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Geography Class 10 ICSE CISCE Topics and Syllabus

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Academic year:

Topics with syllabus and resources

1.00 Interpretation of Topographical Maps
  • Locating features with the help of a four figure or a six figure grid reference
  • Definition of contour and contour interval. Identification of landforms marked by contours (steep slope, gentle slope, hill, valley, ridge / water divide, escarpment), triangulated height, spot height, bench mark, relative height/ depth.
  • Interpretation of colour tints and conventional symbols used on a topographical survey of India map.
  • Identification and definition of types of scale given on the map.
  • Measuring distances and calculating area using the scale given therein.
  • Marking directions between different locations, using eight cardinal points
  • Identify: Site of prominent villages and/or towns, types of land use / land cover and means of communication with the help of the index given at the bottom of the sheet.
  • Identification of drainage (direction of flow and pattern) and settlement patterns
  • Identification of natural and man-made features.
2.00 Map of India
  • Concept of Outline Map of India 
  • Mountains, Peaks and Plateaus 

    Himalayas, Karakoram, Aravali, Vindhyas, Satpura, Western and Eastern Ghats, Nilgiris, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Mount Godwin Austin (K2), Mount Kanchenjunga. Deccan Plateau, Chota Nagpur Plateau.

  • Plains 

    Gangetic Plains and Coastal plains – (Konkan, Kanara, Malabar, Coromandel, Northern Circars).

  • Concept on Deserts 

    Thar (The Great Indian Desert)

  • Rivers 

    Indus, Ravi, Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Satluj, Ganga, Yamuna, Ghaghra, Gomti, Gandak, Kosi, Chambal, Betwa, Son, Damodar, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauveri, Tungabhadra.

  • Water Bodies 

    Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Khambhat, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait, Andaman Sea, Chilka Lake, Wular Lake.

  • Passes 

    Karakoram, Nathu-La Passes.

  • Latitude and Longitudes 

    Tropic of Cancer, Standard Meridian (82° 30’E).

  • Direction of Winds 

    South West Monsoons (Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal Branches), North East Monsoons and Western Disturbances.

  • Distribution of Minerals: 

    Oil - Mumbai High (Offshore Oil Field) and Digboi. Iron – Singhbhum, Coal – Jharia.

  • Soil Distribution 

    Alluvial, Laterite, Black and Red Soil.

  • Cities 

    Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Kochi, Chandigarh, Srinagar, Vishakhapatnam, Allahabad.

  • Population 

    Distribution of Population (Dense and sparse).

On an outline map of India, candidates will be required to locate, mark and name the following:

Mountains, Peaks and Plateaus: Himalayas, Karakoram, Aravali, Vindhyas, Satpura, Western and Eastern Ghats, Nilgiris, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Mount Godwin Austin (K2), Mount Kanchenjunga. Deccan Plateau, Chota Nagpur Plateau.

Plains: Gangetic Plains and Coastal plains – (Konkan, Kanara, Malabar, Coromandel, Northern Circars).

Desert: Thar (The Great Indian Desert)

Rivers: Indus, Ravi, Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Satluj, Ganga, Yamuna, Ghaghra, Gomti, Gandak, Kosi, Chambal, Betwa, Son, Damodar, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauveri, Tungabhadra.

Water Bodies: Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Khambhat, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait, Andaman Sea, Chilka Lake, Wular Lake.

Passes: Karakoram, Nathu-La Passes.

Latitude and Longitudes: Tropic of Cancer, Standard Meridian (82° 30’E).

Direction of Winds: South West Monsoons (Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal Branches), North East Monsoons and Western Disturbances.

Distribution of Minerals: Oil - Mumbai High (Offshore Oil Field) and Digboi. Iron – Singhbhum, Coal – Jharia.

Soil Distribution – Alluvial, Laterite, Black and Red Soil.

Cities - Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Kochi, Chandigarh, Srinagar, Vishakhapatnam, Allahabad.

Population - Distribution of Population (Dense and sparse).

3.00 Location, Extent and Physical Features

Position and Extent of India. (through Map only)

The physical features of India – mountains, plateaus, plains and rivers (through Map only)

4.00 Climate

Distribution of Temperature, Rainfall, winds in Summer and Winter and factors affecting the climate of the area. Monsoon and its mechanism. Seasons –March to May – Summer; June to September – Monsoon; October to November - Retreating Monsoon. December to February – Winter.

5.00 Soil Resources

Types of soils (alluvial, black, red and laterite), composition and characteristics such as colour, texture, minerals, crops associated.

soil erosion – causes, prevention and need for conservation.

6.00 Natural Vegetation
  • Importance of forests.
  • Types of vegetation (tropical evergreen, tropical deciduous, tropical desert, littoral and mountain), distribution and correlation with their environment.
  • Forest conservation.
7.00 Water Resources
  • Sources (Surface water and ground water).
  • Need for conservation and conservation practices (Rain water harvesting and its importance).
  • Irrigation: Importance and methods.
8.00 Mineral and Energy Resources
  • Iron ore, Manganese, Copper, Bauxite – uses and their distribution
  • Conventional Sources: Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas (distribution, advantages and disadvantages)
  • Hydel power (Bhakra Nangal Dam and Hirakud).
  • Non-conventional Sources: Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, nuclear and bio-gas (generation and advantages).
9.00 Agriculture

Indian Agriculture – importance, problems and reforms.

Types of farming in India: subsistence and commercial: shifting, intensive, extensive, plantation and mixed.

Agricultural seasons (rabi, kharif, zayad).

Climatic conditions, soil requirements, methods of cultivation, processing and distribution of the following crops

  • rice, wheat, millets and pulses.
  • sugarcane, oilseeds (groundnut, mustard and soyabean).
  • cotton, jute, tea and coffee.
10.00 Manufacturing Industries
  • Importance and classification
  • Agro based Industry - Sugar, Textile (Cotton and Silk)
  • Mineral based Industry – Iron & Steel (TISCO, Bhilai, Rourkela,Vishakhapatnam) Petro Chemical and Electronics.
11.00 Transport

Importance and Modes – Roadways, Railways, Airways and Waterways – Advantages and disadvantages

12.00 Waste Management
  • Impact of waste accumulation - spoilage of landscape, pollution, health hazards, effect on terrestrial, aquatic (fresh water and marine) life.
  • Need for waste management.
  • Methods of safe disposal - segregation, dumping and composting.
  • Need and methods for reducing, reusing and recycling waste.

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