Topics with syllabus and resources
size and area. Present importance of the location of India with reference to the Indian Ocean Rim countries and the Northern and Western frontiers.
Comparison with China and Australia. Extent, position with reference to latitude and longitude, length of coastline and frontiers with neighbouring countries.
The locational advantages of India in the Indian Ocean and as a subcontinent.
Geological formation, relief and drainage; major physiographic divisions and their characteristics.
(a) Outline of the geological evolution and structure: basic definitions – geology, era, periods, physiography, geological structure, stratigraphy.
Names of the main Standard and Indian geological eras with reference to Indian Geology.
Geological evolution of: the Peninsular Plateau, the Himalayas and the Great Plains. Difference between the Peninsular Plateau and the Himalayas. (The Geological rock formations of India are not required).
(b) The three-fold physiographic divisions: the Himalayan mountain complex, the Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plains and the Peninsular Plateau.
Himalayan mountain complex: (orthoclinal structure) The three parallel ranges, the northwest and northeast offshoots, comparison between Western and Eastern Himalayas. Regional divisions of the Himalayas (Kashmir/ Punjab Himalayas, Himachal/ Uttranchal/ Kumaon Himalayas, Nepal Himalayas, Assam Himalayas).
Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plains The relief features – bhabar, tarai, bhangar, khaddar, bhur, barind, barkhans, khols, dhaya, bet, chos, doabs.
Regional divisions of the plains: Rajasthan plain (the Great Indian desert), Punjab plain, Ganga plain, Brahamaputra/ Assam plain.).
The Peninsular Plateau The Malwa plateau, Chotanagpur Plateau and Deccan Plateau: the relief features - badland, barkhans, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Aravalis. Comparison between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
The above three physical divisions are to be studied with reference to their extent, altitude, slope and landform characteristics.
Coastal Plains Comparison between Western and Eastern Coastal Plains and their divisions. The relief features: Lagoons, estuaries, deltas.
Islands Difference between Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshwadweep islands.
(c) Drainage (i.e. rivers) and drainage systems: Names and sources of the main rivers and their major tributaries (Extent of river basin area not required).
Comparison of Himalayan and Peninsular rivers
Factors affecting India’s climate: Temperature - factors affecting temperature. Atmospheric pressure conditions during the year; origin and mechanism of the monsoon, Jet streams,Southern Oscillations; wind and rainfall distribution during the year; characteristics of the four main seasons - hot and dry, hot and wet, cool and dry, cool and wet with reference to temperature distribution in north and south India, pressure, wind conditions – distribution of resultant rainfall; variability of rainfall, incidence of droughts and floods. Temperature and rainfall graphs of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata,Chennai, Jaisalmer, Leh, and Hyderabad.
Role of various factors affecting Indian climate – latitudinal extent, distance from the sea, northern mountain ranges,physiography, monsoon winds, upper air circulation, western disturbances and tropical cyclones, southern oscillation, El Nino; understanding of the concept and mechanism of monsoon; Indian Monsoonal Regime – onset, rain bearing system, break in the monsoon, retreat of the monsoon;
Seasons of India – with reference to temperature, pressure distribution, wind systems and local winds (loo, kalbaisaki/Norwesters, Mango showers; explanation of the variability of rainfall in different areas over different seasons.
Droughts and Floods – meaning, causes,affected areas and mitigation programmes.Temperature and rainfall graphs of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Leh,Jaisalmer and Hyderabad.
Major vegetation types of India, their geographical distribution with reference to rainfall and temperature conditions – description of the important tree types and their adaptation to the climate. Forest – area covered, importance,use, misuse and potential both for exploitation and conservation. Present forest policy
Distinction between vegetation, flora and forest, virgin vegetation; factors affecting vegetation.
Classification of vegetation types - tropical evergreen, monsoon forests, tropical dry forests, arid forests, deltaic forests,mountain forests and their geographical distribution and adaptation; importance of the trees in these forests
Importance of forest to man; Impact of human activity on vegetation. Forest area and forest cover in India. Forest Conservation – need, Social Forestry (Agro forestry, community forestry, commercial farm forestry, non-commercial farm forestry, urban forestry); Forest Conservation Movement: Van Mahotsav,Chipko Movement, Forest Conservation Act(1980).
National Forest Policy (1988): objectives of the Forest Policy; Integrated Forest Protection Scheme.
(i) Population of India compared to six countries - China, Australia, USA, Canada, Russia and Brazil. Population of India as compared to the other six countries with reference to percentage of world population and India’s position in the world.
Definition of census. Index of concentration (highest and lowest index of concentration as per the latest census), density of population – arithmetic and physiological.
Spatial distribution of population in India and explanation of the factors influencing it – landforms, climate, accessibility and level of development that result in this pattern. Comparison of the density at the State level and factors influencing it.
Meaning of terminologies such as population, birth rate, death rate, population growth rate, natural growth rate and absolute growth of population, migratory growth, positive and negative growth.
Meaning of terminologies such as population, birth rate, death rate, population growth rate, natural growth rate and absolute growth of population,migratory growth, positive and negative growth.
Population growth of India at national level – trends of 1921, 1951 and 1981 to the latest Census, of absolute growth rate of population. Demographic characteristics of India at the National level- birth rate, death rate, and natural growth rate from 1991 to the latest Census.
Drawing general conclusions about the:
Impact of rapid growth rate on economic development, on environment; need for planned development (to maintain the ecological balance).
Explanation of the important terms – migration, commutation, out migration, in migration, step-wise migration and migrant,push and pull factors.
Types (National and International migration, inter migration and intra migration, urban migration and rural migration) and trends of migration
Streams of migration: (rural-rural, rural- urban, urban-urban and urban-rural). Causes for migration - natural, economic, political and social. Comparing the consequences of each type of migration on cities and rural areas
Demographic attributes at National level -
trends and patterns of:
1. Rural urban population
2. Age and sex composition
3. Literacy levels
4. Working and non- working population; implications for development.
Study of the causes and trends of rural urban composition, age and sex ratio,literacy level, working and non-working
population at the National level (highest and lowest figures for each of the above) in the latest census. Implications for development.
size and number of villages as per the latest census. Types and patterns in hill areas, plains and coastal locations.
Distinction between Rural and Urban settlements; Rural and Urban Population.Classification of villages as per the latest census.
Factors affecting the types (distinction between compact and dispersed) and patterns (linear, circular, star shaped, rectangular, shapeless) of rural settlements in plains, coastal areas, mountains and plateau areas.
size classification of towns as per the latest census. Study of population growth in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai from1951 till the latest census.
Definition of an Urban area according to the latest census; Urban agglomeration, conurbation, urban sprawl, ribbon settlement, infill, metropolis, megalopolis.
Trends of urbanization only in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai from 1951 till the latest census.
Factors that influence the growth of urban centres in India. Problems and advantages of urban growth.
Understanding that from the development point of view, environment may mistakenly be seen as a ‘resource’ to be exploited, whereas, environment needs to be viewed as a ‘capital’ that needs to be managed carefully
Land use pattern in India –quality of cultivable land, size of land holdings.
Defining the term land resource; its importance and problems. Land use pattern – net sown area, area sown more than once, forests, land not available for cultivation, permanent pastures and other grazinglands, land under miscellaneous tree crops, culturable (cultivable) waste, fallow land, quality and size of cultivable land holdings.Methods to reduce fragmentation of land holdings.
Types of water resources:
Surface and ground water. Meaning, importance and need for irrigation in India.
Sources of irrigation:
Traditional Methods: wells, tanks, tube wells; (study of two states where each of the above types of irrigation is mainly prevalent).
tube wells, sprinkler irrigation, Perennial canals (Names of two canals each in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra).
Advantages and disadvantages of all the methods of irrigation.
Overwatering - reasons and regions affected by it; dangers of over watering.
(a) Wet and dry farming, crop rotation and crop combination, intensity of cropping, problems of Indian agriculture; use of technology in agriculture. Modern inputs, change over from subsistence to commercial agriculture, need for Green Revolution. Diversifying Indian agriculture – importance of animal husbandry.
Wet and dry agriculture:
Crop rotation and crop combination. Intensity of cropping – concept and crops associated; problems of Indian agriculture; Use of new technology – Green revolution: Need, impact and problems, second green revolution - strategies for second green revolution.
Diversification of Indian agriculture – Animal Husbandry: meaning and its importance in Indian Agriculture.
(b) Comparative study of:
(i) Conditions of growth (soil, temperature, rainfall requirements, crop seasons, secondary crops cultivated with them). (ii) World production and India’s position. (iii) Major producing States in India and their rank as producers of the following crops:
Food grains - Rice (China/Japan),Wheat (China/Pakistan), Coarse grains – Sorghum (Jowar, Maize), Pennisetum (Bajra or Camboo), Eleusine (Ragi), pulses. (India, inter-state).
Commercial and Industrial crops – Coffee (Nilgiris and N.E. India), Tea (Sri Lanka), Cotton (Pakistan), Sugarcane (China), Jute (Bangladesh), oilseed cultivation in India particularly of Groundnut, Coconut (Sri Lanka).
Conditions of growth: For each crop, the type of soil, temperature range, rainfall range, the crop seasons are to be done.
Main areas of growth of the above crops, in the countries specified, and reasons for growth are to be studied. Name of the leading producer (country) in the world for each of the above crops (Food grains, commercial and industrial crops) and India’s position in the world.
Importance of Market Gardening and Orchard Farming – reasons and trends in development in recent years.
Methods, types of fish caught, fishing grounds; factors affecting the importance and development, fishing ports and markets, need and methods of fish conservation.
Recent Indian Fisheries Policy – a brief understanding only.
Understanding of marine and inland fisheries; deep sea and inshore fishing; pelagic and demersal fishing should be done. Problems affecting fishing in India, Japan and Bangladesh should be also taken up.
Two ports and two types of fishes of each coastal State in India should be studied.
(a) Minerals and power resources.Distinguishing between metallic and non-metallic minerals; ferrous and non-ferrous minerals. Production and distribution (three leading States and three leading centres in each State) of Iron ore, mica, coal, manganese and petroleum; their uses.
Iron ore, mica, coal: their types. The main power resources - Nuclear thermal, hydel; three main States for generation of nuclear thermal and hydel power in India.
(b) Conventional energy sources - fossil fuels and firewood, potential (Indian context) and limitations of each source, methods of harnessing and environmental consequences of their use.
Conventional energy sources:
Firewood – for heating and cooking along with agricultural and animal waste.
Coal, Petroleum, diesel, LPG - their potential and limitations in India. Environmental concerns with regard to their use (global warming, thermal pollution in waters, fly ash, atmospheric pollution, etc.).
(c) Non-conventional energy sources -
types of non-conventional sources (bio- mass, solar, wind, ocean, hydel, geothermal, nuclear), potential (Indian context) and limitations of each source, methods of harnessing and their environmental consequences, need to promote non-conventional energy sources.
Advantages and limitations of each non-conventional energy source.
Uses of these energy sources and distribution.
Understanding the need to promote non-conventional energy sources.
(The study should include uses and the distribution of the above energy resources).
(a) Railways, Roadways, Water transport (inland and coastal), Air transport, Pipelines - these modes of transport are to be studied with regard to –
Location and state wise distribution of air,road and rail routes; location of waterways and pipelines; natural and economic factors that govern their distribution; density and growth. Patterns in India.
The present position, areas well and poorly served by each mode.
Problems – comparative advantage of each mode of transport, national goals to be achieved in the development of modes of transport (The Golden quadrilateral - its north-south and east-west corridor).
(i) Ports, their location and advantage; major exports and imports of different ports. Nature and direction of trade from the ports. International trading patterns and products in the last five years.
Distinguishing between harbour and port; natural and artificial harbours. Location of major ports in India and their advantage; main items of export and import from different ports and the patterns in the last five years.
importance of communication in rural development and its policy. Importance of infrastructure as key to the development of an industrial economy.
Modern means of communication - satellites and remote sensing - Geographic Information Systems (GIS), cellular phones, radio, doordarshan, internet; difference between mass communication and tele communication. Prasar Bharti. Infrastructure as key to the development of an industrial economy.
Study of the location and distribution of important industrial centres; a general comparison of disparities. Self-explanatory.
Major and minor industrial regions – factors governing their growth.
Reasons for the spread of industrial areas; Understand how the distribution of heavy and consumer industries varies in the different regions; Understanding why certain industries are more in a particular region.
Major Industrial regions: Mumbai-Pune, Hooghly, Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Chota Nagpur, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut.
Minor Industrial regions: Ambala-Amritsar, Saharanpur-Muzaffarnagar, Northern Malabar.
Factors governing the growth of the above to be studied.
(i) Agro based industries –
Sugar, cotton textile and ready-made garments. Sugar Industry: Maharashtra (Ahmednagar and Pune), Uttar Pradesh (Muzaffarnagar andSaharanpur), Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore and North Arcot).
Maharashtra (Mumbai and Pune), Gujarat (Ahmedabad and Surat), West Bengal (Kolkata and Howrah), Tamil Nadu (Madurai and Chennai). Ready-made garments: Delhi, Bengaluru, Mumbai, Kolkata
(ii) Mineral based industries – Iron and steel, aluminium, cement, and transport equipment. Petrochemicals, including refineries and fertilizers.
The following industrial centres of each industry are to be studied.
Iron and Steel:
TISCO (Jamshedpur), Vishweshvarya Iron and Steel Plant (Bhadravati), Bhilai Iron and Steel Plant (Bhilai), Rourkela Iron and Steel Plant (Rourkela), Hindustan Steel Limited Plant (Durgapur), Bokaro Iron and Steel Plant( Bokaro), Salem Iron and Steel Plant (Salem), Vishakhapatnam Iron and Steel Plant (Vishakhapatnam),POSCO(Paradwip).
(Integrated and mini steel plants: meaning, advantages and disadvantages also to be studied.)
INDAL (Hirakud), HINDALCO (Renukoot).
Katni Cement and Industrial Company Limited (Katni), Andhra Pradesh
(Krishna, Vijaywada), Rajasthan (Savai Madhavpur, Udaipur).
Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (Chittaranjan), Diesel Locomotive Works (Varanasi), TELCO (Jamshedpur), BHEL (Bhopal).
Maruti Udyog (Gurgaon), Hindustan Motors (Kolkata) Premier Automobiles. (Mumbai).
Ship Building Industry:
Hindustan Shipyard Limited (Vishakhapatnam), Cochin Shipyard Limited (Kochi), Mazgon Dock (Mumbai) Garden Reach Workshop(Kolkata).
HAL-Hindustan Aeronautics limited (Nasik, Koraput, Bengaluru).
UDEX (Koyali), IPCL (Vadodara).
IOCL (Barauni, Haldia and Digboi), HPCL (Mumbai and Vishakhapatnam).
FCI (Sindri), HFCL (Barauni), IFFCO (Kandla).
NOTE: Factors responsible for the location, development and present status of the Agro and Mineral based industries mentioned above, as well as the distribution centres are to be studied.
Difference between key and footloose industry; industrial clusters and indices to identify industrial clusters; industrial inertia.
Maps and sketches of Industrial regions and centres (location of agro based and mineral based industries) should be the basis for explaining the pattern of industrial development.
(d) Tourism industry – Major natural and cultural tourist areas in India. Their special features and level of development - impact on environment and local economy. Tourist flows.
Definition of tourism, growth of tourism, advantages of tourism, important places – both natural and cultural. Positive and negative impact of tourism, problems of tourism and measures for developing ecotourism.
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