Units and Topics
#  Unit/Topic  Marks 

1  Measurements and Experimentation   
2  Motion in One Dimension   
3  Laws of Motion   
4  Fluids   
5  Heat and Energy   
6  Light   
7  Sound   
8  Electricity and Magnetism   
Total   
Syllabus
 Concept of Measurements and Experimentation
 International System of Units
 Other Commonly Used System of Units  fps and cgs
 Measurements Using Common Instruments
 Vernier Callipers
 Description of Vernier caliper
 Usage of Vernier caliper  Least count, Zero error, Positive zero error, Negative zero error.
 Digital Vernier caliper
 Simple Pendulum for Time
time period, frequency, graph of length l vs. T^{2} only; slope of the graph. Formula `T=2.pi.sqrt(l` [no derivation]. Only simple numerical problems.
(i) International System of Units, the required SI units with correct symbols are given at the end of this syllabus. Other commonly used system of units  fps and cgs.
(ii) Measurements using common instruments, Vernier callipers and micrometre screw gauge for length, and simple pendulum for time.
Measurement of length using, Vernier callipers and micrometre screw gauge. Decreasing leastcount leads to an increase in accuracy; leastcount (LC) of Vernier callipers and screw gauge), zero error (basic idea), (no numerical problems on callipers and screw gauge), simple pendulum; time period, frequency, graph of length l vs. T^{2} only; slope of the graph. Formula `T=2.pi.sqrt(l` [no derivation]. Only simple numerical problems.
 Scalar and Vector Quantities
 Graphical Representation of Motion: Speed  Time Graphs
 Measuring the Rate of Motion  Speed with Direction
 Rate of Change of Velocity
 Displacement
 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
 Speed and Velocity
 Acceleration and Retardation
Scalar and vector quantities, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration; graphs of distancetime and speedtime; equations of uniformly accelerated motion with derivations.
Examples of Scalar and vector quantities only, rest and motion in one dimension; distance and displacement; speed and velocity; acceleration and retardation; distancetime and velocitytime graphs; meaning of slope of the graphs; [Nonuniform acceleration excluded].
Equations to be derived: v = u + at;
S = ut + ^{1/2}at^{2}; S = _{1/2}(u+v)t; v^{2} = u^{2} + 2aS.
[Equation for S_{n}^{th} is not included].
Simple numerical problems.
 Types of Force
 Concept of Noncontact Forces
 Magnetic Force
 Electrostatic Force
 Gravitational Force
 Concept of Noncontact Forces
 cgs and SI Units of Force and Their Relation with Gravitational Units
 General Properties of Noncontact Forces
 Newton'S First Law of Motion
 Definitions of Inertia and Force from First Law
examples of inertia as illustration of first law
 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
 Momentum and Newton's Second Law of Motion
 Momentum, Impulse
 Newton's Third Law of Motion
 Universal Law of Gravitation
 Free Fall
 Concept of Weight

Weight of an object on the moon

 Weight as Force of Gravity
 Gravitational Units of Force
(i) Contact and noncontact forces; cgs & SI units.
Examples of contact forces (frictional force, normal reaction force, tension force as applied through strings and force exerted during collision) and noncontact forces (gravitational, electric and magnetic). General properties of noncontact forces. cgs and SI units of force and their relation with Gravitational units.
(ii) Newton’s First Law of Motion (qualitative discussion) introduction of the idea of inertia, mass and force.
Newton's first law; statement and qualitative discussion; definitions of inertia and force from first law, examples of inertia as illustration of first law. (Inertial mass not included).
(iii)Newton’s Second Law of Motion (including F=ma); weight and mass.
Detailed study of the second law. Linear momentum, p = mv; change in momentum Δp = Δ(mv) = mΔv for mass remaining constant, rate of change of momentum;
Δp/Δt = mΔv /Δt = ma or
`{(P_2P_1)/t=(mv`
Simple numerical problems combining F = Δp/Δt = ma and equations of motion. Units of force  only cgs and SI.
(iv) Newton’s Third Law of Motion (qualitative discussion only); simple examples.
Statement with qualitative discussion; examples of action  reaction pairs, (FBA and FAB); action and reaction always act on different bodies.
(v) Gravitation
Universal Law of Gravitation. (Statement and equation) and its importance. Gravity, acceleration due to gravity, free fall. Weight and mass, Weight as force of gravity comparison of mass and weight; gravitational units of force, (Simple numerical problems), (problems on variation of gravity excluded)
 Change of Pressure with Depth
 Transmission of Pressure in Liquids
 Pressure
 Pascal's Law
 Pascal's Law and Its Applications (Hydraulic Lift and Hydraulic Brakes)
 Pascal's Law
 Atmospheric Pressure
 Pressure
 Archimedes' Principle
 Experiment: An object submerged in a fluid is buoyed by a force that is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.
 Floatation  Principle of Floatation
 Relation Between the Density of a Floating Body
 Determination of Relative Density of a Solid
 Introduction of Fluid
(i) Change of pressure with depth (including the formula p=hρg); Transmission of pressure in liquids; atmospheric pressure.
Thrust and Pressure and their units; pressure exerted by a liquid column p = hρg; simple daily life examples, (i) broadness of the base of a dam, (ii) Diver’s suit etc. some consequences of p = hρg ; transmission of pressure in liquids; Pascal's law; examples; atmospheric pressure; common manifestation and consequences.. Variations of pressure with altitude, (qualitative only); applications such as weather forecasting and altimeter. (Simple numerical problems)
(ii) Buoyancy, Archimedes’ Principle; floatation; relationship with density; relative density; determination of relative density of a solid.
Buoyancy, upthrust (F_{B}); definition; different cases, F_{B}>, = or < weight W of the body immersed; characteristic properties of upthrust; Archimedes’ principle; explanation of cases where bodies with density ρ >, = or < the density ρ' of the fluid in which it is immersed.
RD and Archimedes’ principle. Experimental determination of RD of a solid and liquid denser than water. Floatation: principle of floatation; relation between the density of a floating body, density of the liquid in which it is floating and the fraction of volume of the body immersed; (ρ_{1}/ρ_{2} = V_{2}/V_{1}); apparent weight of floating object; application to ship, submarine, iceberg, balloons, etc.
Simple numerical problems involving Archimedes’ principle, buoyancy and floatation.
 Change of Pressure with Depth
 Transmission of Pressure in Liquids
 Pressure
 Pascal's Law
 Pascal's Law and Its Applications (Hydraulic Lift and Hydraulic Brakes)
 Pascal's Law
 Atmospheric Pressure
(i) Change of pressure with depth (including the formula p=hρg); Transmission of pressure in liquids; atmospheric pressure.
Thrust and Pressure and their units; pressure exerted by a liquid column p = hρg; simple daily life examples, (i) broadness of the base of a dam, (ii) Diver’s suit etc. some consequences of p = hρg ; transmission of pressure in liquids; Pascal's law; examples; atmospheric pressure; common manifestation and consequences.. Variations of pressure with altitude, (qualitative only); applications such as weather forecasting and altimeter. (Simple numerical problems)
(ii) Buoyancy, Archimedes’ Principle; floatation; relationship with density; relative density; determination of relative density of a solid.
Buoyancy, upthrust (F_{B}); definition; different cases, F_{B}>, = or < weight W of the body immersed; characteristic properties of upthrust; Archimedes’ principle; explanation of cases where bodies with density ρ >, = or < the density ρ' of the fluid in which it is immersed.
RD and Archimedes’ principle. Experimental determination of RD of a solid and liquid denser than water. Floatation: principle of floatation; relation between the density of a floating body, density of the liquid in which it is floating and the fraction of volume of the body immersed; (ρ_{1}/ρ_{2} = V_{2}/V_{1}); apparent weight of floating object; application to ship, submarine, iceberg, balloons, etc.
Simple numerical problems involving Archimedes’ principle, buoyancy and floatation.
 Pressure
 Archimedes' Principle
 Experiment: An object submerged in a fluid is buoyed by a force that is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.
 Floatation  Principle of Floatation
 Relation Between the Density of a Floating Body
 Determination of Relative Density of a Solid
Buoyancy, Archimedes’ Principle; floatation; relationship with density; relative density; determination of relative density of a solid.
Buoyancy, upthrust (F_{B}); definition; different cases, F_{B}>, = or < weight W of the body immersed; characteristic properties of upthrust; Archimedes’ principle; explanation of cases where bodies with density ρ >, = or < the density ρ' of the fluid in which it is immersed.
RD and Archimedes’ principle. Experimental determination of RD of a solid and liquid denser than water. Floatation: principle of floatation; relation between the density of a floating body, density of the liquid in which it is floating and the fraction of volume of the body immersed; (ρ_{1}/ρ_{2} = V_{2}/V_{1}); apparent weight of floating object; application to ship, submarine, iceberg, balloons, etc.
Simple numerical problems involving Archimedes’ principle, buoyancy and floatation.
 Temperature
 Temperature
 Unit of Temperature
 Temperature scales  Fahrenheit scale, Celsius or Centigrade scale, Kelvin or Absolute scale.
 Anomalous Expansion of Water
 Graphs Showing Variation of Volume and Density of Water with Temperature in the 0 to 10°C Range
 Energy Flow and Its Importance
Understanding the flow of energy as Linear and linking it with the laws of Thermodynamics  ‘Energy is neither created nor destroyed’ and ‘No Energy transfer is 100% efficient.
 Energy Sources
Solar, wind, water and nuclear energy (only qualitative discussion of steps to produce electricity).
 Renewable Versus Nonrenewable Sources
 Renewable Energy Sources
 Solar Power
 HydroPower
 Wind Power
 Nonrenewable Energy Sources
 coal
 petroleum
 Use of Hydro Electrical Powers for Light and Tube Wells
 Meaning of Global Warming
 Effect of Global Warming
 Green House Effect
 Energy Degradation
meaning and examples
 Thermal Expansion  Volume Expansion
 Reactivity of Metals with Cold Water, Hot Water and Steam (With Products Formed).
 Biogeochemical Cycle
 Work, Energy, Power  Relation with Force
 Conventional Sources of Energy
Fossil Fuels
(i) Concepts of heat and temperature.
Heat as energy, SI unit – joule,
1 cal = 4.186 J exactly.
(ii) Anomalous expansion of water; graphs showing variation of volume and density of water with temperature in the 0 to 10°C range. Hope’s experiment and consequences of Anomalous expansion.
(iii)Energy flow and its importance:
Understanding the flow of energy as Linear and linking it with the laws of Thermodynamics  ‘Energy is neither created nor destroyed’ and ‘No Energy transfer is 100% efficient.
(iv) Energy sources.
Solar, wind, water and nuclear energy (only qualitative discussion of steps to produce electricity). Renewable versus nonrenewable sources (elementary ideas with example).
Renewable energy: biogas, solar energy, wind energy, energy from falling of water, runofthe river schemes, energy from waste, tidal energy, etc. Issues of economic viability and ability to meet demands.
Nonrenewable energy – coal, oil, natural gas. Inequitable use of energy in urban and rural areas. Use of hydro electrical powers for light and tube wells.
(v) Global warming and Green House effect:
Meaning, causes and impact on the life on earth. Projections for the future; what needs to be done. Energy degradation –meaning and examples.
 Reflection of Light
 Regular reflection of light
 Irregular reflection of light
 Images Formed by a Plane Mirrors
 Laws of Reflection
 Incident ray
 Reflected ray
 Angle of incidence
 Angle of reflection
 Spherical Mirrors
 Spherical Images
 Image formation by spherical mirrors
 Rules for Making Ray Diagrams of Spherical Mirrors
 Uses of Spherical Mirrors
 Concept of Reflection
 Definition and Examples.
 Plane Mirror
 Plane Mirror
 Characteristics of the Image Formed (Lateral Inversion, Same Size, Distance is Preserved).
 Uses of Plane Mirror
 Concept of Magnifying Glass
 location of images using ray diagrams
 determining magnification
(i) Reflection of light; images formed by a pair of parallel and perpendicular plane mirrors;.
Laws of reflection; experimental verification; characteristics of images formed in a pair of mirrors, (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to each other; uses of plane mirrors.
(ii) Spherical mirrors; characteristics of image formed by these mirrors. Uses of concave and convex mirrors. (Only simple direct ray diagrams are required).
Brief introduction to spherical mirrors  concave and convex mirrors, centre and radius of curvature, pole and principal axis, focus and focal length; location of images from ray diagram for various positions of a small linear object on the principal axis of concave and convex mirrors; characteristics of images.
f = R/2 (without proof); sign convention and direct numerical problems using the mirror formulae are included. (Derivation of formulae not required)
Uses of spherical mirrors.
Scale drawing or graphical representation of ray diagrams not required.
 Characteristics of a Sound Wave
 Sound Need a Medium to Travel
 The Bell jar experiment showing sound cannot travel in a vacuum.
 Propagation and Speed in Different Media
 Comparison of Sound with Speed of Light
 Thunder and Lightning
 Infrasonic, Sonic, Ultrasonic Frequencies and Their Applications
 Difference Between Ultrasonic and Supersonic
 Measurements Using Common Instruments
 Sound
(i) Nature of Sound waves. Requirement of a medium for sound waves to travel; propagation and speed in different media; comparison with speed of light.
Sound propagation, terms – frequency (f), wavelength (λ), velocity (V), relation V = fλ. (Simple numerical problems) effect of different factors on the speed of sound; comparison of speed of sound with speed of light; consequences of the large difference in these speeds in air; thunder and lightning.
(ii) Infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic frequencies and their applications.
Elementary ideas and simple applications only. Difference between ultrasonic and supersonic.
 Simple Electric Circuit Using an Electric Cell and a Bulb to Introduce the Idea of Current
(including its relationship to charge)
 Insulators and Conductors
 Closed and Open Circuits
 Direction of Current (Electron Flow and Conventional)
 Social Initiatives  Improving Efficiency of Existing Technologies and Introducing New Ecofriendly Technologies. Creating Awareness and Building Trends of Sensitive Use of Resources and Products
e.g. reduced use of electricity
 Induced Magnetism
 Magnetic Field of Earth
 Neutral Points in Magnetic Fields
 Lines of Magnetic Field and Their Properties
 Introduction of Electromagnet and Its Uses
 Electrical Energy and Power
 Concept of Magnetism
 Concept of Magnetic and Nonmagnetic Substances.
(i) Simple electric circuit using an electric cell and a bulb to introduce the idea of current (including its relationship to charge); potential difference; insulators and conductors; closed and open circuits; direction of current (electron flow and conventional)
Current Electricity: brief introduction of sources of direct current  cells, accumulators (construction, working and equations excluded); Electric current as the rate of flow of electric charge (direction of current  conventional and electronic), symbols used in circuit diagrams. Detection of current by Galvanometer or ammeter (functioning of the meters not to be introduced). Idea of electric circuit by using cell, key, resistance wire/resistance box/rheostat, qualitatively.; elementary idea about work done in transferring charge through a conductor wire; potential difference V = W/q.
(No derivation of formula) simple numerical problems.
Social initiatives: Improving efficiency of existing technologies and introducing new ecofriendly technologies. Creating awareness and building trends of sensitive use of resources and products, e.g. reduced use of electricity.
(ii) Induced magnetism, Magnetic field of earth. Neutral points in magnetic fields.
Magnetism: magnetism induced by bar magnets on magnetic materials; induction precedes attraction; lines of magnetic field and their properties; evidences of existence of earth’s magnetic field, magnetic compass. Uniform magnetic field of earth and nonuniform field of a bar magnet placed along magnetic northsouth; neutral point; properties of magnetic field lines.
(iii) Introduction of electromagnet and its uses.
 Simple Electric Circuit Using an Electric Cell and a Bulb to Introduce the Idea of Current
(including its relationship to charge)
 Insulators and Conductors
 Closed and Open Circuits
 Direction of Current (Electron Flow and Conventional)
 Social Initiatives  Improving Efficiency of Existing Technologies and Introducing New Ecofriendly Technologies. Creating Awareness and Building Trends of Sensitive Use of Resources and Products
e.g. reduced use of electricity
Simple electric circuit using an electric cell and a bulb to introduce the idea of current (including its relationship to charge); potential difference; insulators and conductors; closed and open circuits; direction of current (electron flow and conventional)
Current Electricity: brief introduction of sources of direct current  cells, accumulators (construction, working and equations excluded); Electric current as the rate of flow of electric charge (direction of current  conventional and electronic), symbols used in circuit diagrams. Detection of current by Galvanometer or ammeter (functioning of the meters not to be introduced). Idea of electric circuit by using cell, key, resistance wire/resistance box/rheostat, qualitatively.; elementary idea about work done in transferring charge through a conductor wire; potential difference V = W/q.
(No derivation of formula) simple numerical problems.
Social initiatives: Improving efficiency of existing technologies and introducing new ecofriendly technologies. Creating awareness and building trends of sensitive use of resources and products, e.g. reduced use of electricity.
 Induced Magnetism
 Magnetic Field of Earth
 Neutral Points in Magnetic Fields
 Lines of Magnetic Field and Their Properties
 Introduction of Electromagnet and Its Uses
Induced magnetism, Magnetic field of earth. Neutral points in magnetic fields.
Magnetism: magnetism induced by bar magnets on magnetic materials; induction precedes attraction; lines of magnetic field and their properties; evidences of existence of earth’s magnetic field, magnetic compass. Uniform magnetic field of earth and nonuniform field of a bar magnet placed along magnetic northsouth; neutral point; properties of magnetic field lines.
Introduction of electromagnet and its uses.