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Chemistry Class 10 ICSE CISCE Topics and Syllabus

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Academic year:

Topics with syllabus and resources

1.00 Periodic Properties and Variations of Properties:- Physical and Chemical

(i) Periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods.

Definitions of following periodic properties and trends in these properties in groups and periods should be studied:-

  • atomic size,
  • metallic character
  • non-metallic character
  • ionisation potential
  • electron affinity
  • electronegativity

(ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for elements.

Relation between atomic number for light elements (proton number) and atomic mass for light elements; the modern periodic table up to period 3 (students to be exposed to the complete modern periodic table but no questions will be asked on elements beyond period 3 – Argon); periodicity and other related properties to be described in terms of shells (not orbitals); special reference to the alkali metals and halogen groups.

2.00 Chemical Bonding

Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate bonding, structures of various compounds – orbit structure and electron dot structure.

Definition of Electrovalent Bond.

Structure of Electrovalent compounds NaCl, MgCl2, CaO;

Characteristic properties of electrovalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), ionisation in solution, dissociation in solution and in molten state to be linked with electrolysis.

Covalent Bond – definition and examples, structure of Covalent molecules on the basis of duplet and octet of electrons (example: hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen, water, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, methane.)

Characteristic properties of Covalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), ionisation in solution.

Comparison of Electrovalent and Covalent compounds.

Definition of Coordinate Bond: The lone pair effect of the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule to explain the formation of H3O+ and OH- ions in water and NH4 + ion. The meaning of lone pair; the formation of hydronium ion and ammonium ion must be explained with help of electron dot diagrams.

3.00 Study of Acids, Bases and Salts

(i) Simple definitions in terms of the molecules and their characteristic properties.

Self-explanatory.

(ii) Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and salts and their solutions; use of litmus and pH paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.

Examples with equation for the ionisation/dissociation of ions of acids, bases and salts: acids form hydronium ions (only positive ions) which turn blue litmus red, alkalis form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions) with water which turns red litmus blue. Salts are formed by partial or complete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a metal should be explained with suitable examples. Introduction to pH scale to test for acidity, neutrality and alkalinity by using pH paper or Universal indicator.

(iii)Definition of salt; types of salts.

Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic salt, definition and examples.

(iv) General properties of salts:-

  • Deliquescence, efflorescence, water of crystallization.

Definition and example of each of the above.

  • Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates, carbonates, chlorides and nitrates by appropriate acids with heating if necessary. (relevant laboratory work must be done).

Action of dilute acids on carbonates, hydrogen carbonates and action of concentrated acid. Equations of formation of Acid rain. (Sulphuric acid) on chlorides and nitrates, to obtain carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride and nitric acid, respectively should be taught. This will assist the students in their practical work.

(v) Preparation: laboratory preparation of salts (normal and acid salts) – relevant laboratory work is essential (no apparatus details are required).

Laboratory preparation of salts (normal and acid salts): Direct combination; decomposition; displacement; double decomposition; neutralization.

4.00 Analytical Chemistry:- Use of Ammonium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide
5.00 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
6.00 Electrolysis
7.00 Metallurgy
8.00 Study of Compounds
8.10 Ammonia

(i) Ammonia: its laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN and ammonium salts. Manufacture by Haber’s Process; density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment); aqueous solution of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in oxygen; uses of ammonia.

Laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection (the preparation can be studied in terms of, setting of the apparatus and diagram, procedure, observation, collection and identification).

Manufacture of ammonia on a large scale - reference should be made to Haber Process for the manufacture of ammonia.

Ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN and ammonium salts; the reactions can be studied in terms of reactant, product, condition, equation.

Density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment); the property can be learnt in terms of setting of the apparatus, procedure and observation and inference.

Aqueous solution of ammonia - reaction with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and solutions of iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate, lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper sulphate.

Its reaction with: hydrogen chloride, hot copper (II) oxide, with chlorine in excess and ammonia in excess, burning of ammonia in oxygen; all these reactions may be studied in terms of reactants, products, condition, equation and observation; reference should be made to preparation of nitrogen from air and from ammonium nitrite.

Uses of ammonia - manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, nitric acid, refrigerant gas (Chlorofluro carbon – and its suitable alternatives which are non-ozone depleting), cleansing agents, source of hydrogen.

(ii) The catalytic oxidation of ammonia, as the source of nitric acid; (refer to Ostwald process) simple diagram for a catalytic oxidation of ammonia in the laboratory (with conditions and reactions only).

Self-explanatory.

8.20 Nitric Acid
8.30 Hydrogen Chloride
8.40 Sulphuric Acid
9.00 Organic Chemistry

(i) Introduction to Organic compounds.

Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra valency, catenation, formation of single, double and triple bonds, straight chain, branched chain and cyclic compounds.

(ii) Structure and Isomerism.

Structure of compounds with single, double and triple bonds; Isomerism – structural (chain, position)

(iii)Homologous series - characteristics with examples.

Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their gradation in properties and the relationship with the molecular mass or molecular formula.

(iv) Simple nomenclature.

Simple nomenclature - of the hydrocarbons with simple functional groups – (double bond, triple bond, alcoholic, ether, aldehydic, keto, carboxylic group) longest chain rule and smallest number for functional groups rule – trivial and IUPAC names.

(v) Hydrocarbons:- alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.

Alkanes - general formula; methane (greenhouse gas) and ethane - methods of preparation from sodium ethanoate (sodium acetate), sodium propanoate (sodium propionate), from iodomethane (methyl iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl bromide). Oxidation of methane and ethane in presence of oxygen under suitable conditions, reaction of methane and ethane with chlorine through substitution.

Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double bond); ethene as an example. Methods of preparation of ethene by dehydro halogenation reaction and dehydration reactions.

Alkynes -(unsaturated hydrocarbons with a triple bond); ethyne as an example of alkyne; Methods of preparation from calcium carbide and 1,2 dibromoethane ethylene dibromide). Only main properties, particularly addition products with hydrogen and halogen namely Cl, Br and I; structural formulae of hydrocarbons. Structural formula must be given for: alkanes (up to butane), alkene (C2H4); alkynes (C2H2). Uses of methane, ethane, ethene, acetylene.

(vi) Alcohols:- ethanol – preparation, properties and uses.

  • Preparation of ethanol:-
  • hydration of ethene;
  • by hydrolysis of alkyl halide;
  • Properties – Physical: Nature, Solubility, Density, Boiling Points. Chemical: Combustion, Oxidation with acidified Potassium dichromate, action with sodium, ester formation with acetic acid, dehydration with conc. Sulphuric acid with reference to Ethanol.
  • Denatured alcohol:
  • Important uses of Ethanol.

(vii) Carboxylic acids (aliphatic - mono carboxylic acid):- Acetic acid – preparation, properties and uses of acetic acid.

Preparation of acetic acid from Ethyl alcohol.

Properties of Acetic Acid: Physical properties – odour (vinegar), glacial acetic acid (effect of sufficient cooling to produce ice like crystals). Chemical properties – action with litmus, alkalis and alcohol (idea of esterification).

Uses of acetic acid.

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