss e) Schist f) Charnockite

407 Summary (Points to Remember)
408 Model Questions
500 Structural Geology
501 Introduction
  • a) Attitude of beds – Strike and Dip
  • b) Outcrops, Inliers and Outliers
502 Brunton Compass and Its Uses
503 Conformity and Unconformity

a) Types of Unconformity – Angular, Disconformity and Nonconformity

504 Joints – Definition
505 Attitude of Joints
  • Strike and Dip
506 Types of Joints
  • Types of joints viz. Dip-, Strike-, Oblique-, Bedding and Columnar-joints
507 Folds


508 Parts of a Fold

Parts of a fold viz. Hinge, Axis, Axial-Plane, Limbs, Crest, Trough and Plunge

509 Types of Fold
  • Types of fold viz. Anticline, Syncline, Symmetrical and Asymmetrical
510 Faults


511 Parts of a Fault
  • Parts of a fault viz. Fault plane, Fault line, Foot-wall and Hanging-wall
512 Types of Fault
  • Normal, Reverse, Step, Horst and Graben
513 Importance of Geological Structures
514 Summary (Points to Remember)
515 Model Questions
600 Stratigraphy
601 Definition
602 Principles of Stratigraphy

a) Law of Order of Superposition b) Uniformitarianism c) Conformable and unconformable bed

603 Geologic Time Scale
604 Salient Features
  • Salient features of; a) Precambrian – Archaean and Proterozoic b) Phanerozoic – Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cainozoic
605 Geology of Karnataka

A brief outline

606 Importance of Stratigraphy
607 Summary (Points to Remember)
608 Model Questions
700 Palaeontology
701 Introduction
702 Conditions for Preservation

a) Possession of hard parts b) Immediate burial c) Suitable environment

703 Types of Fossilization

a) Mummification b) Mould and Cast c) Carbonization d) Entire skeleton remaining unchanged e) Petrification f) Tracks, Trails and Footprints

704 General Morphology and Range in Age of Following Fossils
  • a) Corals - Calceola b) Brachiopods - Terebratula c) Gastropods - Fusus d) Trilobites – Paradoxides
705 Plant Fossils
  • Brief morphology and range in age of the following; a) Glossopteris b) Ptillophylum
706 Significance and Uses of Fossils
707 Summary (Points to remember)
708 Model Questions
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