ISC (Arts) Class 12CISCE

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Sociology Class 12 ISC (Arts) CISCE Topics and Syllabus

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Topics with syllabus and resources

100.00 Social Institutions
101.00 Definition and Features of Social Institutions. Self Explanatory
102.00 Types of Social Institutions

Kinship, Marriage and Family
Kinship: Meaning of kinship, Types of
kinship: consanguineous and affinal kinship.Degree of kinship (primary, secondary, tertiary; descent (matrilineal, patrilineal); residence (matrilocal, patrilocal and avunculocal) discuss Kinship usages: avoidance, joking relationship, teknonymy, avunculate, amitate, couvade; also discuss descriptive and classificatory kinship terms.
Marriage: definition and functions.
Definition, merits, demerits, functions of the following:

  • Rules of marriage: exogamy and endogamy (gotra, pravara, village and sapinda), cross and parallel cousin, levirate, sororate, hypergamy and hypogamy.
  • Forms of marriage: polygamy (polyandry and polygyny), monogamy

Family: definition and features (MacIver’s features); Functions of family to be discussed explaining the reasons for its universal existence.
Types of family: consanguineous and conjugal family (family of origin andprocreation), matriarchal and patriarchal family (matripotestal, patripotestal and avuncupotestal), nuclear and joint families.

Structural changes (disintegration of the joint family), functional changes; Factors responsible for the changes. Small family norm.

200.00 Religion and Society
201.00 Definition and Concepts of Religion and Science; Beliefs, Rituals, Superstitions, Taboo

Definition of the above and a basic understanding of each of the above. Differences and similarities between religion and science.


202.00 Theories of Religion: Animism, Naturism, Totemism, Functional Theorie

A brief discussion of animism, naturism, totemism; functional theories (Malinowski, Radcliffe Brown and Durkhiem).

203.00 Functions and Dysfunctions of Religion

A brief discussion on the positive and negative functions of religion.

204.00 Communalism, Fundamentalism and Secularism in a Plural Society

Definition of each of the above, explanation through relevant examples showing how the State copes with the above crises to maintain Unity in Diversity

205.00 Morality and Social Control

Definition of morality and social control; relation between religion, morality and social control, moral code, religious code.

300.00 Political Organization

Political Organization and its role in bringing about change in society.

Definition of political organization; definition of Panchayati Raj (Village Panchayat, Block Samiti and Zila parishad – three tier, the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, Bal Panchayats); discuss the role of the Panchayat in empowerment of women and children.

400.00 Economic Organisation
401.00 Economic Organisation

(i) Economic Organisation                                                                                                                                                  Definition of economic organization, economic and free goods.

402.00 Economies of Indian Tribes

food gathering, agriculture, shifting axe cultivation, handicrafts, pastoralism, industrial labour.

(i) Food gathering;

(ii) agriculture: shifting axe cultivation (jhum, dahi, koman, penda, podu and bewar), criticism of this type of cultivation, examples of tribes having this practice;

(iii) handicraft making;

(iv) pastoralism;

(v) industrial labour - migration of large numbers of Santhal, Kond and Gond to tea gardens in the north east; large resources of coal, iron and steel in Bengal, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh; examples of Santhal, Ho in pick-mining, coal-cutting, the mica and the iron & steel industry.

403.00 Agrarian Economy, Jajmani System and Rural Employment.

Agrarian Economy: land relations – owner, tenant, share cropper.

Jajmani system: caste based occupations and exchange of services. MGNREGA.

404.00 Traditional Markets

To be discussed with respect to Weekly markets, barter exchange.

500.00 Tribal India - Past, Present and Future
501.00 Definition of Tribe, Features and Classification

Definition of tribe, features (unity and self- sufficiency, clan and family, common totemic ancestor, territory, occupation, endogamy, dormitories, language, common culture, common name, common religion, political organization and territory,); racial classification – mongoloid, caucasoid, australoid and negrito – to be explained with the help of examples along with the geographical location of tribes

502.00 Dormitories in Tribal India

Definition; origin of dormitories; features and functions; culture contact and change in dormitories

503.00 Contact of tribes with wider society (assimilation, acculturation and isolation; tribal transformation)

Definition and examples of assimilation, isolation and acculturation; an understanding of how these processes have helped in tribal transformation.

504.00 Present Conditions, Problems and Solutions

Economic, political (regionalism and separatism), social and cultural conditions and problems.
Discuss briefly the following policies of the Government of India (post independence) for upliftment of the Indian tribes: Tribal Panchsheel, important constitutional safeguards: important Committees and Commissions: Backward Classes Commission; Special Central Assistance; Economic programmes and facilities: Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP); Large Sized Multi-Purpose Cooperative Societies (LAMPS); 20 Point Programme; Programme for encouragement in crafts, home industries and agriculture; Educational policies.

600.00 Social Stratification
601.00 Social Stratification: the Elements

Definition of social stratification, features, inequality, difference.

602.00 Class

The class system: its nature, development, types of classes.

Discuss briefly the growth and nature of the different classes (lower, middle, upper).

603.00 Caste

The caste system: concept, caste origin, caste and class comparison, its features; caste in modern India.

Definition; Theory of Divine Origin; characteristics of caste.

Social mobility - brahminisation, sanskritisation and westernization - definitions only.

Caste in Modern India –

  • Changes in the role and features of caste (relevant examples may be given to provide a better understanding for e.g. the role of the dominant caste).
  • Factors leading to change in the caste system: Influence of education, industrialization, urbanization, modernization, freedom struggle and the establishment of Democracy, rise of the Non –Brahmin movement, other causes - social reform movement, threat of conversion, improvement in the status of women and rise of new classes; Social legislation {a brief mention to be made of the following Constitutional Measures: Caste Disabilities Removal Act (1872), The Hindu Marriage Act (1955), The Untouchability Offences Act (1956), Constitutional policy of protective discrimination, the Kaka Kalelkar Commission (1953), The Mandal Commission (1979)}.
604.00 Race and Ethnicity
  • Concept of race and racism. Definition and traits of race and racial prejudice.
  • Notion of Ethnicity Definition and features of ethnicity
  • Relationship between race and ethnicity: Causes of prejudice: misinformation, ethnocentrism and xenophobia, economic advantages, political advantages; a brief mention of conflict between ethnic communities.
605.00 Gender

Difference between sex and gender, patriarchal ideology and the status of women in independent India.
Difference between sex and gender, gender bias and its consequences for both men and women – at the workplace, property rights and family status.

Gender issues: female infanticide, foeticide, dowry, sati, child marriage, domestic violence, rape, widowhood, sexual harassment; women as perpetrators of violence.
The following bills and latest amendments to be briefly discussed: The Anti-dowry Act; the Anti-Rape Bill, the Inheritance Bill, Domestic Violence Act.

700.00 Social Change and Development
701.00 Social Change and Development

Definition of Social Change and development – features and sources.


702.00 Aspects of Development

Industrialization, urbanization, modernization and globalization - definitions only.

The relationship between social change and development, (special focus on sustainable development, ecological and environment issues for improving quality of life for the present and future).

703.00 Social Movements: Meaning, Causes and Their Role in Society.

Meaning, causes and their role in society

Meaning, causes, consequences and role of the following Social Movements in society - the Maoist Movement in Chhatisgarh (Tribal movement), Irom Sharmila (a feminist struggle in Manipur), the Telangana Movement (An Urban-ethnic movement which began as a tribal movement in the 19th century).

704.00 Role of Education in Creating Social Change

Meaning and functions of education. Emphasize the role of education in creating social change. Role of Right to Education (RTE) and its implications to be discussed briefly.

705.00 Role of Mass Media in Creating Social Change

Role of Mass Media (Print, electronic, audio- visual; positive and negative aspects of mass media). Understanding each of the above forms of mass media and their role in creating social change; their role in creating a civil society that confronts the bureaucracy and the authoritarianism of the state machinery through NGO activity, vigils and acts like the Right to Information (RTI).

Positive and negative aspects of mass media

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