Department of Pre-University Education, KarnatakaPUC Karnataka Science Class 12

# Electronics Class 12 PUC Karnataka Science Department of Pre-University Education, Karnataka Topics and Syllabus

## Syllabus

100 Field Effect Transistor (Fet)
• Field Effect Transistor (FET) Introduction, types, Junction field effect transistor (JFET) construction, working and characteristics. Definition of drain resistance rd , transconductance gm , amplification factor . Derivation of. Comparison of BJT and JFET, problems.
200 Bipolar Junction Transistor (Bjt) Biasing
• Biasing : Introduction – Need for biasing. DC load line – end points of the load line from basic circuit in CE mode with two sources i.e. VBB and VCC. Equations for base current, collector current, VBE, and VCE. Significance, graph and problems. Selection of operating point on DC load line. Mention the types of biasing – Fixed bias(base bias), Collector to base feedback bias, Emitter feedback bias and Voltage divider bias(universal bias).
• Voltage divider bias: Circuit diagram, explanation, expressions for the end points of DC load line and for the coordinates of Q-point from approximate analysis. Importance of voltage divider bias, its advantages and problems on finding the coordinates of Q-point and marking on the load line. Leakage currents and thermal runaway. Derivation of stability factor S (S=), heat sink, problems
300 Transistor Amplifiers
301 Introduction to Amplifiers
• Concept of amplification and faithful amplification – Biasing of EB junction and the CB junction for faithful amplification. Classification of amplifiers based on different criterion: Based on position of the operating point, operating frequencies, bandwidth, number of stages, types of coupling and their application areas (qualitative treatment only). Graphical representation of amplification in a transistor, small and large signals: Graph showing the DC load line on the output characteristics of a transistor, effect of choosing the Q-point near to saturation, near to cut off and at the midpoint of the load line –– to be discussed in brief for the small and large signals.
302 Amplifier Parameters
• Voltage gain, current gain, power gain, input and output impedances, bandwidth, half power frequencies. Expressions for power gain in dB and voltage gain in dB. Need for measurement of gain in dB.
303 Single Stage CE, CB and CC Amplifiers
• Circuit diagram using voltage divider bias, working, input, output waveforms, frequency response– Factors affecting the gain at low, midrange and high frequencies, 3dB bandwidth, applications.
• Comparative study of CE, CB and CC amplifiers (qualitative study): Comparison with respect to – input impedance, output impedance, phase relation between input and output voltages, voltage gain, current gain, frequency bandwidth and applications.
• Common source JFET amplifier– circuit diagram, working and input, output wave forms. Problems.
304 DC Equivalent Circuit
• Steps for drawing DC equivalent circuit. DC equivalent circuit of single stage CE amplifier with potential divider bias. AC equivalent circuit of a single stage CE amplifier (potential divider bias) with re ’ model of transistor–– steps involved in drawing ac equivalent circuit. Derivation of the expressions(neglecting the internal resistance of ac source) for current gain, voltage gain, input impedance, output impedance and power gain. Problems
305 Power Amplifiers
• Introduction, classification, differences between voltage amplifier and power amplifier. Class-B push-pull power amplifier – circuit diagram, working, power efficiency(mention only) and cross over distortion. Class-C collector tuned power amplifier - circuit, working and power efficiency(mention only). Comparison of efficiency and distortion of different power amplifiers. Applications
306 Multistage Amplifiers
• Need of multistage amplifier, gain of multistage amplifier, types of coupling with block diagrams. Two stage RC coupled CE amplifier – Circuit diagram, working and frequency response. Qualitative study of gain at low, mid and high frequencies, advantages disadvantages and applications. Direct-coupled CE amplifier – Circuit diagram, working and frequency response – qualitative study, advantages, disadvantages and applications. Problems.
400 Feedback in Amplifiers
401 Introduction to Feedback
• Need for feedback in amplifiers, block diagram illustrating the principle of feedback in amplifiers – feedback ratio, open loop gain, closed loop gain
402 Positive and Negative Feedback

403 Block Diagrams Showing Negative Feedback

transfer functions, comparison of input and output impedances.

404 Voltage Series Negative Feedback
• Derivation of the expressions for voltage gain , stability in gain input and output impedances. Frequency response of negative feedback amplifier, expressions for bandwidth and cutoff frequencies, problems.
500 Operational Amplifier (Op-amp)
501 Differential Amplifier
• Brief theory, transistorized circuit diagram showing the two input and output points-qualitative(mention the four modes). Dual input balanced output differential amplifierworking of common mode and differential mode- expressions for the gains-CMRR. Problems.
502 Operational Amplifier(Op-amp)
• Block diagram, circuit symbol, characteristics of ideal and practical op-amp(open loop gain, input and output impedances, bandwidth, CMRR, slew rate, input and output offset voltages). Mono, dual and quad op-amp ICs(mention only).
503 Application of Op-amp with Negative Feedback
• Inverting Amplifier – Circuit diagram, explanation and derivation of the expression for voltage gain, Concept of virtual ground and virtual short.
• Non-inverting Amplifier– Circuit diagram, working and derivation of the expression for voltage gain Buffer Amplifier – Circuit diagram, working and derivation of the expression for voltage gain, its applications. Problems.
504 Summing Amplifier
• Three input inverting summing amp – Circuit diagram, working and derivation of the expression for the output voltage, adder.
• Difference amplifier : Circuit diagram, working and derivation of the expression for the output voltage, subtractor. Problems
505 Integrator and Differentiator

Basic circuits, working and derivations for output voltages, output wave forms for sine wave & square wave. Problems

506 Logarithmic and Antilogarithmic amplifiers
• Circuit diagrams, working and applications.
507 Active Filters
• first order high pass and low pass filters – Circuit diagrams, working and frequency responses. Expressions for cut off frequency in each case. Problems.
508 Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
• using R–2R ladder network and binary weighted resistors. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) using successive approximation converter. Comparator and Schmitt trigger – Circuit diagrams, working, output waveforms and applications
600 Oscillators
601 Introduction
• Electronic oscillators, sinusoidal and non sinusoidal oscillators. Sinusoidal oscillations – damped and un-damped oscillations. Basic principle of an oscillator – positive feedback, review of the expression for voltage gain of a positive feedback amplifier(infinite gain). Block diagram– Barkhausen’s criteria, startup of oscillations and start up condition.
602 Classification of Sinusoidal Oscillators
• LC, RC and Crystal oscillators(mention the types of these). Damped oscillations in a tank circuit, losses.
• Hartley and Colpitts oscillators – Circuits using transistor, working, Barkhausen conditions and expressions for the frequency of oscillations in each case. Advantages, disadvantages, applications, problems.
603 RC Oscillators
• Noise voltages as startup, principle of phase shift in RC circuits Phase shift oscillator – phase shift network, principle, circuit using Op-amp, working, Barkhausen conditions, expression for the frequency of oscillations, problems. Wein bridge oscillator – principle of lead-lag network, oscillator circuit using Op-Amp, working, Barkhausen conditions, expression for the frequency of oscillations, problems. Advantages of RC oscillators over LC oscillators, any two advantages of Wein bridge oscillator over Phase shift oscillator, applications of RC oscillators.
604 Crystal Oscillator
• Principle, equivalent circuit of a crystal. Colpitts oscillator circuit with inductance replaced by crystal, working, Barkhausen conditions, advantages of crystal oscillator over other types of oscillators and applications.
605 Non-sinusoidal Oscillator
• Block diagram of IC 555, bistable multivibrator using IC 555, working.
700 Wireless Communications
701 Introduction
• Introduction to communication system, basic block diagram– function of each block, definitions of noise, signal to noise ratio and noise figure, significance of signal to noise ratio .Frequency of radio waves – various bands and applications.
702 Propagation of Radio Waves
• Introduction-various paths of propagation. Troposphere – brief explanation and its utility in the propagation of radio waves. Ground waves, ground reflected waves, space waves, sky waves – Qualitative study of each, concept of optical horizon and radio horizon.
703 Ionosphere
• Role of ionosphere in the process of long distance communication, different layers of ionosphere – height, thickness, constitution and operating frequency range.
704 Sky Waves
• Mention the reflection mechanism with diagrammatic representation, definitions of the terms-critical frequency, critical angle, skip distance, skip zone, single hop and multiple hop distances, idea of signal fading.
800 Modulation and Demodulation
801 Modulation
• definition, need, types of analog modulation, definition of each.
802 Amplitude Modulation(AM)
• Definition, explanation using waveform representation. Modulation index: Definition, expressions, percentage modulation, representation of AM wave for different values of modulation index, importance, limitations. Problems.
803 Derivation for the Instantaneous Voltage of an Am Signal
• frequency spectrum, Power relations in AM signal: derivations for the interrelations between carrier power, side-band power and total power. Power dissipated in a load in terms of current. Problems.
804 Modulation by Several Sine Waves
• Explanation and expression for modulation index.
• Other types of AM: SSBSC, SSBTC, DSBSC – Expressions for Power saved in each case. Transmission efficiency.
• Applications of SSBSC transmission.Generation of AM signal: AM modulator, Types. Transistor collector modulator, circuit and working.
• AM transmitter – block diagram, function of each stage with the wave form, applications of AM transmission. Problems.
805 Frequency Modulation (FM)
• Definition, representation of FM waveform. Definition of the terms frequency deviation, carrier swing, modulation index, percentage modulation, deviation ratio. Derivation for the instantaneous voltage of FM signal.
• Features of Frequency spectrum of FM: Commercial FM broadcasting range, bandwidth expressions. Problems.FM modulator: Types. Varactor diode modulator, reactance modulator circuit diagram and working.
• FM transmitter - block diagram with AFC – function of different stages, qualitative study of Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis.
806 Demodulation
• Definition, need.
• AM detection – principles of detection, linear diode detector-circuit, principle of working and waveforms.
• FM detector – principle, Quadrature FM detector-circuit, working.
• Principle, block diagram, function of each stage with waveform, qualitative study of AGC.Reason for keeping oscillator frequency greater than signal frequency (f o >f s ). Problems.
• FM Superheterodyne Radio Receiver– Principle, block diagram, function of each stage with waveform, qualitative study of de-emphasis.
• Characteristics of Radio receiver: Qualitative study of sensitivity, selectivity, signal to noise ratio, fidelity and stability.
808 Transmission Lines
• Introduction, equivalent circuit, definitions of the primary and secondary constants(L, C, R, G, Z & Y), applications.
809 Antenna
• Definition, qualitative study of helical, Yagi, loop, horn and micro strip antennas, applications.
810 Digital Communication
• Introduction, comparison between analog and digital communication.
• Block diagram of digital communication system. Function of each block. Application of digital communication.
900 Power Electronics and Its Applications
901 Power Electronics
• Power semiconductor devices, Power diode, Power transistor, Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), TRIAC, Power Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET), Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor(IGBT)- construction, operation, V-I characteristics for each device. Problems.
902 Applications of Power Electronics
• Power converters, single phase AC to DC controlled rectifier, single phase fully controlled half wave rectifier and full wave rectifier using RC triggering circuit with R load, AC to AC converter (AC voltage controller), single phase full wave AC voltage controller using TRIAC, Lamp dimmer using TRIAC, DC to DC chopper using MOSFET, DC to AC inverter using IGBTs, gate drive circuit, pulse transformer isolation circuit, optocoupler isolation circuit, protection of power devices and power converters. Problems
1000 Digital Electronics
1001 Exclusive Or(Xor) and Exclusive Nor(Xnor) Gates
• Logic symbols, Boolean expression for the outputs, truth tables, realization using basic logic gates and timing diagrams.
• Universal property of NAND and NOR gates: Realisation of NOT, OR, AND, XOR and XNOR gates, Boolean expression for the output of each gate. Pin diagrams of IC 7400 and IC 7402.
1002 Digital Codes
• Introduction, need for Digital codes,– BCD codes (mention only), 8421 code (examples and applications), Self complimenting codes – Excess 3 code and 2421 code (examples and applications of each), Gray code (examples and applications), Binary to gray and gray to binary conversions using XOR gates (with logic circuits).
• Alpha numeric codes: ASCII and EBCDIC codes, significance and applications. Problems.
1003 Arithmetic Logic Circuits
• Half Adder and Half subtractor – Logic symbols, realisation using X-OR gate and basic gates, explanation – Boolean expressions for the outputs, truth tables and timing diagrams.
• Realisation of Half Adder using NAND gates – Boolean expressions for SUM and CARRY
• Full Adder: Logic symbol, explanation – SUM and CARRY outputs, Boolean expressions, truth table and timing diagrams.
• Realisation of Full Adder using – i) two Half Adders and OR gate.ii) two X-OR gates, two AND gates and an OR gate.iii) three input X-OR gate and basic gates –– Boolean expressions for SUM and CARRY outputs for all circuits, Application of Full Adder
1004 Simplification of Boolean Expressions
• Conversion of Boolean expression to SOP form. Conversion of Boolean expression to POS form (mention only).
• Karnaugh’s map(K-map): Introduction, plotting K-map for two, three and four variables.Plotting the K-maps for the expressions of SOP form for four variables, pairs, quads, octets, don’t care conditions-obtaining the simplified expressions. Realising the simplified expressions using – (i) only basic gates. and (ii) only NAND gates. Problems.
1005 Sequential Logic Circuits
• Introduction, importance of clock in digital circuits.Qualitative study of level triggering and edge triggering – positive edge triggering & negative edge triggering.
• Flip Flops: Introduction,
• Basic NAND latch, logic circuit, working and truth table.
• Unclocked RS Flip Flop : Logic symbol, circuit using NAND gates only, working, timing diagrams and truth table.
• Clocked RS Flip Flop : Logic symbol, circuits using NAND gates only, working, truth table and timing diagrams.
• D Flip Flop: Logic symbol, RS Flip Flop as D Flip Flop – working, truth table and timing diagram.
• JK Flip Flop: Logic symbol, realisation of JK Flip Flop using NAND gates, working, truth table, timing diagram and race around condition.
• Master Slave JK Flip Flop : Logic circuit (using JK Flip Flop), working, truth table and timing diagram, advantages of MS JK Flip Flop.
• T Flip Flop : Logic symbol, JK Flip Flop as T Flip Flop, working, truth table, timing diagram.
• Applications of Flip–Flops.
1006 Registers
• Introduction, types of shift registers (4bit-serial-in serial-out, serialin parallel-out, parallel-in serial-out, parallel-in parallel-out)- logic diagrams, operation, truth table, timing diagram and application.
1007 Counters
• Introduction, synchronous and asynchronous counters, their comparisons. 4 bit Synchronous up counter using JK Flip Flop, working, truth table and timing diagram.
1100 Microcontroller
1101 Microcontroller
• Introduction, block diagram of microprocessor, block diagram of microcontroller, comparison between microprocessor & microcontroller and pin out diagram of 8051.
• Addressing modes: Introduction, types, register addressing mode, immediate addressing mode, direct addressing mode, indirect addressing mode.
• Instructions set – data transfer instructions, arithmetic instructions, jump and call instructions.
1102 Assembly Language Programming(ALP)
• addition, subtraction, multiplication, division – of two 8-bit numbers.
• PIC microcontroller: Core feature and over view of series
1200 C – Programming
1201 C Introduction
• Features, structure of a C program, C processor, the #include and #define directives, writing C programs, building an executable version of C program, examining and running a C application program.C program fundamentals: Character set, key words, identifiers, data types, constants and variables, statements, expressions, operators, precedence and associativity of operators, type conversion, managing input and output, C programs.
1202 Selective Control Statements
• if statement, if-else statement, if-else-if statement, switch-case statement. Iterative control statements – while loop, do-while loop, for loop statement, break statement, continue statement, C programs.
1203 Arrays
• Introduction, one dimensional and two dimensional arrays, C programs.
1204 C Functions
• Brief introduction, user defined and standard functions -C programs.
1300 Modern Communication Systems
1301 Cellular Mobile Phone Network
• Introduction, architecture, functions of various blocks.
• Network operation: Frequency bands, Frequency reuse, call hand off, cell splitting, establishment of incoming and outgoing calls, types of cellular communication systems(GSM & CDMA).
1302 Internet, Wi-fi , Bluetooth and Optical Fiber
• communications – principle, block diagrams and explanation.
• Satellite Communication System – basic block diagram, function of each block, applications
1303 RADAR Communication System
• Introduction, principle, basic block diagram, function of each block, frequency range, types, application