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Sociology Class 12 ISC (Science) CISCE Topics and Syllabus

Academic year:


1 Social Institutions
1.1 Definition and Features of Social Institutions. Self Explanatory
1.2 Types of Social Institutions
  • Kinship 
    • Meaning of kinship,
    • Types of kinship: consanguineous and affinal kinship.
    • Degree of kinship (primary, secondary, tertiary; descent (matrilineal, patrilineal);
    • residence (matrilocal, patrilocal and avunculocal)
    • Kinship usages: avoidance, joking, relationship, teknonymy, avunculate, amitate, couvade;
    • descriptive and classificatory kinship terms
  • Kinship and Marriage: Many Rules and Varied Practices 

    Kinship and Marriage Many Rules and Varied Practices

    • Finding out about families
    • The ideal of patriliny
    • Marriage: definition and functions.
    • Definition, merits, demerits, functions of the following:
    1. Rules of marriage: exogamy and endogamy (clan, gotra, pravara, village and sapinda), cross and parallel cousin, levirate, sororate, hypergamy and hypogamy.
    2. Forms of marriage: polygamy (polyandry and polygyny), monogamy.
    • The gotra of women
    • Were mothers important?
  • Family and Kinship 
    • Definition and features (MacIver’s features);
    • Functions of family to be discussed explaining the reasons for its universal existence.
    • Types of family: consanguineous and conjugal family (family of origin and procreation), matriarchal and atriarchal
      family (matripotestal, patripotestal and
      avuncupotestal), nuclear and joint families.
    • Structural changes (disintegration of the joint family), functional changes;
    • Factors responsible for the changes.
    • Small family norm.
2 Religion and Society
2.1 Definition and Concepts of Religion and Science; Beliefs, Rituals, Superstitions, Taboo
  • Definition of Religion and Society 
    • Definition and concepts of religion and science; beliefs, rituals, superstitions, taboo.
    • Definition of the above and a basic understanding of each of the above. Differences and similarities between religion and science.
2.2 Theories of Religion: Animism, Naturism, Totemism, Functional Theorie
  • Theories of Religion 
    • A brief discussion of animism, naturism, totemism; functional theories (Malinowski, Radcliffe Brown and Durkhiem).
2.3 Functions and Dysfunctions of Religion
2.4 Communalism, Fundamentalism and Secularism in a Plural Society
  • Communalism, Fundamentalism and Secularism in a Plural Society 
    • Definition
    • features of Communalism, Fundamentalism, and Secularism in a Plural Society
    • explanation through relevant examples showing how the State copes with the Communalism, Fundamentalism, and Secularism in a Plural Society crises to maintain Unity in Diversity.
2.5 Morality and Social Control
  • Morality and Social Control 
    • Definition of morality and social control
    • the relation between religion, morality and social control, moral code, religious code.
3 Political Organization
  • Political Organization 
    • Political Organization and its role in bringing about change in society.
    • Definition of political organization;
    • definition of Panchayati Raj (Village Panchayat, Block Samiti and Zila parishad – three tier, the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, Bal Panchayats);
    • discuss the role of the Panchayat in
      empowerment of women and children.
4 Economic Organisation
4.1 Economic Organisation
4.2 Economies of Indian Tribes
  • Economies of Indian Tribes 
    • Food gathering
    • agriculture: shifting axe cultivation ( jhum, Dahi, Koman, penda, podu and bewar),
    • criticism of this type of cultivation, examples of tribes having this
    • handicraft making
    • pastoralism
    • industrial labour - migration of large numbers of Santhal, Kond and Gond to tea gardens in the north-east; large resources of coal, iron and steel in Bengal, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh; examples of Santhal, Ho in pick-ining, coal-cutting, the mica and the iron & steel industry
4.3 Agrarian Economy, Jajmani System and Rural Employment.
4.4 Traditional Markets
5 Tribal India - Past, Present and Future
5.1 Definition of Tribe, Features and Classification
  • Definition of Tribe, Features and Classification 
    • Definition of tribe,
    • features (unity and self-sufficiency, clan and family, common totemic ancestor, territory, occupation, endogamy, dormitories, language, common culture, common name, common religion, political organization and territory,)
    • racial classification – mongoloid, caucasoid, australoid and negrito – to be explained with the help of examples along with the geographical location of tribes.
5.2 Dormitories in Tribal India
5.3 Contact of tribes with wider society (assimilation, acculturation and isolation; tribal transformation)
  • Contact of Tribes with Wider Society 
    • Definition and examples of assimilation,
    • isolation and acculturation;
    • an understanding of how these processes have helped in tribal transformation.
5.4 Present Conditions, Problems and Solutions
  • Present Conditions, Problems and Solutions of Indian Tribal 
    • Economic, political (regionalism and
      separatism), social and cultural conditions and problems.
    • Discuss briefly the following policies of the Government of India (post-independence) for the upliftment of the Indian tribes:
    1. Tribal Panchsheel,
      important constitutional safeguards: important Committees and Commissions: Backward Classes
    2. Special Central Assistance;
    3. Economic programmes and facilities:
      Integrated Rural Development programme (IRDP);
    4. Large Sized Multi-Purpose Cooperative Societies (LAMPS);
    5. 20 Point Programme;
    6. Programme for encouragement in crafts, home industries and agriculture;
    7. Educational policies.
6 Social Stratification
6.1 Social Stratification: the Elements
  • Social Stratification: the Elements 
    • Definition of social stratification 
    • features of social stratification 
    • inequality of social stratification 
    • difference of social stratification
6.2 Class
  • Class: the Class System: Its Nature, Development, Types of Classes 
    • Definition of caste
    • Theory of Divine Origin
    • characteristics of caste.
    • Social mobility - brahminisation, Sanskritisation, and westernization -
      definitions only.
    • Caste in Modern India –
    1. Changes in the role and features of
      caste (relevant examples may be given to provide a better understanding for e.g. the role of the dominant caste).
    2. Factors leading to change in the caste system:
    • Influence of education, industrialization, urbanization, modernization, freedom struggle and
      the establishment of Democracy, rise of
      the Non –Brahmin movement, other causes - social reform movement, threat of conversion, improvement in the status of women and rise of new  classes;
    • Social legislation {a brief mention to be made of the following Constitutional Measures: Caste Disabilities Removal Act (1872), The Hindu Marriage Act (1955), The Untouchability Offences Act (1956), Constitutional policy of protective discrimination, the Kaka Kalelkar Commission (1953), The Mandal Commission (1979)}.
6.3 Caste
  • Race and Ethnicity 
    • Concept of race and racism: Definition and traits of race and racial prejudice.
    • Notion of Ethnicity: Definition and features of ethnicity
    • Relationship between race and ethnicity: Causes of prejudice: misinformation, ethnocentrism and xenophobia, economic advantages, political advantages; a brief mention of conflict between ethnic communities.
6.4 Race and Ethnicity
  • Race and Ethnicity 
    • Concept of race and racism: Definition and traits of race and racial prejudice.
    • Notion of Ethnicity: Definition and features of ethnicity
    • Relationship between race and ethnicity: Causes of prejudice: misinformation, ethnocentrism and xenophobia, economic advantages, political advantages; a brief mention of conflict between ethnic communities.
6.5 Gender
  • Gender: Difference Between Sex and Gender, Patriarchal Ideology and the Status of Women in Independent India 
    • Difference between sex and gender, gender bias and its consequences for both men and women – at the workplace, property rights and family status.
    • Gender issues: female infanticide, foeticide, dowry, sati, child marriage, domestic violence, rape, widowhood, sexual harassment; women as perpetrators of violence.
    • The following bills and latest amendments to be briefly discussed: The Anti-Dowry Act; the Anti-Rape Bill, the Inheritance Bill, Domestic Violence Act.
7 Social Change and Development
7.1 Social Change and Development
7.2 Aspects of Development
  • Aspects of Development 
    • Industrialization, urbanization, modernization, globalization and sustainable development - definitions and their role in social change.
    • The relationship between social change and development, (special focus on sustainable development, ecological and environment issues for improving quality of life for the present and future).
7.3 Social Movements: Meaning, Causes and Their Role in Society.
  • Social Movements: Meaning, Causes and Their Role in Society. 

    Meaning, causes, consequences and role of the following Social Movements in society -

    • the Maoist Movement in Chhatisgarh
      (Tribal movement),
    • Irom Sharmila (a feminist struggle in Manipur),
    • the Telangana Movement (An Urban-ethnic movement which began as a tribal movement in the 19th century).
7.4 Role of Education in Creating Social Change
  • Role of Education in Creating Social Change 
    • Meaning and functions of education.
    • Emphasize the role of education in creating social change.
    • Role of Right to Education (RTE) and its implications to be discussed briefly
7.5 Role of Mass Media in Creating Social Change
  • Role of Mass Media in Creating Social Change 
    • Role of Mass Media (Print, electronic,
      audio-visual positive and negative aspects of mass media).
    • Understanding each of the above forms of mass media and their role in creating social change
    • their role in creating a civil society that confronts the bureaucracy and the authoritarianism of the state machinery through NGO activity, vigils and acts like the Right to Information (RTI).
    • Positive and negative aspects of mass media.
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